Political Overview
• • • Ukrainian Independence 24 august 1991 First president: Leonid Kravchuk (Леонід Кравчук) Pro-Western, for a sovereign Ukraine. Removed Nuclear Weapons from Ukraine (to Russia) December 1991 to July 1994. member of the Ukrainian Politburo in 1989 chairman of the Verkhovna Rada in 1990

• • •

Kravchuk p2
Most prominent acts: Ukrainian annual inflation rates from 1992 to 1994 reached the world's highest record of 10000%. Delay of payout of salaries for many years Collapse/sell out of the global merchant fleet (Black Sea Steamship Company). After his term in office, joined the Dynamo Group, known the as Anti U.S./Anti N.A.T.O. political party SDPU.

Political Overview part 2
Second president: Leonid Kuchma (Леонід Данилович Кýчма) Prime Minister of Ukraine in 1992 July 1994 to January 2005 (reelected in 1999 ) Pro-Russia: referred to Russian as ‘an official language’, though proN.A.T.O. Involvement in murder of Georgiy Gongadze, co-founder of Ukrayinska Pravda (Ukrainian Truth). One of 10 journalists ‘murdered’ between 1995 and 2004


• Pavlo Ivanovych Lazarenko (Павло Івáнович Лазарéнко) , Prime Minister under Kuchma. • • • Appointed by Kuchma in 1996 Survived several assassination attempts Business partner of pm-to-be Yulia Tymoshenko, maintained a monopoly on import of Russian Natural Gas together. Illegally entered the U.S.A. Suspected and arrested on accounts of money-laundering, corruption and fraud and convicted to 9 years in prison in a U.S. federal prison, case currently being reviewed as several convictions were dropped. Suspected of involvement in several murder cases like that of Vadym Hetman; creator of the National Bank of Ukraine.

Political Overview part 3
• • Elections of 2004. Battle between Pro-Russian Yanukovych (Party of Regions) and Pro-Western Yushchenko (Nasha Ukraina)

2 rounds. First round: fraud on behalf of Yanukovych, followed by the Orange Revolution • Yushchenko poisoned (allegedly by henchmen of Yanukovych). • Re-election led to victory for Yushchenko (see next slide)

Political overview part 2

-Note: on both sides, high percentages of votes for 1 side for example 1) L’viv Oblast and surrounding regions: 90+ percentage vote for Yushchenko. 2) Donetsk Oblast, autonomous region Crimea: high percentage votes for Yanukovych.

ПОРА! Orange revolution, a mass protest against the election fraud and the communist/Modern Russian behaviour of succession-by-appointment. A revolution fitting in a pattern initiated by the ousting of S.Milosevic and the Rose Revolution in Georgia.

After the Orange Revolution
• • Crisis and political unstability Appointments and dismissals, most significant that of Yulia Tymoshenko, prime minister • Archrival Yanukovych becomes prime minister, predominantly to enforce ties with Russia, boosting economic development • Gas crisis: Russian state company Gazprom, cuts off gas delivery to Ukraine due to outstanding debts, affecting the whole of Europe

2007 elections
• • • • • • April 2, 2007: Parliament dissolved, early elections in October 2007. Orange Revolution-style protests engaged by Party of Regions (Yanukovych), occupation of Maidan; the independence square in Kyiv 3 main contenders: Party of Regions (Yanukovych), Nasha Ukraina (Yushchenko), Bloc Yulia Tymoshenko. Victory; Party of Regions though speculation of fraud in Donetsk, Crimea. Surprising victory of Bloc Yulia Tymoshenko, making a new coalition between Nashia Ukraina and Bloc Yulia Tymoshenko and perhaps Lytvyn, possible. Tymoshenko to be Prime Minister once again instead of Yanukovych, despite pressure of Vladimir Putin by calling in a debt of nearly 1 billion dollars.

Ukraine, election results 2007

• Note 1:) Much like Russia, Ukrainian political parties rely heavily on support from the armed forces, the intelligence services and the Oligarchs. • Oligarchs:Tymoshenko; the self-proclaimed gas-princess, Viktor Pinchuk; son-in-law of Kuchma, Rinat Leonidovich Akhmetov; Richest Ukrainian, sponsor of Yanukovych and mafia boss. Unlike Yanukovych, never convicted. Member of Parliament for the Party of Regions. • Tymoshenko and Akhmetov, as well as Yanukovych are possible candidates for the presidential elections in 2010. • Note 2:) It is very unlikely that Ukraine will join the E.U. though memberships of both N.A.T.O and the WTO are not impossible, main obstacle remaining: the Russian Federation

• Principal source of information: - Ukrainian Pravda - Interfax Ukraine - BBC in Ukrainian