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Ferrous Metals & Alloys

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Content of Chapter
• Classification of Ferrous Metal
• Wrought Iron
• Steel
• Cast Iron
• Effects of Alloying elements

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Classification of Ferrous Metal
• Wrought Iron
• Steel
• Cast Iron

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Cast Iron (CI):

• The carbon contents in cast iron varies from


1.5% to 4.5%
• It contains small amount of Si, Mn, P and S.

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• The carbon in the cast iron is present in two
forms:
1.Free carbon or graphite form
2.Combined carbon or cementite form
• CI is brittle, therefore, It can not be used in
those parts which are subjected to shocks or
impact loads.

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Production of CI:

• The pig iron is melted in a crucible (for small


quantities) or in a Cupola ( for large
requirements) with coke, limestone and scrap
castings. The charge consisting of alternate
layers of coke, pig iron mixed with scrap
castings and lime stone is fed to the furnace
through the charging door.

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Production of CI:

• The scrap iron is used in order to make the


cost of production economical. The limestone
is added as flux. It combines with the
impurities in the pig iron and removes them in
the form of slag. The slag floats above the
molten iron. The molten iron thus obtained is
called cast iron

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Production of CI:

• The properties of CI are determined by the


proportion of graphite form and cementite
(iron carbide) form present in it.
• When CI is completely fluid, it contains both
forms of carbon.
• Free carbon in graphite form is produced
during cooling of the metal.

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Production of CI:

• With slow cooling, large graphite flakes are


produced and CI consists of ferrite, cementite,
graphite and pearlite.
• The strength of CI is due to its pearlitic
structure.

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Properties of CI:

1.Hard and brittle.


2.High compressive strength
3.Good Machinablility
4.Good vibrational damping characteristics
5.Low tensile strength
6.Self lubricating and anti friction properties

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Properties of CI:

7.High fluidity and ability to make good castings.


8.High alloy cast irons are resistant to acid
corrosion but have poor resistance to alkalies
9.Most cast irons have low weldability
10.General CI (grey CI) can stand well up to
425°C and alloy CI up to 1000°C

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Cast Iron (CI)
Graphite has very low cohesive
strength and thus reduces tensile
strength and ductility in CI. Cast
irons are usually not considered
for forming operations.

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Cast Iron (CI)
Effect of graphite shape on the
properties of CI :
Graphite in the CI may be in the
form of flakes or nodules
(spheroids)
• Flakes in the CI are
interconnected with sharp edges
and hence make the tensile
strength very low. 18
Cast Iron (CI)
However, the graphite flakes give
the CI capacity to dampen the
vibrations and ability to dissipate
energy.
• Nodule form imparts CI higher
strength.

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Applications of CI:
• Machine frames, columns, beds
and bed plates.
• Gas or water pipes for
underground supply
• Manhole covers
• Cylinder blocks and Heads for
I.C. engines
• Piston rings, flywheels, gear
casing
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Applications of CI:
• Rolling mill and general
machinery parts subjected to
shock loads.
• Frames for electric motors
• Agricultural equipments
• Earth moving machinery
• Bearing housings

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Types of CI:
1.Grey CI
2.White (chilled) CI
3.Mottled CI
4.Malleable CI
5.Ductile CI (nodular or spheroidal
or high strength CI)
6.High duty CI (meehanite or
inoculated CI)
7.Alloy CI
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Grey CI:
It is ordinary commercial iron having
the following composition:
C = 3 to 3.5%, Si = 1 to 2.75%, Mn =
0.4 to 1%, P = 0.15 to 1%, S = 0.02 to
0.15% and remainder is iron.
• The grey colour is because of
presence of carbon in free graphite
form.
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Grey CI:
Properties:
• It has no ductility
• It can be easily machined
• Free graphite acts as a lubricant, due
to this it is suitable for those parts
where sliding action is taking place.

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Grey CI:
Applications:
• Grey CI is used for machine tool
bodies, automotive cylinder blocks,
flywheels, pipes and pipe fittings and
agricultural implements.

