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PHY10 Lesson 4:

Circular Motion
UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION (UCM)
UCM is the motion of a body of mass m moving with
constant speed v in a circular path of radius r.
period (T) – the time it takes the body to
m
make 1 revolution.
vo
frequency (f) – the number of revolutions r
m
a body makes per unit time.
 r

1 1
T f  v
f T
tangential speed (v):

2 r v  2 r f
v
T
  
v v  vo
centripetal acceleration: ac  ac 
t t

   
 v  vo v  vo  m
v v
  
r s vo

vo vo m

 r

v s
v r v


v  r

v s v t v v 2 v2
   ac 
v r r t r r
  
v v  vo
centripetal acceleration: ac  ac 
t t

   
 v  vo v  vo  m
v v
  
r s vo

vo vo m

 r

v s
v r v


v  r

v s v t v v 2 v2
   ac 
v r r t r r
v2
centripetal force: Fc  m ac Fc  m
r

2 r f 
2
Fc m
r
Fc  4m 2 r f 2

 2 r 
2

  4m 2 r
Fc  m 
T  Fc 
r T2
Chapter 04, Problem 056
An Earth satellite moves in a circular orbit 879 km above Earth's
surface with a period of 102.3 min. What are (a) the speed and (b)
the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration of the satellite?

ANSWERS: (a) 7432 m/s (b) 7.61 m/s2


Chapter 04, Problem 067
A boy whirls a stone in a horizontal circle of radius 1.7 m and at height
1.6 m above level ground. The string breaks, and the stone flies off
horizontally and strikes the ground after traveling a horizontal distance
of 9.0 m. What is the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration of the
stone while in circular motion?
ANSWER: 146 m/s2
UCM: Conical Pendulum
Consider a body of mass m tied at the end of a string
and moving in a horizontal circle of radius r.

m v2
T cos   mg T sin   Fc 
r

m v2
T sin  v 2
 r 
T cos  mg rg

v2
tan  
rg
Example 3.
A small ball of mass 50.0 g is tied at the end of a 75.0-cm
long string and is whirled in a horizontal circle as a conical pendulum
where the string makes an angle of 40.0o with the vertical. Determine
(a) How many revolutions does the ball make in 1 minute?
(b) What is the tension in the string?
ANSWERS: (a) 39.4 rev (b) 0.640 N
UCM: Rounding a Curve
Consider a car of mass m making a turn around a curve
of radius r on a horizontal road. With what maximum speed
can the car make the turn?
FREE-BODY-DIAGRAM:

N
N  mg to center of
circular path
m v2
f  Fc mg f
r

mg
v max   g r friction force
Example 4.
An SUV with a total mass of 1540 kg is to round a curve of
radius 50.0 m. If the coefficient of static friction between the tires
and the road is 0.900, with what maximum speed can the SUV make
the turn?

ANSWER: 21.0 m/s v max  (0.900)(9.8)(50)  21 m / s


UCM: Rounding a Banked Curve (frictionless)
Consider a car of mass m making a turn around a curve
of radius r banked at an angle . With what maximum speed
can the car make the turn without relying on friction?

FREE-BODY-DIAGRAM:
N cos   mg N sin   Fc
N
2
mv
N sin 
 r 
N cos  mg
N sin 
2
v
tan  
rg to center of
circular path

mg
v max  tan  g r
Example 5.
An SUV with a total mass of 1540 kg is to round a banked
curve banked at an angle of 7.10o and of radius 50.0 m. speed can
the SUV make the turn?

ANSWERs: 21.0 m/s v max  (0.900)(9.8)(50)  21 m / s


UCM: Rounding a Banked Curve (with friction)
Consider a car of mass m making a turn around a curve
of radius r banked at an angle . With what maximum speed
can the car make the turn?
FREE-BODY-DIAGRAM:
N cos   mg  f sin  to center of
circular path
N cos 
N cos   mg   N sin  N

mg
N 
cos    sin  
N sin 

Fc  N sin   f cos 
f f
2
 N sin    cos  
mv
r mg

mv 2

mg
sin    cos   v  rg
sin    cos  
r cos    sin   cos    sin  
Example 6.
A 1540-kg SUV is merging onto a highway on a banked curve.
The curve is banked 7.1o from the horizontal. The coefficient of static
friction between the tires and the road is 0.900. With what maximum
speed can the SUV make the turn? The radius of the curve is 210 m.

ANSWER: 48.7 m/s

v  (210)(9.8)
sin 7.1  (0.9) cos 7.1  48.7 m / s
cos 7.1  (0.9) sin 7.1
VCM: Vertical Circular Motion
Consider a mass m tied at the end of a string and
moving around a vertical circle of radius r.

AT THE TOP OF THE PATH:


mv 2
F x  0 F y    T  mg
m vtop
r
Ttop mv 2
 T  mg
r r
mg
mv 2
Ttop   mg
r

critical speed, vc (T=0)


mv 2
0  mg vc  g r
r
VCM: Vertical Circular Motion

BOTTOM OF THE PATH:


mv 2
F x  0 F y   T  mg
r

mv 2
Tbottom   mg
r

Tbottom
vbottom m

mg
VCM: Vertical Circular Motion

AT THE SIDES OF THE PATH:


mv 2
F y  0 F x    T
r
vleft

mv 2
F x  T
r
m m

T T
r mg
mv 2
mg
T
vright r
VCM: Vertical Circular Motion

When string makes an angle  with vertical:

m
m T
T r
r


mg v
mg

mv 2
 T  mg cos 
r
VCM: Vertical Circular Motion

When string makes an angle  with vertical:

v
 T
T 
r
r m
m

mg v mg

mv 2
 T  mg cos 
r