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 This learning area is designed to provide a general background for

the understanding of Earth Science and Biology.
 It presents the history of the Earth through geologic time.
 It discusses the Earth’s structure, composition, and processes.
 Issues, concerns, and problems pertaining to natural hazards are
also included.
 It also deals with the basic principles and processes in the study of
 It covers life processes and interactions at the cellular, organism,
population, and ecosystem levels.
Grading System

 Written Works (quizzes, activities, assignments, etc.)

 Performance Tasks (Performance Standards, Reports, Outputs,
 Quarterly Assessment (Midterm & Final Exams)
100 %
1. The science that studies the constructive
and destructive forces that build up or wear
away Earth's surface is
c. meteorology
2. Rock that forms from the cooling of
magma below the surface or lava at the
surface is called
a. sedimentary rock
b. metamorphic rock
c. igneous rock
d. coarse-grained rock
3. The best way to protect yourself in an
earthquake is to
a. run as fast as you can
b. drop, cover, and hold
c. go into the basement
d. stand under a tree
4. Waves that travel within the interior of
the Earth are called _______.
a. love waves
b. body waves
c. surface waves
d. Rayleigh waves
5. Rocks that are formed through the
cooling and solidification of magma
a. silicates
b. igneous rocks
c. sedimentary rocks
d. metamorphic rocks
6. The process by which unconsolidated
material becomes solidified into rock.
a. erosion
b. deposition
c. lithification
d. weathering
7. Which of the following does not belong to
the group?
a. Hydro
b. Nuclear
c. Biomass
d. Natural Gas
8. Biomass can come from_____?
a. Corn
b. Coconut
c. Animal dung
d. Corn, Coconut and animal dung
9. Burning fossil fuels primarily increases
this gas in the atmosphere.
a. carbon
b. hydrogen
c. nitrogen
d. sulfur
10. The largest among the four oceans
a. Arctic
b. Pacific
c. Indian
d. Southern
11. It is the most abundant water available
on Earth based on the total global water.
a. Freshwater
b. Groundwater
c. Surface water
d. Glaciers & ice caps
12. A process by which vapor changes its
physical state from vapor to liquid
a. condensation
b. evaporation
c. interception
d. precipitation
12. A process by which vapor changes its
physical state from vapor to liquid
a. condensation
b. evaporation
c. interception
d. precipitation
13. What is not part of the environment?
a. Air
b. water
c. living organisms
d. none of these
14. What is the first option in the waste
management hierarchy?
a. disposal
b. treatment
c. recycling
d. reduction
15. Plants receive their nutrients mainly
a. chlorophyll
b. atmosphere
c. light
d. soil
16. The largest organ of human body is?
a. Brain
b. Heart
c. Skin
d. Liver
17. The human cell contains?
a. 44 chromosomes
b. 48 chromosomes
c. 46 chromosomes
d. 23 chromosomes
18. The function of hemoglobin is?
a. To transport oxygen
b. Destruction of bacteria
c. Prevention of anemia
d. Utilization of energy
19. Plants synthesis protein from
a. starch
b. sugar
c. amino acids
d. fatty acids
20. Plants that grow in saline water are
a. halophytes b. hydrophytes c.
mesophytes d. thallophytes
20. Plants that grow in saline water are
a. halophytes
b. hydrophytes
c. mesophytes
d. thallophytes
21. Plants die in winter by frost because?
a. There is no transpiration
b. No photosynthesis takes place at such
low temperatures
c. Respiration ceases at such low
d. Of desiccation and mechanical damage
to tissues
22. Which one among the following is
known as 'animal starch’?
a. Cellulose
b. Glycogen
c. Pectin
d. Chitin
23. The unit structure of genes is made up
a. RNA
b. DNA
c. endoplasmic reticulum
d. magnesium
24. Pollination is best defined as
a. transfer of pollen from anther to stigma
b. germination of pollen grains
c. growth of pollen tube in ovule
d. visiting flowers by insects
25. Plants wilt due to excess of
a. transpiration
b. photosynthesis
c. absorption
d. None of these
Lesson 1:
Origin of the


A. Universe & the Solar System
Learning Competency: State the different hypotheses
explaining the origin of the universe. S11/12ES-Ia-e-1
REVIEW-Guessing Game