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Grey CI:
Designation:
• According to Indian Standard
specifications, grey CI is designated
as:
“FG followed by a figure indicating the
minimum tensile strength in N/mm2
(MPa). Ex: FG 150 means ; grey CI
with minimum tensile strength as 150
MPa. 26
Grey CI:
• Some times when chemical
composition is considered; then it
can be specified as FG 150 Si 10
which means minimum tensile
strength of 150 MPa and % of Si
is 10%.
• The basic composition of grey CI
is described in terms of “Carbon
Equivalent (CE)”
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Grey CI:
• “Carbon Equivalent (CE)” is a factor
giving relationship of the percentage
of carbon and silicon in iron to its
capacity to produce graphite.
• CE = C1 + (%Si + %P)/3, where C1
= total % of carbon
• Ex: If grey CI has 3.3% carbon, 0.6%
Si and 0.1% phosphorous, then
CE = 3.3 + (0.6 + 0.1)/3 = 3.5
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White CI or Chilled CI:
• It has the following approximate
composition: C=1.75 to 2.3%,
Si=0.85 to 1.2%, Mn=0.1 to
0.4%, P=0.05 to 0.2%, S=0.12 to
0.35% and the remaining is iron.
• The white colour is due to the
presence of carbon in the form of
cementite (iron carbide).
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White CI or Chilled CI:
It is produced by:
1) Casting Grey CI but cooling it
very rapidly or
2) adjusting the composition of
metal such that the carbon and
silicon contents are low.

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White CI or Chilled CI:
Properties:
• The White CI has high tensile strength
and low compressive strength
• It is hard (HB from 400 to 600),
therefore it can not be machined with
ordinary cutting tools. It is shaped by
grinding process.
• White CI is very brittle and wear
resistant
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White CI or Chilled CI:
• Its fluidity is less
• Addition of Chromium, Vanadium or
Molybdenum prevents the formation
of graphite and gives high
temperature strength, and resistance
to corrosion to White CI.

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White CI or Chilled CI:
• When Ni-4.5% and Cr-1.5 % are
added to white CI, they increase
the toughness, hardness and
strength.

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Applications:
• Being unmachinable it is used
parts requiring high abrasion
resistance like; rim of freight car
wheel, brake-blocks of railway
wheels, crushing rollers, hammer
mills, wear plates.
• Castings of White CI are used for
conversion into Malleable CI
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Mottled CI:
• It is a product in between Grey
CI and White CI in composition
(carbon is present in both free
and combined form and each
form is in same proportion),
colour and general properties.

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Malleable CI:
• It consists of C=2-3%, Si=0.6-
1.3%, Mn=0.2-0.6%, P=0.15%
and S=0.1%
• Malleable CI is produced by
giving long time heat treatment
(annealing) to White CI castings.

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Malleable CI
• Ordinary CI is brittle and hard.
• Not suitable for thin, light and subjected to
shock and vibration for small casting used in
various machine components.

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Malleable CI:
• The annealing process consists
of heating the castings of White
CI slowly to about 870 C and
keeping them at this temperature
for 25 to 60 hours (depending on
the size of castings) and then
cooling them very slowly.

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Malleable CI:
• The annealing process
separates the combined carbon
of the White CI into nodules of
free graphite.
• Types: 1) White-heart Malleable
CI 2) Black-heart Malleable CI 3)
Pearlitic Malleable CI

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Malleable CI:
• White-heart Malleable CI:
The castings of White CI are
packed in iron or steel boxes
surrounded by a mixture of new
and used hematite ore and then
annealing is done. This makes
the casting tough.

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Malleable CI:
• Black-heart Malleable CI:
The castings of White CI are
packed in neutral substance like
sand and then annealing is
done. The castings produced by
this process are more malleable.

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Pearlitic Malleable CI:
• It is an improved version of Black-
heart malleable CI and is made by
controlled heat treatment. It has
pearlitic structure, which is stronger
and harder than ferrite. It is machined
better than steel, gives good finish,
good wear resistance, good fatigue
strength and better damping than
steel. It is used for gears, small
crankshafts etc. 42
Properties of Malleable CI :
• It is ductile, has good impact
strength, yield strength, low co-
efficient of thermal expansion,
good vibration damping capacity,
used from -60 to 1200  F, it is
superior to cast steel, tougher
than Grey CI.

