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UNIT-4

Synchronous Sequential Logic

Mohammad Asif Iqbal


Assistant Professor,
Deptt of ECE,
JETGI, Barabanki
STORAGE ELEMENTS
Do u know how many bits of information can be
stored in this pen drive?

Its capacity is 16GB =16×210 MB =16×210 ×210 KB =16×210 ×210 ×210 B

=16×210 ×210 ×210 ×8 BITS

what we are going to study is capable of storing a


single bit of data?

Is not that cool?


Before heading towards the main
The changes in the size of these memory chips over the period of 5 decayed
content let me show you another
interesting thing

The storage space is of 5MB The storage space is of 128GB


BEFORE STARTING LET’S RECALL NAND GATE

A B Y
0 0 1
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 0
BASIC STORAGE ELEMENT

0
1

LATCH

0
1
#For input S=0, R=1.

S =0 1 Q =1 1 0 1 1 0
1 1 1 0

Q’=0 0
R =1 1
#For input S=1, R=0.

S =1 1 Q=0 0 1 0 0 1
1 1 0 1
0 1 1 0
1 1 1 0

Q’=1 1
R =0 1
#Tabulating all the result.

S Q
0 0 Indeterminant

0 1 1 0
1 0 0 1
11 11 1 NO 0
Q’ 1 1 CHANGE
0 1
R
#SR Flip-flop.

S=0 1 Q

Clock
0 0 NO CHANGE
0 1 0 1
0
1 Q’ 1 0 1 0
R=1
=0 Indeterminant
1 1
#D Flip-flop.
D Q Q’
CHARACTERIS
D 0 0 1
TIC TABLE
Q
1 1 0

Q(n) D Q(n+!)
Clock 0 0 1 TRUTH TABLE
1 1 0

Q’ Q Q(n+1) D
0 0 1 EXCITATION
1 1 0 TABLE
#JK Flip-flop.

J=1
1 =0 Q =1 =0 =1

Clock

0 =1 Q’=0 =1 =0
K=1
WAVE FORM REPRESENTATION
NOW, changes at I/P
Any change at I/P will affect O/P
will not effect O/P
1

CLOCK 0 RACE
AROUND
T 2T
(t)

1 CONDITION
Q0
SOLUTION OF RACE AROUND CONDITION

1
T F
CLOCK 0
T 2T
(t)

PROPAGATION DELAY
1

Q0
FINAL SOLUTION……

CLOCK 0
T 2T
(t)

Q0
PROBLEMS
Q:- Determine the output of PGT
Q:- Determine the output of PGT clocked SR flip flop which Q
clocked SR flip flop which Q initially 1 for the given input
initially 0 for the given input waveforms.
waveforms

Q
Q’
Master Slave Flip Flop

J =1
=1 Q=1
1=0 =0
0 0 1 1

0 =1
=0 =1
K=1 Q’=0
Analysis of clocked sequential circuits

X’
BX’
B
Shift Registers

• A register is a digital circuit with two basic functions:


Data Storage and Data Movement
• A shift register provides the data movement function
• A shift register “shifts” its output once every clock cycle

• A shift register is a group of flip-flops set up in a linear


fashion with their inputs and outputs connected
together in such a way that the data is shifted from one
device to another when the circuit is active
Shift Register Applications
• converting between serial • some counter applications
data and parallel data • ring counter
• temporary storage in a • Johnson counter
processor • Linear Feedback Shift Register
• scratch-pad memories (LFSR) counters

• some arithmetic • time delay devices


operations • more …
• multiply, divide
• communications
• UART
Shift Register Characteristics
• Types
• Serial-in, Serial-out
• Serial-in, Parallel-out
• Parallel-in, Serial-out
• Parallel-in, Parallel-out
• Universal n-bit shift
register

• Direction
• Left shift
• Right shift
• Rotate (right or left)
• Bidirectional
Data Movement
• The bits in a shift register can move in any of the following manners
Data Movement
• Block diagrams for shift registers with various input/output
options:

n-bit shift n-bit shift


register register

n-bit shift n-bit shift


register register
Serial-In Serial-Out
• Data bits come in one at a time and
leave one at a time n-bit shift
register
• One Flip-Flop for each bit to be
handled
• Movement can be left or right, but is
usually only in a single direction in
a given register
• Asynchronous preset and clear
inputs are used to set initial values
Serial-In Serial-Out

