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Rotational Motion for 3D Rigid Bodies

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Juárez

Kinetics of Rigid Bodies:

Rotation about a Fixed Axis

Dr. Humberto García

División de Profesional

jhg@itesm.mx EXT 2810

Oficina: 3er piso AULAS III 1

OBJECTIVE

Two Basic Vectorial Equations

𝑭𝒆𝒙𝒕 = 𝑴𝒕𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 𝐚𝑮

𝒐𝒏 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝑹𝑩

𝑴𝒆𝒙𝒕 = 𝑰𝑮 ∝𝑮

𝒂𝒃𝒐𝒖𝒕 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 𝒕𝒉𝒓𝒖 𝑮

First Equation

𝑭𝒆𝒙𝒕 = 𝑴𝒕𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 𝐚𝑮

𝒐𝒏 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝑹𝑩

acting on the RB =

Total RB Mass * Vectorial Total Acceleration

of the RB Mass Center (G)

Second Equation

𝑴𝒆𝒙𝒕 = 𝑰𝑮 ∝𝑮

𝒂𝒃𝒐𝒖𝒕 𝒂𝒙𝒊𝒔 𝒕𝒉𝒓𝒖 𝑮

External Forces acting on the RB about an

axis passing thru its G mass center =

Mass Moment of Inertia about that same

axis (𝑰𝑮 ) * Vectorial Angular Acceleration

about that same axis

Second Equation (another option)

𝑴𝒆𝒙𝒕 = 𝑰𝒐 ∝𝒐

𝒂𝒃𝒐𝒖𝒕 𝐚𝐱𝐢𝐬 𝐭𝐡𝐫𝐮 𝑶

Vectorial summation of the Moments of all

External Forces acting on the RB about a

FIXED axis passing thru point O =

Mass Moment of Inertia about that same

axis (𝑰𝒐 ) * Vectorial Angular Acceleration

about that same axis

Cases that will be analyzed

Rotation about a fixed axis passing thru O point

PROCEDURE 1: G point ≠ O point

PROCEDURE 2: G point = O point

PROCEDURE 3:

Rotation about a fixed axis passing thru O point

𝑭𝒆𝒙𝒕 𝒙 = 𝑴𝒕𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 𝐚𝑮 𝒙

𝒐𝒏 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝑹𝑩

𝑭𝒆𝒙𝒕 𝒚 = 𝑴𝒕𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 𝐚𝑮 𝒚

𝒐𝒏 𝒕𝒉𝒆 𝑹𝑩

𝒂𝑮𝒏 points ALWAYS to the center of rotation (in this case point O)

𝒂𝑮𝒕 is to 𝒂𝑮𝒏 ALWAYS and rotates about point O in the same direction as α

𝑰𝑶 = 𝑰𝑮 + 𝑴𝒕𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 𝒅𝟐 where d is the distance between two parallel axes, one passing

thru point O (fixed axis) and another thru the center of mass G point

Rotation about a fixed axis passing thru O point

PROCEDURE 1: G point ≠ O point

1. a) Draw the kinetic diagram and ID the G (RB center of mass),

O (center of rotation, a fixed axis passes thru) points as well as 𝒓𝑮

(absolute distance between G and O).

b) Draw the m𝒂𝑮𝒏 and m𝒂𝑮𝒕 terms on point G and ID their + directions:

𝒂𝑮𝒏 from G to O. 𝒂𝑮𝒕 to 𝒂𝑮𝒏 and consistent with the α sense of rotation

or

Rotation about a fixed axis passing thru G point

PROCEDURE 2: G point = O point

1 ID the fixed G point = origin O of the (x,y) coordinate system

==

+ directions for (𝑭𝒙 , 𝑭𝒚 ) are along the + axes. + M along counterclockwise rotation

If two RBs are coupled, they are analyzed either together or on a separated fashion.

Rotation about a non-fixed axis passing thru G point

PROCEDURE 3:

1 ID the non-fixed G point (RB center of mass) and the

possible presence of the friction force

2. a) Draw the free-body diagram and write the next set of 3 equations:

sometimes the signs of 𝒂𝑮 and 𝜶 are not the same) and resolve the system of 4 equations.

If the obtained results will be valid

(slipping-motion) should be added to resolve the system of 4 equations

𝟐

d) if necessary, apply the equation 𝒂𝟐 = 𝒂𝟏 + ∝ 𝒙 𝒓𝟏𝟐 − 𝒘 𝒓𝟏𝟐

Of course you are right!!

If the axis thru G and the axis

thru O are parallel to each

other and separated by a

distance d, then

𝟐

𝑰𝑶 = 𝑰𝑮 + 𝑴𝒕𝒐𝒕𝒂𝒍 𝒅

∝𝑮 = ∝𝑶

Check the solutions for all

next 6 Fundamental

Problems (see next slide)

in the Math file

Chapter 17 Part III Ag2017

and repeat the procedures

Review the solutions for the

last 5 problems shown

in the Math file

Chapter 17 Part III Ag2017

and complete the

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