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Applications:
• Automobile and agricultural
components like tractor and
plough components, gear
housing, crank cases, spanners,
gear wheels, levers etc.

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Designation of Malleable CI:
• White-heart malleable CI is
designated as WM followed by a
figure which indicates the
minimum tensile strength in MPa
(N/mm2).
Ex: WM 350, WM 400

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Designation of Malleable CI:
• Black-heart malleable CI is
designated as BM followed by a
figure which indicates the
minimum tensile strength in MPa
(N/mm2).
Ex: BM 300, BM 320, BM 350.

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Designation of Malleable CI:
• Pearlitic malleable CI is
designated as PM followed by a
figure which indicates the
minimum tensile strength in MPa
(N/mm2).
Ex: PM 450, PM 500, PM 550,
PM 600, PM 700

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Ductile CI or High strength CI or
Nodular CI or Spheroidal graphite CI:
• It is called nodular CI because the
free graphite in this metal is in the
form of tiny balls (spheroids or
nodules).
• It is obtained by adding magnesium
(0.1 to 0.8%) to the molten grey iron
immediately after tapping.
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Ductile CI or High strength CI or
Composition:
C=3.2-4.5%, Si=1.0-4.0%,
Mn=0.1-0.8%, P=0.1%, Ni= up to
3.5%, Mg=0.05-0.1%
Properties:
• It has high fluidity, castability,
tensile strength, toughness, wear
resistance, pressure tightness,
weldability and machinability. 49
Applications:
• Hydraulic cylinders, valves, pipes,
pipe fittings, cylinder heads for
compressors and diesel engines,
rolls for rolling mills and
centrifugally cast products.

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Designation:
• It is designated by letters SG
followed by figures indicating
minimum tensile strength
(MPa) and percentage
elongation
Ex: 1) SG 400/15 indicates
Spheroidal graphite CI with
minimum tensile strength of 400
MPa and 15% elongation 51
Designation:
2) SG 700/2A where, letter A
indicates that the properties are
obtained on cast-on test samples
to distinguish them from those
obtained on separately-cast
samples.

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High duty CI ot Meehanite CI:
Different high duty cast irons are
produced by
1) adding steel scrap (in metal
charge of cupola)
2) Controlling graphitization
through the rate of cooling
3) improving chemical composition

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High duty CI ot Meehanite CI:
Types:
1)Semi-steel or steel-mix iron 2)
Inoculated CI
• Semi-steel or steel-mix iron:
Lower the carbon, stronger the CI.
By adding steel scrap (10 to 20% of
cupola charge), cast iron with low
carbon contents with fine grains can
be produced. Such a product is
called semi-steel. 54
High duty CI ot Meehanite CI:
Types:
• Inoculated CI:
It is produced by addition of some
graphitizing elements to white base
iron, thereby getting finally the grey
CI. The method of using admixtures
(or impurities or graphitizing agents)
to get a fine grained metal is called
inoculation. graphitizing agents are
silicon carbide, calcium silicide etc.
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High duty CI or Meehanite CI:
• The trade name of inoculated iron is
meehanite CI or nickel tensile iron.
• Meehanite metal castings are
available in different varieties:
1) General engineering 2) abrasion
resisting 3) heat resisting 4) nodular
type 5) corrosion resisting type .

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Properties of Meehanite CI:
• It has high compressive strength,
toughness, ductility, machinability
and thus it is different from
normal grey CI.
• Low tensile strength
• It can be welded by arc welding
or by gas welding.

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Properties of Meehanite CI:
• Better vibration damping property.
• Improved creep strength
Because of above properties,
Meehanite CI is gradually
replacing other cast irons ;
including malleable CI, steel
castings and some non-ferrous
alloys also.
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Applications of Meehanite CI :
• Castings of beds, pillars and
columns of machine tools are
made of meehanite CI. It is also
used for brake drums, hydraulic
cylinders, pump parts, gears and
dies.

