Presented by, PREETHA .

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INTRODUCTION

THE HVDC TECHNOLOGY

HVDC TECHNOLOGY

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Electric power transmission was originally developed with direct current. However, DC power at low voltage could not be transmitted over long distances, thus giving rise to high voltage alternating current (AC) electrical systems. With the development of high voltage valves, it was possible to once again transmit DC power at high voltages and over long distances, giving rise to HVDC(High Voltage DC) transmission systems.

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The first commercial HVDC line built in 1954 was a 98 km submarine cable with ground return between the island of Gotland and the Swedish mainland. Thyristors were applied to d.c. transmission in the late 1960·s and solid state valves became a reality. Today, the highest functional d.c. voltage for d.c. transmission is +/- 600 kV for the 785 km transmission line of the Itaipu scheme in Brazil.

WHY USE DC TRANSMISSION?
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Large AC cable capacitance will limit the maximum possible underground and underwater cable transmission distance . DC allows the use of no DC allows the use of no environmental impacts. In almost all instances DC Transmission has lower losses than AC Transmission. For the DC aerial construction the tower cost and land cost is l ower. The D.C. transmission line can have a lower visual profile than an equivalent A.C. line and so contributes to a lower environmental impact.

WHY USE DC TRANSMISSION?
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Some A.C electric power systems are not synchronized to neighboring networks even though their physical distances between them is quite small. It is physically impossible to connect the two together by direct A.C methods in order to exchange electric power between them. If transmission is by submarine or underground cable, the breakeven distance is much less than overhead transmission. It is not practical to consider A.C cable systems exceeding 50 km but D.C cable transmission systems are in service whose length is in distances of 600 km or greater have been considered feasible.

WHY HVDC SYSTEMS?.........
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HVDC is the unique solution to interconnect asynchronous systems. e.g. different grid frequencies. HVDC represents the most economical solution for distances greater than 600 km. HVDC is the solution for long submarine transmission.

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HVDC BASICS
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A typical HVDC transmission system consists of two converter station s connected by a transmission path (aerial/underground cable). Each converter station acts as either a rectifier (AC DC) or an inverte r (DC AC) The converter uses high speed switching to create a DC voltage from the AC voltage or an AC voltage from a DC voltage Depending upon the design of the HVDC system, filtering of the AC si gnal may be signal may be required in order to smooth the resulta nt waveform

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CONFIGURATIONS
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The integral part of an HVDC power converter is the valve or valve arm. It may be controllable if constructed from one or more thyristors in series. Electric power flowing between the HVDC valve group and the a.c. system is ¶three phase·. When electric power flows into the d.c. valve group from the a.c. system then it is considered a rectifier. If power flows from the d.c. valve group into the a.c. system, it is an inverter. Each valve consists of many series connected thyristors in thyristor modules.

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HVDC SUBSTATION REPRESENTATION

PRINCIPLES OF HVDC

HVDC TERMINAL

ADVANTAGES OF HVDC TECHNOLOGY
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No limits in transmitted distance. This is valid for both OH lines and sea or underground cables. Very fast control of power flow, which implies stability improvements, not only for the HVDC link but also for the surrounding AC system. Direction of power flow can be changed very quickly (bidirectionality). An HVDC link don´t increase the short-circuit power in the connecting point. This means that it will not be necessary to change the circuit breakers in the existing network.

ADVANTAGES OF HVDC TECHNOLOGY(CONTINUES«..)
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HVDC can carry more power for a given size of conductor. The need for ROW (Right Of Way) is much smaller for HVDC than for HVAC, for the same transmitted power. The environmental impact is smaller with HVDC. VSC technology allows controlling active and reactive power independently without any needs for extra compensating equipment. VSC technology gives a good opportunity to alternative energy sources to be economically and technically efficient. HVDC transmissions have a high availability and reliability rate, shown by more than 30 years of operation.

DISADVANTAGES OF HVDC TECHNOLOGY
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Converters are expensive. Converters require much reactive power. Converters generate harmonics, requiring filters. Converters have little overload capability. Lack of HV dc circuit breakers hampers multiterminal or network operation.

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APPLICATIONS OF HVDC
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For cables crossing bodies of water wider than 32km. For interconnecting ac systems having different frequencies or where asynchronous operation is desired. For transmitting large amounts of power over long distances by overhead lines. In congested urban areas or elsewhere where it is difficult to acquire right of way for overhead lines and where the lengths involved make ac cables impractical.

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OVERVIEW OF HVDC APPLICATIONS

SHORT CIRCUIT CONTRIBUTION OF HVDC LIGHT

HVDC LIGHT
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HVDC Light is the newly developed HVDC transmission technology, which is based on extruded DC cables and voltage source converters consisting of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT·s) with high switching frequency. Under more strict environmental and economical constraints due to the deregulation, the HVDC Light provides the most promising solution to power transmission and distribution. One of the most concerned issues from customers is the contribution of HVDC Light to short circuit currents.

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FEATURES OF HVDC LIGHT
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Active and reactive power exchange can be controlled flexibly and independently. The power quality and system stability can be improved via continuously adjustable reactive power support with AC voltage feedback control. Feed AC systems with low short circuit power or even passive networks with no local power generation.

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SHORT CIRCUIT RATIO OF HVDC LIGHT
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SHORT CIRCUIT RATIO
The strength of the a.c. network at the bus of the HVDC substation can be expressed by the short circuit ratio (SCR), defined as: µ the relation between the short circuit level in MVA at the HVDC substation bus at 1.0 per-unit a.c. voltage and the d.c. power in MW.µ
The possible maximum relative short circuit current Increment (¨Imax) is determined by the short circuit ratio(SCR) as,

ISC :the short-circuit current of the original AC system alone at a 3-ph fault. ISC_HVDC_L : the short-circuit current of the AC system with converter station connected and in operation at the same fault.

SHORT CIRCUIT RATIO OF HVDC LIGHT(CONTINUE««)
The maximum possible short circuit increment (¨Imax) due to HVDC Light is determined by the SCR. It is inversely in proportional to the SCR and it occurs when the transmission system is operating at zero active power. The contribution to the short circuit current is irrelevant to the fault location if the fault current is evaluated in per unit with the base value equal to the 3-ph fault current at the corresponding fault location and without HVDC Light connected.

CONCLUSION 

HVDC systems remain the best economical and environmentally friendly option for the above conventional applications. However, around the world, a quantum leap in efforts to conserve the environment - are demanding a change in thinking that could make HVDC systems the preferred alternative to high voltage AC systems in many situations. The HVDC Light, in contrast to the conventional HVDC which does not contribute any short circuit current, may contribute some short circuit current. With HVDC Light, the voltage dip due to distant fault is possibly reduced and thereby the connected electricity consumers may suffer less from disturbances. 

THANKS«.

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