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Full name: Nguyễn Lê Quỳnh Như

Student ID: BTFTIU15045
Submitted to Dr. Nguyen Van Toan (PhD)
I. Water and ice
II. Application of water in food industry
III. Application of ice in food industry
IV. Summary
V. References
I. Water and ice
Water is an essential constituent of many foods.
Water may occur as:
 an intracellular or extracellular component in vegetable
and animal products
 a dispersing medium or solvent in a variety of products
such as butter and margarine
 a minor constituent in other foods
 The presence of water influences the chemical and
microbiological deterioration of foods.
Structure of water molecule
 Water’s unique molecular structure and hydrogen bonds
enable all 3 phases to exist in earth’s atmosphere.
 The triple point is the temperature and pressure at which
three phases (liquid, ice, and vapor) coexist equilibrium.
Structure of ice
 Ice crystals are never perfect, and the defects encountered
are usually of the orientational or ionic types.
 Each hydrogen bond, there are two positions for the
hydrogen atom: O-H+O and O+H-O
At atmospheric pressure,
ice crystallises in the
normal hexagonal form.
Physical properties of water and ice
Water activity and moisture
 Water exists in one of several forms in foods. Chemically,
each form is the same (H2O), but differences exist in the
physical and chemical conditions in which water can exist.
 The presence of water in foods is described as the
moisture content or as the water activity of the food.
These two terms are not synonymous.
Water activity and moisture
 Moisture content is the absolute amount of water present
in foods. 3 forms of water are:
 Free water: is lightly entrapped and therefore easily pressed from
food matter. Free water acts as a dispersing agent and solvent, and
can be removed by drying food.
 Bound water: exists in a tight chemically bound situation, such as
within a crystalline structure, via water-ion and water-dipole
 Water of hydration: or structural water, associates in layers via
intermolecular hydrogen bonds around hydrophilic food molecules.
Water activity and moisture
 Water activity is a measure of the availability of water
molecules to enter into microbial, enzymatic, or chemical
 This availability determines the shelf life of a food.
 As the percentage of bound water in a food increases, the
water activity decreases.
 Water activity is defined as the ratio of the vapor pressure
of pure water and a solution at the same temperature.
II. Application of water in food
 The food processing industry uses a huge amount of water.
 It is also used to transfer raw ingredients, particularly in
fruit and vegetable processing. The volume of water used to
produce food varies widely, and is a function of numerous
factors, including the type of product, the production
process used and facility size. In general, the food industry
is a large industrial user of potable water.
 Water is routinely used in food production as an
ingredient, for cleaning, sanitation and manufacturing
 Water must be “available” in foods for the action of both
chemical and enzymatic reactions. The “available” water
represents the degree to which water in a food is free for
chemical reactions, enzymatic reactions, microbial
growth and quality characteristics (related to a simple
loss of moisture, related to gel breakdown, and food
Water as an ingredient
 In many foods, water is a majoy ingredient.
 The quality of water can affect the properties of the food,
including texture, shelf stability, appearance, aroma and
 Water plays many very important roles in food.
 The two primary sources of fresh water are surface and
ground water
Water as an ingredient
Water treatment
 Water treatment processes remove pathogens and
impurities that may otherwise be harmful to human health
or aesthetically unpleasant.
 Identify the water source and define characteristics such as
impurities, and seasonal and periodic variations.
 Treatment processes used in bottled water often include
softening, reverse osmosis, and deionization
Water treatment
Aw in Low Moisture Foods
 The water activity of a food is instrumental in maintaining
its chemical stability.
 Water activity and its relationship with moisture content
help to predict and control the shef life of foods.
 Water activity, pH, temperature, and other parameters,
have a direct impact on the growth of microorganisms.
 Water activity (aw) has its most useful application in
predicting the growth of bacteria, yeasts and moulds.
Water use
 There are four broad uses of water in food production:
Primary production (e.g. farming),
Cleaning and sanitation,
As an ingredient or component of an ingredient,
Processing operations (e.g. heating, refrigeration).
 As such the safety of water supplies directly affects the
safety of food.
III. Application of ice
 Ice is commonly used by food businesses in the production
of a food. It is often used:
 as an ingredient
 as a cooling agent
 to prolong the shelf life of a food
 Dry ice is beneficial in the bacterial removal of mildew and
mold found in places that handle food regularly.
 Dry ice is useful for preserving frozen foods when freezers
are not available.
 Dry ice characteristic:
 Natural, harmless coolant with a high cooling performance;
 Odourless and tasteless;
 Does not contain pathologic germs;
 Replaces air oxygen, acts bacteriostatically;
 Does not melt; as it does not leave wet traces, it does neither
damage products nor its packaging.
 Dry ice utilization in the food industry:
 Storage and transportation of chilled and frozen food;
 Cooling of food and beverages at plane boards and in trains;
 Meat cooling by grinding , mixing, or separation;
 Grape and pomace cooling;
 Production equipment cleaning – dry ice pellets blasting
Optimum dough temperature achievement during kneading
 No more water enters the dough;
 Simple operation.
 Dry ice blast cleaning uses recycled carbon dioxide (CO2), a
colorless, tasteless, odorless gas that is found naturally in
the atmosphere.
 Examples of application:
 Meat Processing: Dry ice can be used by the meat processing
industry to cool meat after processing and for shipping
 Food and Beverage: Dry ice can be used to flash-freeze food,
carbonate beverages, make ice cream and root beer. Dry ice is
useful for preserving frozen foods when freezers are not
 Ice Cream Socials – Dry ice will keep ice cream frozen without
the need for electricity.
IV. Summary
Water is an essential constituent of many foods.
Water is a critical resource to the food industry that
has many uses. Water quality and its impact on
products and operations are often underestimated in
food production systems.The presence of water
influences the chemical and microbiological
deterioration of foods.
V. References
 Lecture “Water in Foods” – Dr. Nguyen Van Toan (PhD)
 Principles of Food Chemistry Third Edition, John M. deMan, PhD Professor
Emeritus Department of Food Science University of Guelph Guelph, Ontario
 Introduction to Food science and technology (2nd edition), Geogre F.Stewart,
Maynard A.Amerine, Bernard S.Schweigertand John Hawthorn
 John M. de Man Principles of Food Chemistry