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Alloy CI:
• The cast irons are hard and
brittle, have good compressive
strength but tensile and bending
(transverse) strength are low.
Cast irons are weak against
shock loading. The properties of
normal cast irons can be
improved by adding some
alloying elements. 60
Alloy CI:
• Alloying elements are Ni, Cu, Cr, Mo,
V.
• Nickel increases hardness, strength,
corrosion resistance and
machinability. It imparts tendency to
graphitization.
• Chromium increases hardness.,
corrosion resistance, heat resistance,
wear resistance and tensile strength.
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Alloy CI:
• Mo increases strength,
toughness and wear resistance.
• Vanadium increases carbide
formation and increases strength
and hardness.
• Copper imparts tendency to
graphitization.

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Alloy CI:
Types of alloy CI:
• Low nickel cast iron, hard and
heat-treating nickel CI, Ni-hard
and Ni-white cast irons.
• Designation: ABR 33 Ni 4 Cr 2,
ASG Ni 20 Cr 2
(Austenitic Spheroidal Graphite)

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Effect of alloying elements:
Nickel:
• It imparts toughness, impact
strength, tensile strength,
ductility, corrosion resistance,
hardness, fatigue resistance &
good creep resistance at high
temperatures.

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Effect of alloying elements:
Chromium:
• Due to formation of chromium
carbides & oxides, it improves,
corrosion resistance, toughness,
and hardenability. It imparts heat
resistance and hardness.

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Effect of alloying elements:
Vanadium:
• De-oxidizes, promotes formation
of fine-grains, imparts strength,
toughness, hardenability and
hardness at high temperatures.

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Effect of alloying elements:
Tungsten:
• Increases strength, hardness,
wear resistance, toughness,
shock resistance at higher
temperatures.

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Effect of alloying elements:
Copper:
• Increases strength and
resistance to atmospheric
corrosion.

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Effect of alloying elements:
Manganese:
1.It improves strength and
hardness.
2.It decreases ductility and
weldability (if it is present in high
percentage with high carbon
content in steel)

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Effect of alloying elements:
3.It reduces the formation of iron
sulphide, therefore brittleness does
not increase.
4.Steel containing Mn- 10 to 14% and
carbon – 1 to 3% forms an alloy
which is extremely hard, tough and
abrasion resistant. Therefore it is
used for mining, rock crushing and
railway equipments.
70
Effect of alloying elements:

Silicon:
1.It increases strength and
hardness of steel with out
lowering its ductility.
2.It gives good magnetic
permeability, high electrical
resistance, impact and fatigue
strength. 71
Effect of alloying elements:
Silicon:
3.Increases oxidation resistance
(acts as a deoxidizer)
Applications: Generators and
transformers.

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Effect of alloying elements:
Cobalt:
• It imparts red-hardness to HSS.
• It improves tensile strength,
fatigue strength and hardness
• It improves heat resistance

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Effect of alloying elements:
Cobalt:
4.It slows down the transformation
of austenite and thus increases
hardenability.
5.Too much cobalt decreases
impact resistance of steel
Applications: It is used for making
cutting tools
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Effect of alloying elements:
Molybdenum:
1.It increases hardenability
2.It makes steel fine grained, tough
3.Increases tensile and creep
strength at high temperatures
4.Increases corrosion resistance in
stainless steel
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Effect of alloying elements:
Carbon:
• It affects hardness, tensile
strength, machinability, melting
point

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Wrought Iron
• General
• Application
• Production of Wrought Iron

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Wrought Iron
• It is a mixture of very pure iron (99.5-99.9%
iron) and silicate slag.
• Its chemical composition is:
• C=0.02-0.03%, Si=0.02-0.1%, S=0.008-0.02%,
Mn=nil-0.02%, P=0.05-0.25%, slag=0.05-1.5%
and remaining is iron.

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• It is never cast, all shaping is done by
hammering, pressing and forging etc.
• High ductility, forge ability, weldability,
resistance to corrosion, toughness, resistance
to fatigue

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Applications of Wrought Iron
• Building construction: underground service
lines, electrical conduits
• Public works:
• Bridge railings, drainage lines, sludge tanks
• Industrial: condenser tubes, unfired heat
exchangers, acid and alkali process lines

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Production of Wrought Iron
1.Puddling process
2. Aston or Byers process
• Puddling process:
• The wrought iron is produced from pig iron by
remelting it in the puddling furnace.
• Puddling furnace is a coal fired, reverberatory
furnace.