Direction: Arrange the jumbled letters to form words related to

the universe. Say something about the formed words/terms.
Theories Explaining the
Origin of the Universe
A. Non-scientific Thought
 Ancient Egyptians believed in many gods and myths which
narrate that the world arose from an infinite sea at the first
rising of the sun.
 The Kuba people of Central Africa tell the story of a creator
god Mbombo (or Bumba) who, alone in a dark and water-
covered Earth, felt an intense stomach pain and then
vomited the stars, sun, and moon.
 In India, there is the narrative that gods sacrificed Purusha,
the primal man whose head, feet, eyes, and mind became
the sky, earth, sun, and moon respectively.
 The monotheistic religions of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
claim that a supreme being created the universe, including
man and other living organisms.
B. Scientific Thought
1. Big Bang Theory- states that the universe started
as a singularity that exploded. This explosion resulted
to the formation of all the matter in universe.
2. Steady State Theory- discusses that the universe
has always been there and will always be present.
3. Oscillating Universe Theory- discusses that the
universe is expanding and will contract once all the
energy after the Big Bang is used up. The collapsing
of the universe will then lead to the formation of a
new universe.
Study Guide
1.Do you think the universe has a beginning
or has it always existed? Explain your
2.What is the fate of the universe? Will the
universe continue to expand or will it
eventually contract because of gravity?
Lesson 2:
Origin of the Solar
A.The Solar System
 Just a part of the vast universe is our solar system. It is located
somewhere in Milky Way Galaxy. It consists of the sun being at the
center, minor and major planets and other celestial bodies like satellites,
comets, asteroids and meteoroids.
 Age of Solar System is at 4.6 billion years old based on radioactive
dating of meteorites (Solar System is much younger than the Universe);
 As the currently accepted theory of the origin and evolution of the
universe, the Big Bang Theory postulates that 13.8 billion years ago, the
universe expanded from a tiny, dense and hot mass to its present size
and much cooler state.
Keep in mind the guide
1. Where do you think is the mass of the Solar System
2. How will you describe the shape of the orbit of the
3. Where do planets move around? How do they move,
clockwise or counter clockwise?
4. Do all planets revolve at the same rate? rotate at the
same rate?
5. What’s the difference between prograde and
B. Features of Solar System

1. Large Scale Features of the Solar System

 Much of the mass of the Solar System is concentrated at the
center (Sun)
 Orbits of the planets elliptical and are on the same plane.
 All planets revolve around the sun.
 The periods of revolution of the planets increase with
increasing distance from the Sun; the innermost planet
moves fastest, the outermost, the slowest;
B. Features of Solar System

