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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT (EIA)

&
INITIAL ENVIRONMENTAL EXAMINATION (IEE)
BACKGROUND
 Pakistan established the Ministry of Environment (MoE) in 1975. It proposed and drafted the first
consolidated Federal Environmental Law, i.e. the Pakistan Environment Protection Ordinance, in 1983.
 Environmental Assessment was introduced in Pakistan as a legal requirement for the first time in 1983
through this Ordinance.
 In 1997, the Pakistan Environmental Protection Act (the “Federal Act”) replaced the 1983 Ordinance.
 In it, the Federal Act defined for the first time the concepts of “Environmental Impact Assessment” (“EIA”)
and “Initial Environmental Examination” (“IEE”).
BACKGROUND
 It also provided a stepwise process of conducting IEEs and EIAs, which was lacking in the 1983 Ordinance.
 In 2000, the Pakistan Environmental Protection Agency (Review of IEE and EIA) Regulations (“Regulations
2000”) were notified for providing detailed steps for the review process and project inspection and
monitoring of IEE and EIA as provided by the Federal Act.
DEFINITION OF EIA

 The definitions of EIA given under the Federal Act. The Punjab and Balochistan Acts
have adopted the same definitions.
 “Environmental Impact Assessment means an environmental study comprising
collection of data, prediction of qualitative and quantitative impacts, comparison of
alternatives, evaluation of preventive, mitigatory and compensatory measures,
formulation of environmental management and training plans and monitoring
arrangements, and framing of recommendations and such other components as may
be prescribed.”
DEFINITION OF EIA

 The Department of Environment, UK (1989) defined EIA in a comprehensive manner


as:
“A technique and a process by which information about environmental effects of a project
is collected, both by the developer and from other sources, and taken into account by the
planning authority in forming the judgment on whether the development should proceed”.
DEFINITION OF IEE

“Initial environmental examination means a preliminary environmental review of the


reasonably foreseeable qualitative and quantitative impacts on the environment of a proposed
project to determine whether it is likely to cause an adverse environmental effect for requiring
preparation of an environmental impact assessment”.
PROJECTS REQUIRING IEE & EIA REGULATIONS
Requiring IEE Regulations Requiring EIA Regulations
Energy Energy
Hydroelectric power generation less than 50 MW. Hydroelectric power generation over 50 MW. Thermal
Thermal power generation less than 200 KW. power generation over 200 MW. Transmission lines (11
Transmission lines less than 11 KV, and large distribution KV and above) and grid stations. Nuclear power plants.
projects. Oil and gas transmission systems. Oil and gas Petroleum refineries.
extraction projects, including exploration, production,
gathering systems, separation and storage. Waste-to-
energy generation projects.

Transport Transport
Federal or Provincial highways (except maintenance, Airports. Federal or Provincial highways or major roads
rebuilding or reconstruction of existing metaled roads) (except maintenance, rebuilding or reconstruction of
with total cost less than Rs.50 million. Ports and harbor existing roads) with total cost of Rs.50 million and above.
development for ships less than 500 gross tons. Ports and harbor development for ships of 500 gross
tons and above. Railway works.
PROJECTS REQUIRING IEE & EIA REGULATIONS
Requiring IEE Regulations Requiring EIA Regulations
Mining and mineral processing Mining and mineral processing
Commercial extraction of sand, gravel, limestone, clay, Mining and processing of coal, gold, copper, Sulphur and
Sulphur and other minerals with total cost less than precious stones. Mining and processing of major non-
Rs.100 million. Crushing, grinding and separation ferrous metals, iron and steel rolling. Smelting plants with
processes. Smelting plants with total cost less than Rs.50 total cost of Rs.50 million and above.
million.

Water management, dams, irrigation and flood Water management, dams, irrigation and flood
protection protection
Dams and reservoirs with storage volume less than 50 Dams and reservoirs with storage volume of 50 million
million cubic meters of surface area less than 8 square cubic meters and above or surface area of 8 square
kilometres. Irrigation and drainage projects serving less kilometres and above. Irrigation and drainage projects
than 15,000 hectares. Small-scale irrigation systems with serving 15,000 hectares and above.
total cost less than Rs.50 million.
PROJECTS REQUIRING IEE & EIA REGULATIONS
Requiring IEE Regulations Requiring EIA Regulations
Water supply and treatment Water supply and treatment
Water supply schemes and treatment plants with total Water supply schemes and treatment plants with total
cost less than Rs.25 million. cost of Rs.25 million and above.
Urban development and tourism Urban development and tourism
Housing schemes; Public facilities with significant off-site Land use studies and urban plans (large cities) Large-scale
impacts (e.g.hospital wastes). Urban development tourism development projects with total cost of more
projects than Rs.50 million.
CONTENTS OF IEE & EIA REPORT
 Description of the project - type and objectives; location; cost and magnitude;
schedule for implementation; rest and recreation plans; government approvals.
 Alternatives considered - demand alternatives; activity alternatives; location
alternatives; process alternatives; input alternatives.
 Description of the environment - physical and ecological resources; human and
economic development; quality of life values.
 Potential environment impacts - baseline data collection to understand impacts
on biophysical impacts; social impacts; health impacts; economic impacts and impact
analyses and predictions.
CONTENTS OF IEE & EIA REPORT
 Mitigating measures - purpose of mitigation measures; ways of achieving mitigation.
 Environment Management Plan (EMP) - schedule for implementing mitigation
measures; list of persons responsible for mitigation; monitoring program; reporting and
reviewing procedure; training needs.
 Conclusion - IEE report must also include a conclusion whether environmental impacts
exist requiring an EIA.
 Non-technical executive summary - title and location of the proposal; name of the
proponent; name of organization preparing the environment report; brief outline of the
proposal; major impacts; mitigation measures; proposed monitoring.
 Appendices -glossary; abbreviations; TORs; summary of management of environmental
study process including public involvement and list of persons and agencies consulted;
sources of data and information; details of members carrying out the study.