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• Puddling process:
• Reverberatory furnace is the furnace in which
the charge is not in actual contact with the
fire, but receives its heat by reflection from
the roof of the furnace.
• The charge consists of pig iron and scrap iron

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Puddling process:
• As the melting of charge takes place, the
puddler continuously stirs the molten metal.
• As the melting is complete, the impurities
form the slag.
• The temperature is increased to highest
possible point in the furnace.

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Continue
• During this period the charge is continuously
puddled until it becomes a mass of pasty iron
intermixed with slag.
• It is then removed from the furnace in the
form of balls (blooms).

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• These balls (in white hot condition) are
squeezed to separate the slag from it and then
passed through the rolling mills to give the
shape of bars known as muck bars or puddle
bars.
• It is expensive method of manufacturing
wrought iron and is rarely used now-a-days

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Aston or byers process:
• The pig iron is first melted in cupola and then
refined in Bessemer converter.
• The refined metal is then poured in to
required amount of slag (which is already
prepared).
• It forms spongy mass, which is pressed to
remove some slag.

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• This pressed mass is known as bloom.
• The bloom is passed through the rolling mills
to produce the wrought iron in different
shapes and sizes.

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Steel:
• It is an alloy of iron and carbon,
with carbon content up to the
maximum of 1.5%.
• Carbon is present in the steel in
chemically combined form [iron
carbide, also called cementite
(Fe3C)].

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Steel:
• Other elements such as Si, S, P & Mn
are also present in the steel to impart
certain properties.
• P & S in steel come directly from pig
iron, Mn & Si are added to steel
during its production.
• Usually alloys having 50% or more
iron are in the category of steel (below
50% iron are non-ferrous alloys)
89
Steel:
• Carbon steel (plain carbon steel):
It is the steel which has its
properties due to carbon content in
it and does not contain more than
0.5% of Si & 1.5% of Mn.

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Steel:

• Effect of silicon on steel: It


removes gases, and oxides,
prevents blow holes and thus
makes the steel tougher &
harder. Usually 0.05-0.3% Si is
present in steel

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Steel:

• Effect of Sulphur on steel: it occurs


in steel as iron sulphide or
manganese sulphide. Iron sulphide
produces red shortness.

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Steel:

• Effect of Phosphorous on steel: It


makes steel brittle, produces cold
shortness. In low carbon steels, it
increases yield point & improves
resistance to atmospheric corrosion.
The sum of carbon and phosphorous
usually does not exceed 0.25%
93
Steel:
• Effect of manganese on steel: It acts
as deoxidising and purifying agent in
steel. Manganese combines with
sulphur and decreases the harmful
effects of sulphur in steel. In low
carbon steels it increases ductility &
bending quality. In HSS it increases
toughness & critical temperature.
94
Classification of Steel
Steels are classified on the basis of:
1. Carbon content
2. Microstructure
3. Alloying element
4. Method of steel production
5. Degree of deoxidation
6. Mechanical working on steel during
production
7. Commercial forms
95
Classification of Steel

On the basis of carbon content:

1. Dead mild steel (up to 0.15% C)


2. Mild steel (low carbon steel) (0.15
to 0.45% C)
3. Medium carbon steel (0.45 to 0.8%
C)
4. High carbon steel (0.8 to 1.5% C)
96
Classification of Steel

on the basis of microstructure:

1. Pearlitic steel
2. Austenitic steel
3. Martensitic steel
4. Cementitic steel etc.

97
Classification of Steel

on the basis of alloying element:


1. According to the application of steel
2. According to the principal alloying
element
3. According to the internal structure
4. Low, medium & high alloy steel
5. High strength low-alloy steels
6. Special alloy steels
98
Classification of Steel

on the basis of alloying element:

1. According to the application of steel


• Structural steel
• Tool steel
• Stainless steel
• Heat-resisting steel
• Cutting tool steel
99
Classification of Steel

on the basis of alloying element:

2. According to the principal alloying


element:
• Nickel steel
• Chromium steel
• Manganese steel etc.

100
Classification of Steel

on the basis of alloying element:

3. According to the internal structure


• Pearlitic steel
• Martensitic steel etc.

