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K S School of Engineering and Management

TECHNICAL SEMINAR ON

LASER IGNITION SYSTEM

B.E. IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

HARSHAVARDHAN T L 1KG14ME015

PROPOSED ACADEMIC GUIDE


Mr Santosh Kumar K J
Asst. Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
K.S.School of Engineering and Management
Bengaluru - 560109
INTRODUCTION
• Internal Combustion (IC) engines are still the heart of vehicle and will
continue to power our vehicles.
• Hence, as the global locomotion for people and goods, engines have
to be more efficient.
• This efficiency as per automobile manufactures is in terms of fuel
economy and engine performance.
• New engines have come with better combustion mechanisms, but
spark plug is the part that has remained unchanged
SPARK IGNITION SYSTEM
DRAWBACKS OF SPARK IGNITION
SYSTEM
• Location of spark plug is not flexible as it requires shielding of plug
from heat and fuel spray.
• It is not possible to ignite inside the fuel spray.
• Requires frequent maintenance to remove carbon deposits.
• Misfiring occurs on long term usage.
• Leaner mixtures cannot be burned efficiently.
• Flame propagation is slow.
• Degradation of electrodes at high pressures and temperatures.
LASER IGNITION SYSTEM
• There are four mechanisms by which laser ignites the air-fuel mixture.
They are,
1) Thermal initiation (TI)
2) Non resonant breakdown (NRB)
3) Resonant breakdown(RB)
4) Photo chemical ignition (PCI)

• Among these NRB is widely used


NON RESONANT BREAKDOWN
• The focused laser beam creates an electric field which is sufficient to
cause the dielectric breakdown of the air fuel mixture.
• The process begins with multi photon ionisation of the gas molecules
which releases more electrons.
• These electrons travel and collide with other molecules causing an
electron avalanche.
• This avalanche of electrons and resultant ions collide with eachother
producing intense heat creating plasma which is sufficient to ignite
the fuel.
WORKING OF LASER IGNITION
• The laser ignition system has a laser transmitter with an optic fiber
which is powered by the car’s battery. It shoots the laser beam to a
focusing lens. The lens focuses the beam into a pinpoint and when
the fuel is injected into the engine, the laser is fired and produces
enough energy to ignite the fuel.
ADVANTAGES OF LIS
• Location of laser is flexible as it does not require shielding from heat
and fuel spray.
• It requires less maintenance to remove carbon deposit as the system
is isolated.
• Leaner mixture can be burned as fuel ignition inside combustion
chamber.
• High pressure and temperature does not affect the performance
allowing the use of high compression ratios
• Flame propagation is as fast and multipoint fuel ignition is also
possible.
CONCLUSIONS
• Research to date on LI in engines have improved the combustion
process. With proper control and better usage we can run engines at
leaner mixtures ,at lower ideal speeds without increasing vibrations
and noise.
• With further development ,higher power of laser and pulse
frequency, we can expect multi strike LI systems which reduce the
probability of misfires.
• The only limitation of this type of ignition system is its cost.
REFERENCES

• Lim, E. H., McIlroy, A., Ronney, P. D., and Syage, J. A. (1996).Detailed


characterization of minimum ignition energies of combustible gases
using laser ignition sources.
• The 8th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena in
Combustion, Taylor and Francis.
• Liou, L. C. (1994). Laser ignition in liquid rocket engines.
• Ma, J. X., Alexander, D. R., and Poulain, D. E. (1998). Laser spark
ignition and combustion.