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# Chapter 3(ii)

## BJT (DC analysis)

definitions
 Biasing refers to the DC voltages applied to a transistor in
order to turn it on so that it can amplify the AC signal.

Q-point.

## • Active or Linear Region Operation

Base–Emitter junction is forward biased
Base–Collector junction is reverse biased

## • Cutoff Region Operation

Base–Emitter junction is reverse biased

## • Saturation Region Operation

Base–Emitter junction is forward biased
Base–Collector junction is forward biased
DC biasing circuits
• Fixed-bias circuit
• Emitter-stabilized bias circuit
• Voltage divider bias circuit
• DC bias with voltage feedback
Fixed-bias circuit
DC analysis
Base-Emitter Loop Collector-Emitter Loop

I C  I B

## Solving for the base current:

From Kirchhoff’s voltage law:
VCC  VBE
IB  VCE  VCC  I C R C
RB

## The end points of the load line

are:
VCC
IC 
ICsat RC
VCE  0V

VCE  VCC
VCEcutoff
I C  0 mA
The Q-point is the particular operating point:
• where the value of RB sets the value of IB
• where IB and the load line intersect
• that sets the values of VCE and IC
Circuit Values Affect the Q-Point

Increasing level of IB
Increasing level of RC

Decreasing
value of VCC
Emitter-Stabilized Bias Circuit
Adding a resistor (RE) to the emitter circuit stabilizes the
bias circuit.
DC analysis
Base-Emitter Loop Collector-Emitter Loop

## From Kirchhoff’s voltage law :

From Kirchhoff’s voltage law :
 VCC - I E R E - VBE - I E R E  0
 I E R E  VCE  I C R C  VCC  0

## Solving for IB: Also: VE  I E R E

VC  VCE  VE  VCC - I C R C
VCC - VBE
IB  VB  VCC – I R R B  VBE  VE
R B  (  1)R E
Improved Biased Stability

transistor.

## Stability refers to a bias circuit in which the

currents and voltages will remain fairly
constant for a wide range of temperatures and
transistor Beta () values.

## The end points of the load line

are:
VCC
IC 
ICsat RC  RE
VCE  0V

VCE  VCC
VCEcutoff
I C  0 mA
Voltage Divider Bias

bias circuit.

##  The currents and

voltages are almost
independent of
variations in .

##  There are two ways

of analyzing the
voltage divider bias
circuit :-
1. Exact analysis
2. Approximate
analysis
Exact Analysis

R2VCC
RTh  R1 R2 ETh  VR2 
R1  R2

ETh  VBE
IB 
RTh    1RE

## VCE  VCC  I C RC  RE 

Approximate analysis
Where IB << I1 and I2 and I1  I2 :

R 2 VCC
VB 
R1  R 2

VE
IE 
RE
VE  VB  VBE

## From Kirchhoff’s voltage law:

VCE  VCC - I C R C - I E R E
IE  IC
VCE  V CC -I C (R C  R E )
DC Bias with Voltage Feedback

Another way to
improve the
stability of a bias
feedback path from
collector to base.

## In this bias circuit

the Q-point is only
slightly dependent
on the transistor
beta, .
Base-Emitter loop

## From Kirchhoff’s voltage law:

VCC – I C R C – I B R B – VBE – I E R E  0

## Where IB << IC:

I C  I C  I B  I C

## Knowing IC = IB and IE  IC, the

loop equation becomes:

VCC – I B R C  I B R B  VBE  I B R E  0

## Solving for IB:

VCC  VBE
IB 
R B  (R C  R E )
Collector-emitter loop

## Applying Kirchoff’s voltage law:

IERE + VCE + ICRC – VCC = 0

## Since IC  IC and IC = IB:

IC(RC + RE) + VCE – VCC =0

## Solving for VCE:

VCE = VCC – IC(RC + RE)