101
Classification of Steel

on the basis of alloying element:


4. Low, medium & high alloy steel:
• Low alloy steels contain total
alloying elements up to 5%
• Medium alloy steels contain total
alloying elements between 5 and
10%
• High alloy steels contain total
alloying elements more than 10%102
Classification of Steel

on the basis of alloying element:


5. High strength low-alloy steels:
• The main alloying element in these
steels is niobium (also known as
columbium) which gives fine grains,
high strength and toughness.
• Other alloying elements in it are Cr,
Cu, Mo, Ni, V etc.
103
Classification of Steel
on the basis of alloying element:
5. High strength low-alloy steels:
• They have improved strength to
weight ratio.
• These are used for light structures
such as; automobile body,
transportation equipments, mining &
agriculture machines
• HSLA plates & sections are used in
ships, bridges & buildings. 104
Classification of Steel
on the basis of alloying element:
6. Special alloy steel:
1) Stainless steel
2) Heat-resisting steel
3) High speed tool steel (HSS)
4) Spring steel
5) Magnet steel

105
Classification of Steel
on the basis of alloying element:
• Special alloy steel:
6) Maraging steel
7) Cast steel
8) Corrosion resistant steel
9) Tool and Die steel
10)Structural steel of HSLA type

106
Classification of Steel

On the basis of method of steel


production:
1. Open-hearth steel
2. Electric furnace steel etc.

107
Classification of Steel

On the basis of degree of deoxidation:


1. Killed steel
2.Semi-killed steel
3.Rimmed steel
4.Capped steel
On the basis of Mechanical working on
steel during production

108
Classification of Steel

On the basis of Mechanical working on


steel during production:
• Hot-rolled
• Cold-rolled

109
Classification of Steel
On the basis of commercial forms of
steel:
1. Stainless steel
2.Heat resisting steel
3. High speed tool steel
4. Spring steel
5. Magnet steel
6. Low carbon steel

110
Classification of Steel
On the basis of commercial forms:
7. Bright steel
8. Free cutting steel (machine steel)
9. Maraging steel
10. Forged steel
11.Cast steel
12.Corrosion resistant steel
13.Tool and Die steel
14.Structural steel
111
Purpose of alloying the steel
1. To have fine grain size, thus
improving tensile strength &
toughness.
2. To improve machinability,
workability, weldability, corrosion
resistance, resistance to scaling &
oxidation at higher temperature,
resistance to softening,
hardenability and case-hardening
properties 112
Effect of carbon on steel

• Ductility of steel reduces as the


carbon content increases.
• Tensile strength & yield strength
increase till the carbon content
reaches 0.8%. Further increase in
the percentage of carbon increases
hardness and brittleness.

113
Effect of carbon on steel

• Steel with very little or negligible


carbon has ferrite structure which
has very low tensile strength.
• As the carbon content increases,
microstructure has ferrite+pearlite.
• Pearlite increases until carbon
content becomes 0.8%
• At 0.8% carbon, the total
microstructure is pearlite. 114
Effect of carbon on steel

• From 0.8 to 1.2%, microstructure is


pearlite+cementite.
• Cementite causes reduction in
tensile strength.
• Tensile strength in steel is due to
pearlite.
• Beyond 1.2% carbon, there is
reduction in tensile strength and
increase in hardness. 115
Effect of carbon on steel

• Elongation, impact strength and


weldability decrease with the
increase in percentage of carbon .

116
Methods of manufacturing steel:
1. Cementation process
2. Crucible process
3. Bessemer process (acidic & basic
type)
4. Open hearth process
5. Duplex process
6. L-D process
7. Electric process [ a)Heroult direct
arc, b) Coreless (high frequency)
induction type] 117
In metallurgy, stainless steel,
also known as inox steel.
(inox from French "inoxydable“),
is defined as a steel alloy with a
minimum of 10.51-11% Cr
content by mass.

118
Stainless steel does not stain,
corrode, or rust as easily as
ordinary steel, but it is not
stain-proof. It is also called
corrosion-resistant steel or
CRES when the alloy type and
grade are not detailed

119
There are different grades and
surface finishes of stainless
steel to suit the environment
the alloy must endure.
Stainless steel is used where
both the properties of steel and
resistance to corrosion are
required

120
Stainless steel differs from
carbon steel by the amount of
chromium present. Unprotected
carbon steel rusts readily when
exposed to air and moisture.

