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Building Performance Matters

HVAC Equipment
Efficiency Overview
HVAC Components
HVAC Components: Condenser

1 Expansion
valve
2 Fan
3 Compressor
4 Heat
exchange coils
HVAC Components: Air Handler

1 Heat exchange coils


2
2 Fan

1
HVAC Components: Duct System
HVAC Components: Duct System

Supply Ducts

Supply
Plenu
m
Air Return Grille
Handler

Return
Plenum
Air Conditioner Efficiencies

S easonal
E nergy
E fficiency
R atio

Minimum SEER =
10 Btu’s/Whr for central
home systems
Air Conditioner Efficiencies

SEERs range from 10 to


over 18 for very efficient
AC units.

Going from SEER 10 to


SEER 14 for example, will
reduce cooling energy
costs by about 30%.
Common Heating System Types

• Electric Strip

• Heat pump

• Gas Furnace
Common Heating System Types

• Electric Strip

• Uses either baseboard


or air handler mounted
electric resistance strips
• Low installation cost
but least efficient
option.
Common Heating System Types

• Electric Strip

• Heat pump
• Air conditioner
refrigeration cycle in
reverse (heats home
instead of cooling it).
• Cost effective vs.
electric strip in all regions
except very warm.
Common Heating System Types

• Electric Strip

• Heat pump

• Gas Furnace

• Burns natural gas or


liquid propane
• Similar efficiency to heat
pumps
Duct Leakage
Duct Leakage
Duct Leakage

Cooling System w/ Supply Leaks


Effective System EER
10
9
S y s te m E E R

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
Source:Contracting Business Apr94,
1 Solving Leakage & Returnby
Problems
0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
Percent Leak

Replaced Air = Outside


Replaced Air = Attic
Duct Leakage

HVAC-induced infiltration

Infiltration rates - Florida Duct Study 1990


80
70
60
Number of
houses

50
40 Fan off Fan on
30
20
10
0
<0.25 0.25- 0.5- 0.75- 1.0-1.5 1.5-2.0 >2.0
0.5 0.75 1.0
air change rate
Duct Leakage
Duct Leakage Research 1990

 Florida
 50 all electric homes
 13% total building
leakage in duct
system
 17% savings
 $200 cost
Door Closure

Closing interior doors when AHU fan on


1.2 1.15
House air changes per hour (ach)

1 0.94
0.8
0.62
0.6
0.42
0.4
0.2 0.16

fan off fan on


Duct Design Problems

 Utility room door that swings to the


return grill.
 When the system turns on, the door is
pulled to the grill, blocking air flow.
Summary

HVAC efficiency includes:

• Selecting efficient air conditioning


based on your climate.

• Selecting the proper type of and


efficiency heating system for your
climate

• Designing and sealing air distribution


systems properly.