Pollution and Control Analysis

By Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34) Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science & Technology, Nawabshah Pakistan

y Industrial ecology involves designing industrial

infrastructure as if they were a series of interlocking man-made ecosystems interfacing with natural global ecosystem. Industrial ecology takes the pattern of the natural environment as a model for solving environmental problems, creating a new paradigm for the industrial system as a process Tibbs (1993)

y Industrial Ecology is the means by which

humanity can deliberately and rationally approach and maintain a desirable carrying capacity, given continued economic, cultural and technological evolution. The concept requires that an industrial system be viewed not in isolation from its surrounding systems, but in concert with them. Allenby & Gradel 1993

unlimited resources

ecosystem

unlimited waste

limited resources and energy ecosystem

limited waste

energy

ecosystem

Source: Graedel, T.E., On the concept of industrial ecology , Annual Review of Energy and Environment, no. 21, 1996, p. 77.

y A closed system except for solar energy y A given natural capital stock of matter embodied in

biotic and abiotic materials y With a fixed stock it supports a fantastic number and variety of life forms in a complex dynamic equilibrium

y Ecosystem members include producers, consumers,

and recyclers closed loop systems y Population growth of members is limited by carrying capacity of the ecosystem y Symbiosis between members y Close proximity of members y Decentralized decision-making among members (no central planner) y Renewable energy input to system (i.e.solar) y No wastes all by-products are inputs y Self-sustaining (sustainable growth) y Resilience

But nothing lasts forever
In fact, it s the Law!
(The Second Law of Thermodynamics, actually.)

Everything made, eventually decays and becomes

Waste

Hence the rub...

Transform energy and matter to meet human needs, but .

y Members include producers, consumers, and recyclers y y y y y y y y

closed loop systems Population growth of members is limited by carrying capacity of the ecosystem Symbiosis between members Close proximity of members Decentralized decision-making among members (no central planner) Renewable energy input to system (i.e.solar) No wastes all by-products are inputs Self-sustaining (sustainable growth) Resilience

Transform energy and matter to meet human needs, but .
y Open loop systems y Growth with limited attention to the carrying capacity

of local and global ecosystems y Adversarial/exploitative relationship with biotic and abiotic environment y Dependence on non-renewable resources y Wastes are generated (not recycled, non-recyclable, toxic, harmful)

y Designing industrial systems using ecosystem analogy y Minimizing matter and energy use

(Dematerialization)

y Systems analysis y Material and energy flows and transformations y Analogies to natural systems (creation of

industrial ecosystems) y Dematerialization of industrial output y Closed loop systems y Balancing industrial input and output to natural ecosystem capacity y Multidisciplinary approach

y The strength of Industrial Ecology lies in description of the material world.

There are large bodies of scholarly and proprietary literature describing material and energy flows as well as chemical emissions on different spatial levels from individual industrial processes at a single site to the global setting. Industrial Ecology uses ecology as a metaphor to inform corporate and to a lesser extent policy-level decision making. Industrial Ecology has begun to use mathematical models both to improve description and also to analyze scenarios about the future. y Industrial Ecology aims to provide information for decision makers, especially in a corporate setting, but also in public institutions and households. It has until now not embraced systematic approach to studying the economic, social and psychological aspects of decision making. These areas are outside the paradigm of Industrial Ecology since they are not traditionally an area of expertise of engineers and natural scientists. While Industrial Ecology is a truly interdisciplinary enterprise, the concerns of social scientists are addressed only on its margins. This fact is of fundamental importance for identifying areas for fruitful collaboration between Industrial Ecologists and Ecological Economists.

Pollution and Control Analysis

By Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34) Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science & Technology, Nawabshah Pakistan

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