121
This iron oxide film (the rust) is active
and accelerates corrosion by forming
more iron oxide. Stainless steels
contain sufficient chromium to form a
passive film of chromium oxide,
which prevents further surface
corrosion and blocks corrosion from
spreading into the metal's internal
structure.
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High oxidation-resistance in air at
ambient temperature is normally
achieved with additions of a minimum
of 13% (by weight) chromium, and up
to 26% is used for harsh
environments. Stainless steel is
100% recyclable.

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There are over 150 grades of
stainless steel, of which fifteen are
most commonly used. The alloy is
milled into coils, sheets, plates, bars,
wire, and tubing to be used in
cookware, cutlery, hardware, surgical
instruments.

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industrial equipment (for example, in
sugar refineries) and as an
automotive and aerospace structural
alloy and construction material in
large buildings. Storage tanks and
tankers used to transport orange
juice and other food are often made
of stainless steel, because of its
corrosion resistance and antibacterial
properties.
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in commercial kitchens and food
processing plants, Stainless steel is
used for jewellery and watches.
Types of stainless steel:
Stainless steels are classified by their
micro-structure:
Austenitic, or 300 series, stainless
steels make up over 70% of total
stainless steel production.
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. They contain a maximum of 0.15%
carbon, a minimum of 16% chromium
and sufficient nickel and/or
manganese to retain an austenitic
structure at all temperatures from the
cryogenic region to the melting point
of the alloy. A typical composition of
18% chromium and 10% nickel,
commonly known as 18/10 stainless,
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Ferritic stainless steels generally have
better engineering properties than
austenitic grades, but have reduced
corrosion resistance, because of the
lower chromium and nickel content.

128
They are also usually less expensive.
They contain between 10.5% and 27%
chromium and very little nickel.
Common ferritic grades include 18Cr-
2Mo, 26Cr-1Mo, 29Cr-4Mo, and 29Cr-
4Mo-2Ni

129
Martensitic stainless steels are not as
corrosion-resistant as the other two
classes but are extremely strong and
tough, as well as highly machinable,
and can be hardened by heat
treatment. Martensitic stainless steel
contains chromium (12–14%),
molybdenum (0.2–1%), nickel (less
than 2%), and carbon (about 0.1–1%)
(giving it more hardness but making
the material a bit more brittle) 130
Precipitation-hardening martensitic
stainless steels have corrosion
resistance comparable to austenitic
varieties, but can be precipitation
hardened to even higher strengths
than the other martensitic grades.

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Duplex stainless steels have a mixed
microstructure of austenite and ferrite,
the aim usually being to produce a
50/50 mix, although in commercial
alloys the ratio may be 40/60.

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Duplex stainless steels have roughly
twice the strength compared to
austenitic stainless steels and also
improved resistance to localized
corrosion, particularly pitting and
stress corrosion cracking. They are
characterized by high chromium (19–
32%) and molybdenum (up to 5%) and
lower nickel contents than austenitic
stainless steels.
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Spring Steel:
Spring steel is a low alloy, medium
carbon steel or high carbon steel with
a very high yield strength. This allows
objects made of spring steel to return
to their original shape despite
significant bending or twisting.

134
Spring Steel:
Silicon is the key component to most
spring steel alloys. The most widely
used spring steel is ASTM A228 (0.80–
0.95% carbon), which is also known as
music wire.
The steels most commonly

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The steels most commonly used for
making springs are:
•High carbon steels
•Chrome-Vanadium steels
•Silicon-Manganese steels
High carbon steels: It contains 0.6-
1.1% C, 0.2-0.5% Si, 0.6-1% Mn.
This steel is used for laminated
springs for locomotives, wagons,
carriages and heavy road vehicles.
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Chrome-Vanadium steels
• These are high quality spring steels.
• These steels contain 0.45-0.55% C,
0.9-1.2% Cr, 0.15-0.2% V, 0.3-0.5%
Si, 0.5-0.8% Mn.
• These steels have high elastic limit,
resistance to fatigue and impact
stresses.