• The logic circuit diagram below shows a generalized


serial-in serial-out shift register
• SR Flip-Flops are shown
• Connected to behave as D Flip-Flops
• Input values moved to outputs of each Flip-Flop with the clock (shift) pulse

N 1 0

N-Bit Shift Register


Shift Registers
• The simplest shift register is one that uses only Flip-Flops
• The output of a given Flip-Flop is connected to the D input of the Flip-Flop at its
right.
• Each clock pulse shifts the contents of the register one bit position to the right.
• The Serial input (SI) determines what goes into the leftmost Flip-Flop during the
shift. The Serial output (SO) is taken from the output of the rightmost Flip-Flop.

Q Q Q Q
Serial-In Serial-Out
• A simple way of looking at
the serial shifting operation,
with a focus on the data bits, 1

is illustrated at right
• The 4-bit data word “1011” 2

is to be shifted into a 4-bit


shift register 3

• One shift per clock pulse


4
• Data is shown entering at
left and shifting right
5
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Serial-In Serial-Out
• The diagram at right
shows the 4-bit sequence
“1010” being loaded into
the 4-bit serial-in serial-
out shift register
• Each bit moves one
position to the right each
time the clock’s leading
edge occurs
• Four clock pulses loads
the register
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Serial-In Serial-Out
• This diagram shows the 4-
bit sequence “1010” as it
is unloaded from the 4-
bit serial-in serial-out
shift register
• Each bit moves one
position to the right each
time the clock’s leading
edge occurs
• Four clock pulses unloads
the register
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Serial-In Serial-Out
• Serial-in, serial-out
shift registers are often
used for data
communications
• such as RS-232
• modem transmission and
reception
• Ethernet links
• SONET
• etc.
Universal Shift Register
• Universal shift register
• Can do any combination of parallel
and serial input/output operations n-bit shift
register

• Requires additional inputs to


specify desired function
• Uses a Mux-like input gating

L/S L/S
A 0 0
F A
B 1 B
1
Universal Shift Register
Introducing counters
• Counters are a specific type of sequential circuit
• The state serves as the “output” (Moore)
• A counter that follows the binary number sequence is called a binary
counter
• n-bit binary counter: n flip-flops, count in binary from 0 to 2ⁿ-1

• Counters are available in two types:


• Synchronous Counters
• Ripple Counters

• Synchronous Counters:
• A common clock signal is connected to the C input of each flip-flop
Synchronous Binary Up Counter
• The output value increases by one on each clock cycle
• After the largest value, the output “wraps around” back to 0
• Using two bits, we’d get something like this:

Present State Next State 00 01


A B A B
0 0 0 1
0 1 1 0
1 0 1 1
1 1 0 0 11 10
Synchronous Binary Up Counter
Present State Next State
A B A B D1= A’B + AB’
0 0 0 1
0 1 1 0 D0= B’
1 0 1 1
1 1 0 0

clock
What good are counters?
• Counters can act as simple clocks to keep track of “time”
• You may need to record how many times something has happened
• How many bits have been sent or received?
• How many steps have been performed in some computation?

• All processors contain a program counter, or PC


• Programs consist of a list of instructions that are to be executed
one after another (for the most part)
• The PC keeps track of the instruction currently being executed
• The PC increments once on each clock cycle, and the next program
instruction is then executed.
Synch Binary Up/Down Counter
• 2-bit Up/Down counter
• Counter outputs will be 00, 01, 10 and 11
• There is a single input, X.
> X= 0, the counter counts up
> X= 1, the counter counts down
• We’ll need two flip-flops again. Here are the four possible states:

00 01

11 10
The complete state diagram and table
• Here’s the complete state diagram and state table for this circuit

