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Chapter 3(ii)

BJT (DC analysis)


definitions
 Biasing refers to the DC voltages applied to a transistor in
order to turn it on so that it can amplify the AC signal.

 The DC input establishes an operating or quiescent point called the


Q-point.

• Active or Linear Region Operation


Base–Emitter junction is forward biased
Base–Collector junction is reverse biased

• Cutoff Region Operation


Base–Emitter junction is reverse biased

• Saturation Region Operation


Base–Emitter junction is forward biased
Base–Collector junction is forward biased
DC biasing circuits
• Fixed-bias circuit
• Emitter-stabilized bias circuit
• Voltage divider bias circuit
• DC bias with voltage feedback
Fixed-bias circuit
DC analysis
Base-Emitter Loop Collector-Emitter Loop

From Kirchhoff’s voltage law: The collector current is given by:

+VCC – IBRB – VBE = 0


I C  I B

Solving for the base current:


From Kirchhoff’s voltage law:
VCC  VBE
IB  VCE  VCC  I C R C
RB
Load Line for Fixed-bias circuit

The end points of the load line


are:
VCC
IC 
ICsat RC
VCE  0V

VCE  VCC
VCEcutoff
I C  0 mA
The Q-point is the particular operating point:
• where the value of RB sets the value of IB
• where IB and the load line intersect
• that sets the values of VCE and IC
Circuit Values Affect the Q-Point

Increasing level of IB
Increasing level of RC

Decreasing
value of VCC
Emitter-Stabilized Bias Circuit
Adding a resistor (RE) to the emitter circuit stabilizes the
bias circuit.
DC analysis
Base-Emitter Loop Collector-Emitter Loop

From Kirchhoff’s voltage law :


From Kirchhoff’s voltage law :
 VCC - I E R E - VBE - I E R E  0
 I E R E  VCE  I C R C  VCC  0

Since IE = (b + 1)IB: Since IE  IC:

VCC - I B R B - (  1)I B R E  0 VCE  VCC – I C (R C  R E )

Solving for IB: Also: VE  I E R E


VC  VCE  VE  VCC - I C R C
VCC - VBE
IB  VB  VCC – I R R B  VBE  VE
R B  (  1)R E
Improved Biased Stability

Adding RE to the emitter improves the stability of a


transistor.

Stability refers to a bias circuit in which the


currents and voltages will remain fairly
constant for a wide range of temperatures and
transistor Beta () values.
Load Line for Emitter-bias circuit

The end points of the load line


are:
VCC
IC 
ICsat RC  RE
VCE  0V

VCE  VCC
VCEcutoff
I C  0 mA
Voltage Divider Bias

 This is a very stable


bias circuit.

 The currents and


voltages are almost
independent of
variations in .

 There are two ways


of analyzing the
voltage divider bias
circuit :-
1. Exact analysis
2. Approximate
analysis
Exact Analysis

R2VCC
RTh  R1 R2 ETh  VR2 
R1  R2

ETh  VBE
IB 
RTh    1RE

VCE  VCC  I C RC  RE 


Approximate analysis
Where IB << I1 and I2 and I1  I2 :

R 2 VCC
VB 
R1  R 2

Where RE > 10R2:

VE
IE 
RE
VE  VB  VBE

From Kirchhoff’s voltage law:

VCE  VCC - I C R C - I E R E
IE  IC
VCE  V CC -I C (R C  R E )
DC Bias with Voltage Feedback

Another way to
improve the
stability of a bias
circuit is to add a
feedback path from
collector to base.

In this bias circuit


the Q-point is only
slightly dependent
on the transistor
beta, .
Base-Emitter loop

From Kirchhoff’s voltage law:

VCC – I C R C – I B R B – VBE – I E R E  0

Where IB << IC:

I C  I C  I B  I C

Knowing IC = IB and IE  IC, the


loop equation becomes:

VCC – I B R C  I B R B  VBE  I B R E  0

Solving for IB:

VCC  VBE
IB 
R B  (R C  R E )
Collector-emitter loop

Applying Kirchoff’s voltage law:


IERE + VCE + ICRC – VCC = 0

Since IC  IC and IC = IB:


IC(RC + RE) + VCE – VCC =0

Solving for VCE:


VCE = VCC – IC(RC + RE)