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PROBLEM 2

Marsella Epifania
405140166
LO 1

Anatomy, Histology, and Physiology of Gaster and Duodenum


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HISTOLOGI GASTER
HISTOLOGI GASTER
HISTOLOGI GASTER
HISTOLOGI GASTER
HISTOLOGI DUODENUM
ANATOMI DUODENUM

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HISTOLOGI DUODENUM
HISTOLOGI DUODENUM

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HISTOLOGI DUODENUM

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LO 2

Terminology of Dyspepsia
DYSPEPSIA

• Indigestion (dyspepsia) is a mild discomfort in the upper belly or abdomen. It


occurs during or right after eating. It may feel like:
• Heat, burning, or pain in the area between the navel and the lower part of the
breastbone
• Unpleasant fullness that comes on soon after a meal begins or when the meal
is over
DYSPEPSIA

Indigestion may be triggered by:


• Drinking too much alcohol
• Eating spicy, fatty, or greasy foods
• Eating too much (overeating)
• Eating too fast
• Stress or being nervous
• Eating high-fiber foods
• Smoking tobacco
• Drinking too much caffeine
DYSPEPSIA

Other causes of indigestion are:


• Gallstones
• Gastritis (when the lining of the stomach becomes inflamed or swollen)
• Swelling of the pancreas (pancreatitis)
• Ulcers (stomach or intestinal ulcer)
• Use of certain medicines such as antibiotics, aspirin, and over-the-counter pain
medicines (NSAIDs)
DYSPEPSIA

Changing the way you eat may help your symptoms. Steps you can take include:
• Allow enough time for meals.
• Chew food carefully and completely.
• Avoid arguments during meals.
• Avoid excitement or exercise right after a meal.
• Relax and get rest if indigestion is caused by stress.
DYSPEPSIA

• Avoid aspirin and other NSAIDs. If you must take them, do so on a full
stomach.
• Antacids may relieve indigestion.
• Medicines you can buy without a prescription, such as ranitidine (Zantac) and
omeprazole (Prilosec OTC) can relieve symptoms.Your health care provider
may also prescribe these medicines in higher doses or for longer periods of
time.
LO 3

Terminology of GERD
GERD

• Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic digestive disease. It


occurs when stomach acid or, occasionally, stomach content, flows back into
your food pipe (esophagus). The backwash (reflux) irritates the lining of your
esophagus and causes GERD.
GERD

GERD signs and symptoms include:


• A burning sensation in your chest (heartburn), sometimes spreading to your throat,
along with a sour taste in your mouth
• Chest pain
• Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia)
• Dry cough
• Hoarseness or sore throat
• Regurgitation of food or sour liquid (acid reflux)
• Sensation of a lump in your throat
GERD

• GERD is caused by frequent acid reflux — the backup of stomach acid or bile into the esophagus.
• When you swallow, the lower esophageal sphincter — a circular band of muscle around the bottom
part of your esophagus — relaxes to allow food and liquid to flow down into your stomach. Then it
closes again.

• However, if this valve relaxes abnormally or weakens, stomach acid can flow back up into your
esophagus, causing frequent heartburn. Sometimes this can disrupt your daily life.

• This constant backwash of acid can irritate the lining of your esophagus, causing it to become inflamed
(esophagitis). Over time, the inflammation can wear away the esophageal lining, causing complications
such as bleeding, esophageal narrowing or Barrett's esophagus (a precancerous condition).
GERD

Conditions that can increase your risk of GERD include:


• Obesity
• Bulging of top of stomach up into the diaphragm (hiatal hernia)
• Pregnancy
• Smoking
• Dry mouth
• Asthma
• Diabetes
• Delayed stomach emptying
• Connective tissue disorders, such as scleroderma
GERD

Compliications of GERD
• Narrowing of the esophagus (esophageal stricture).
• An open sore in the esophagus (esophageal ulcer).
• Precancerous changes to the esophagus (Barrett's esophagus).
GERD

• Antacids that neutralize stomach acid (Maalox, Gelusil, Gaviscon, Rolaids)


Medication to reduce acid production
• H-2-receptor blockers (cimetidine, famotidine, nizatidine, ranitidine)
Medications that block acid production and heal the esophagus
• Proton pump inhibitors sre steronger blocker of acid productioon than are H-2-receptor
blocker (lansoprazole and omeprazole)
GERD

• Maintain a healthy weight


• Avoid tight-fitting clothing
• Avoid foods and drinks that trigger heartburn (e.g: fatty or fried foods, tomato sauce, alcohol,
chocolate, mint, garlic, onion, and caffeine)
• Eat smaller meals
• Don't lie down after a meal
• Elevate the head of your bed
• Don't smoke
SUMBER BELAJAR
• Shofa AO . Tinjauan Pustaka Anatomi Gaster. 2014. Diambil dari
:http://eprints.undip.ac.id/44860/3/Oktanida_Amaliya_S_22010110110117_Bab2KTI.pdf
• C Shelia. 2014. Diambil dari : http://repository.usu.ac.id/bitstream/123456789/39723/4/Chapter%20II.pdf
• http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gerd/basics/causes/con-20025201
• http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gerd/basics/risk-factors/con-20025201
• http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gerd/basics/risk-factors/con-20025201
• http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gerd/basics/complications/con-20025201
• http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gerd/basics/tests-diagnosis/con-20025201
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gerd/basics/tests-diagnosis/con-20025201
• http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gerd/basics/lifestyle-home-remedies/con-20025201
• Puspita CE.Bab 2 Tinjauan Pustaka. 2014. Diambil dari:
http://eprints.undip.ac.id/44612/3/egha_candra_puspita_22010110120131_BAB2KTI.pdf
• https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003260.htm