137
•These steels can be machined easily.
• These are used in motor car
laminated and coil springs for
suspension, automobile and aircraft
engine valve springs.

138
Silicon-Manganese steels:
contain 1.8-2.0% Si, 0.5-0.6% C, ).8-
1.0% Mn.
• These steels have high fatigue
strength and toughness.
• These are standard quality modern
spring materials.

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Magnet steel:
• It contains 15-40% Co, 0.4-10% W,
1.5-9.0% Cr and up to 1.0% C.
• It is used for making permanent
magnets for electrical engineering
instruments, loud speakers,
magnetoes.

140
Maraging steel:
• Maraging steels are known for
possessing superior strength and
toughness without losing malleability.
• Aging refers to the extended heat-
treatment process.
• The principal alloying element is 15
to 25% nickel.Secondary alloying
elements are cobalt, molybdenum,
and titanium. maraging steels have
good machinability 141
Maraging steel:
• The structure changes to
martensite when cooled in air
from 815°C.
• Its yield strength and elongation
properties may be improved by
age-hardening at 480°C.
• maraging steels have good
machinability, weldability, high
hardenability.
142
Maraging steel:
• They are suitable for engine
components, such as crankshafts
and gears, and the firing pins of
automatic weapons that cycle
from hot to cool repeatedly

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High Speed Tool Steel (HSS):

• Used for cutting metals at two to


three times higher speed than
ordinary carbon tool steels.
• Its hardness is retained when
heated to red heat.
• It contains tungsten as the main
alloying element.
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Types of High Speed Tool Steel
(HSS):

• 18-4-1 HSS
• Molybdenum HSS
•Cobalt HSS or Super HSS
•Vanadium HSS

145
Types of High Speed Tool Steel
(HSS):
18-4-1 HSS
• It contains 18% W, 4% Cr, 1% V.
• It is used for drills, lathe, planer
and shaper tools, milling cutters,
threading dies, broaches, reamers
etc.

146
Types of High Speed Tool Steel
(HSS):
Molybdenum HSS
• It contains 6% W, 4% Cr, 2% V &
6% Mo.
• It has toughness and better
cutting ability.
• Cheaper than other HSS.
• Used for drilling and tapping
operations.
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Types of High Speed Tool Steel
(HSS):
Super HSS or Cobalt HSS:
• It contains 2-15% Co, which
increases cutting efficiency at high
temperature.
• It contains 20% W, 4% Cr, 2% V &
12% Co.
•It is costly & used for Heavy cutting
operations (high temp. & pr. On tool)
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Types of High Speed Tool Steel
(HSS):
Vanadium HSS:
• It contains more than 1% V.
•It has better abrasion resistance
than 18-4-1 HSS.
• It is preferred for difficult-to machine
materials.

149
Heat Resisting Steel:
• It can retain strength at high
temperatures.
• It can resist creep and oxidation at
high temp.
Types of Heat Resisting Steel:
• Low alloy steels
• Valve steels
• Plain Chromium steels
• Austenitic Chromium-Nickel Steels
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Types of Heat Resisting Steel:
Low alloy steels:
• It contains 0.5% Mo.
• It is used for superheater tubes and
pipes in steam plants ( where service
temp. are in the range of 400 to 500
C.
Valve steels:
• Silchrome and Volmax are used for
automobile valves.
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Types of Heat Resisting Steel:
Valve steels:
• They have good resistance to
scaling.
• Silchrome and Volmax are used for
automobile valves.
• For Aeroplane engines and marine
diesel engine valves, 13/13/3 Ni/Cr/W
valve steel is used.
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Types of Heat Resisting Steel:
Plain Chromium steels:
• They have good resistance to
oxidation at high temp.
• Martensitic-Chromium and Ferritic
Chromium steels are available.

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Types of Heat Resisting Steel:
Austenitic-Chromium steels:
• They have good mechanical
properties, scaling resistance at high
temp.
• It contains minimum 18% Cr and
8% Ni.
• It is used in turbine blades & turbine
discs.

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• Types of Heat Resisting Steel:
• Austenitic-Chromium steels:
• They have good mechanical
properties, scaling resistance at high
temp.
• It contains minimum 18% Cr and
8% Ni.
• It is used in turbine blades &
turbine discs.

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