2. Small scale features of the Solar System

 Most planets rotate prograde
 Inner terrestrial planets are made of materials with high melting
points such as silicates, iron ,and nickel. They rotate slower, have thin
or no atmosphere, higher densities, and lower contents of volatiles -
hydrogen, helium, and noble gases.
 The outer four planets - Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are called
"gas giants" because of the dominance of gases and their larger size.
They rotate faster, have thick atmosphere, lower densities, and fluid
interiors rich in hydrogen, helium and ices (water, ammonia,
Theories Explaining the
Origin of the Solar System
1. Nebular theory-explains that the solar system originated from a
nebula – a gas cloud made up of hydrogen particles. Before the
nebula is stable, it is believed that a nearby supernova resulted in the
disruption of a nebula. This disruption created areas of high density,
and as these areas were formed, gravity acted, pulling other materials
to it. The denser the nebula became, the more heat it produced that
resulted in the formation of the Sun. The Sun forms, the remaining
particles that were not sucked up by the Sun formed as rings. These
rings of particles rotated and combined to form planets.
2. Encounter Theory-explains that the solar
system formed as a result of a near collision
between a passing star and the Sun. As the
star passes near the Sun, the materials of both
the Sun and the star were drawn out. The
interaction from the gravity of the passing star
and the Sun led to the formation of the planets
in the solar system.
3. Protoplanet Theory- is a modified version of the nebular
hypothesis stating that the Solar System started from a nebula that
was disrupted which led to the formation of protoplanets. A nebula
consist of hydrogen, helium and lithium. According to this theory,
the time when the sun about to form (protosun), a large body
passing around it may have drawn some gaseous materials from it.
Keep in mind the guide
1. Where do you think is the mass of the Solar System
2. How will you describe the shape of the orbit of the
3. Where do planets move around? How do they move,
clockwise or counter clockwise?
4. Do all planets revolve at the same rate? rotate at the
same rate?
5. What’s the difference between prograde and
Study Guide
1. After learning about the theories explaining the origin of
the solar system, what theory do you believe the most?
Explain your answer.
Lesson 3: Earth’s
rties Necessary to
Support Life
Earth is the only planet in the solar
system capable of supporting life. Complex
and brilliant combination of gases,
composition and structure of earth are some
of the reasons why it can sustain life.
1. Temperature- influences how quickly atoms and
molecules move.
2. Atmosphere-composed of important gases necessary to
3. Energy- a medium for growth of all kinds of vegetation.
4. Nutrients- used to build and maintain an organism’s body.
5. Water- metabolism of living organism, household uses,
Study Guide
1. Describe Earth as a habitable planet.
1. Atmosphere- makes up of all the gases
on Earth. It extends outward about 10 000
km from the surface of the Earth. A very
huge envelope of air that surrounds the
earth and pulled by the gravitational force
of the earth. The earth’s atmosphere is
primarily composed of 78 percent nitrogen
and 21 percent of oxygen. Other gases like
argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide,
ozone, hydrogen, helium and other inert
gases make up the remaining 1 percent.
2. Lithosphere- describes all of the rocks, minerals
and ground that are found on and in Earth. This
includes all of the mountains on the surface, as well
as all of the liquid rock in the mantle below us and the
minerals and metals of the outer and inner cores. The
continents, the ocean floor, all of the rocks on the
surface, and all of the sand in the deserts are all
considered part of the geosphere. Basically, if it looks
like solid ground, it's part of the 'ground' sphere.
3. Hydrosphere- Planet Earth has been
called the "Blue Planet" due to the
abundant water on its surface Over 70
percent of the surface area of the earth is
covered by water. All the earth’s water, solid
or in liquid form, those that are contained in
glaciers, rocks, soil and the air, comprise
4. Biosphere- is where all forms of life exist. Since
life exist in the air, in water and on the ground, its
boundaries overlap other “sphere” because life can
be found everywhere on earth. The biosphere is
sometimes thought of as one large ecosystem — a
complex community of living and nonliving things
functioning as a single unit.
Study Guide
How do the different
interrelated with each
Lesson 5: Current Advancements/
Information about the Solar
1. Pluto’s Status- In 1930, Clyde
Tombaugh discovered Pluto as the
ninth planet in the solar system.
However, the discovery of Kuiper Belt
(an area after Neptune that contains
asteroids, comets, and other celestial
bodies) questioned the status of
Pluto as a planet.
2.Planet X-recent observations by two
astronomers, Mike Brown and Konstantin
Batygin, led to the speculation that a ninth
planet is present in our solar system. They
discovered six clustered objects in the Kuiper Belt
and stated that this clustering is due to the
presence of a planet enough to put them in place.
Calculations and observations have been done to
claim that a Planet X exists. However, other
astronomers stated that until it is seen, the claim
for the ninth planet in our solar system is still in
3. Mars Rover Mission- Since 1970s, NASA has been
deploying Mars Exploration Rovers to examine the nearest planet
to Earth, Mars. They examined materials of Mars’ lithosphere and
assessed if the weather condition is viable for the survival of life.
Its mission was focused on the physical characteristics of the
planet. It aimed to collect data on how the planet formed its rocks
and soil and whether or not water has been responsible for the
weathering and erosion of rocks. The rovers examined the rocks
and analyzed that it had sedimentary rocks that can be formed if
rocks are soaked for a long time in the water. Based on the data
collected, scientists believe that Mars had water in the past, and
this water sustained some microorganisms. Since January 2014,
rovers started digging for fossilized evidence of ancient life.
4. Mars One Program-The Mars One
Program aims to land the first humans on Mars
and establish a human colony on that planet by
2027. In 2014, the program chose astronauts
that will be sent to Mars. Plans of landing rovers
and establishing communication satellites were
also formulated. The target is that by the year
2022, the first crew will start its travel to Mars
and will reach it after a year, and by 2035, the
colony will have twenty crew and will be able to
sustain itself.
5. Titan’s Water- Titan is Saturn’s largest
moon. Astronomers studying the Titan’s composition
lead to the discovery that liquid substance is present
on the moon in the form of liquid methane. The
discovery of Titan has been a breakthrough since it is
the only known celestial body in our solar system that
has liquid substance on it, aside from Earth. It was
also discovered that the Titan is undergoing chemical
processes, the same processes that the Early Earth
have undergone. If the Sun became large enough, it
will receive the same amount of solar energy we are
receiving, thus, making the possibility for life’s
survival possible.
Study Guide
What are the things you
are looking forward to
be discovered in our
Lesson 6:
Contributions of
on the
Understanding of
1. James Hutton
2. Alexander von Humboldt,
3. Vladimir Vernadsky,
4. James Lovelock, and
5. Lynn Margulis
1. James Hutton
 The father of modern geology, was a Scottish farmer and
 It was in farming that he observed how land was shaped by
destructive forces of wind and erosion
 He described how the Earth was formed in a repeated cycle of
erosion and sedimentation, with heat from volcanic activity as
the driving force.
 He also introduced the concept of uniformitarianism, implying
that the geological forces, in the past are the same as those in
the present. (Earth is a changing place)
2. Alexander von Humboldt
A 19th-century geographer, laid the foundations for Earth System
Science by his holistic observations of nature.
He, together with his colleagues, traveled to America; collected
botanical, zoological, and geological specimens; recorded the
location of the specimens where they were found; and performed
atmospheric and geophysical measurements.
From his records, he recognized patterns that reveal underlying
processes, such as the transport of heat in ocean currents and the
influence of temperature on plants.
3. Vladimir Vernadsky
One of the founders of geochemistry.
Popularized the term noosphere- a sphere of human
In his theory of Earth development, he stated that geosphere
was the first phase of the Earth that was developed. The second
phase was the biosphere or biological life. The emergence of life
on Earth transformed the geosphere. Then the noosphere, the
sphere of human consciousness, is the third phase. The
development of human cognition then transformed the
4. James Lovelock
A British environmentalist, proposed the Gaia
hypothesis, which postulates that the Earth works as
a self-regulating system. He stated that the living
organisms co-evolve with nonliving things in the
environment to form a synergistic, self-regulating
system where life is maintained and perpetuated.
5. Lynn Margulis
An evolutionary theorist, further developed Lovelock’s Gaia
Noticed that all kinds of bacteria give off gases and thought that
atmospheric gases were from biological sources. She
collaborated with Lovelock and published a paper on how life
regulates the temperature and chemical composition of the soil
and the atmosphere.