Present State Inputs Next State


0 Q1 Q0 X Q1 Q0
00 01 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 1 1 1
0 1 0 1 0
0 1 1 0
0 1 1 0 0
1 1 0 0 1 1
11 10 1 0 1 0 1
0 1 1 0 0 0
1 1 1 1 0
D flip-flop inputs
• If we use D flip-flops, then the D inputs will just be the same as the desired next
states
• Equations for the D flip-flop inputs are shown at the right
• Why does D0 = Q0’ make sense? Q0
0 1 0 1
Q1 1 0 1 0
Present State Inputs Next State X
Q1 Q0 X Q1 Q0
D1 = Q1  Q0  X
0 0 0 0 1
0 0 1 1 1
0 1 0 1 0 Q0
0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1 1
Q1 1 1 0 0
1 0 1 0 1
X
1 1 0 0 0
1 1 1 1 0 D0 = Q0’
Synchronous Binary Up/Down Counter

X Q1

Q0

clock
Unused states
• The examples shown so far have all had 2n states, and used n flip-flops. But
sometimes you may have unused, leftover states
• For example, here is a state table and diagram for a counter that repeatedly
counts from 0 (000) to 5 (101)
• What should we put in the table for the two unused states?
Present State Next State 000
Q2 Q1 Q0 Q2 Q1 Q0
0 0 0 0 0 1
101 001
0 0 1 0 1 0
0 1 0 0 1 1
0 1 1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1 0 1
1 0 1 0 0 0 100 010
1 1 0 ? ? ?
1 1 1 ? ? ? 011
Unused states can be don’t cares…
• To get the simplest possible circuit, you can fill in don’t cares for the
next states. This will also result in don’t cares for the flip-flop inputs,
which can simplify the hardware
• If the circuit somehow ends up in one of the unused states (110 or 111),
its behavior will depend on exactly what the don’t cares were filled in with

Present State Next State 000


Q2 Q1 Q0 Q2 Q1 Q0
0 0 0 0 0 1 101 001
0 0 1 0 1 0
0 1 0 0 1 1
0 1 1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1 0 1
100 010
1 0 1 0 0 0
1 1 0 x x x
1 1 1 x x x 011
…or maybe you do care
• To get the safest possible circuit, you can explicitly fill in next states
for the unused states 110 and 111
• This guarantees that even if the circuit somehow enters an unused state,
it will eventually end up in a valid state
• This is called a self-starting counter 110 111

Present State Next State


000
Q2 Q1 Q0 Q2 Q1 Q0
0 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 1 0 1 0 101 001
0 1 0 0 1 1
0 1 1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1 0 1
1 0 1 0 0 0 100 010
1 1 0 0 0 0
1 1 1 0 0 0
011
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More complex counters
• It can increment or decrement, by setting the UP input to 1 or 0
• You can immediately (asynchronously) clear the counter to 0000
by setting CLR = 1
• You can specify the counter’s next output by setting D3-D0 to any
four-bit value and clearing LD
• The active-low EN input enables or disables the counter
• When the counter is disabled, it continues to output the same
value without incrementing, decrementing, loading, or clearing
• The “counter out” CO is normally 1, but becomes 0
when the counter reaches its maximum value, 1111
2-bit Complex Binary Counter
Q1
EN
R
LD CO
D1

Q0
UP
R

D0

CLK
CLR
An 8-bit counter
• As you might expect by now, we can use
these general counters to build other
counters
• Here is an 8-bit counter made from two 4-bit
counters
• The bottom device represents the least significant four
bits, while the top counter represents the most significant
four bits
• When the bottom counter reaches 1111 (i.e., when CO =
0), it enables the top counter for one cycle

• Other implementation notes:


• The counters share clock and clear signals
• Hex displays are used here
A restricted 4-bit counter
• We can also make a counter that “starts” at some value besides 0000
• In the diagram below, when CO=0 the LD signal forces the next state
to be loaded from D3-D0
• The result is this counter wraps from 1111 to 0110 (instead of 0000)
Another restricted counter
• We can also make a circuit that counts up to only 1100, instead of 1111
• Here, when the counter value reaches 1100, the NAND gate forces
the counter to load, so the next state becomes 0000
Ripple Counter

Simple, yet asynchronous circuits !!!


Summary
• Counters serve many purposes in sequential logic design
• There are lots of variations on the basic counter
• Some can increment or decrement
• An enable signal can be added
• The counter’s value may be explicitly set
• There are also several ways to make counters
• You can follow the sequential design principles to build counters
from scratch
• You could also modify or combine existing counter devices
THANK YOU!