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• It is the process of expressing one’s ideas,

thoughts, feelings, expressions, emotions,

language, knowledge etc.

• The process may involve Transaction,

exchange, and sharing. Communication is the
base of human existence.

Communication can also be understood as an exchange of meaning and understanding.

Meaning is central to communication, and transmission of meaning is the central
objective of communication.
• Communication is a dynamic interactive
process that involves the effective
transmission of facts, ideas, thoughts, feelings,
and values.

• It is not passive.

It does not just happen; we actively and consciously engage in communication

in order to develop the information and understanding required for effective
group functioning. It is dynamic because it involves a variety of forces and
activities interacting over a period of time.
• Oral communication is a branch of
communication which includes face to face
conversation, radio broadcasts, interviews,
group discussions, meeting and seminars.

Studies show that the attitude of the audience is mostly formed on the
basis of 7% content, 38% tone and inflection of voice and 56% body
“Oral Language is the child’s first, most important,
and most frequently used structured medium of
communication. It is the primary means through
which each individual child will be enabled to
structure, to evaluate, to describe and to control
his/her experience. In addition, and most
significantly, oral language is the primary mediator
of culture, the way in which children locate
themselves in the world, and define themselves with
it and within it” (Cregan, 1998, as cited in Archer,
Cregan, McGough, Shiel, 2012)

Starting from the child’s cry which the first communication by any human
being. Communication is present in Home. It spreads out to society (the people
with whom we live and share our experiences on a daily basis).
• Camp and Satterwhite (2002) explained that
oral communication is a two-way process that
requires both a speaker and a listener. It is
most effective when the sender of a message
has good speaking skills and the receiver has
good listening skills.

The way you use oral communication skills can either help or hinder your ability
to influence. Teachers, professors, doctors, sales people, corporate management
personnel, trainers and politicians make use of this skill extensively. Clearly,
mastery of oral communication skills can play a vital role in helping you achieve
• Wood (2009) lists three principles that explain
oral communication and how they affect us.
The fourth, concerning speech quality, is
obtained from Camp & Satterwhite (2002).
1. Interpretation of Symbols Create
1. Interpretation of Symbols Create
• Symbols, like words, which are used in
communication do not have meanings on
their own. Their meanings are derived from
• This means that you have to look into people
to uncover the meaning.
• the meanings attached to words change from
time to time. Words which used to have a
positive or neutral connotation may now have
a negative connotation, and vice-versa

The word “gay” used to mean “merry”. Nowadays, the same word may be
used to refer to people who are homosexuals.
“go out”
• Every word has a dictionary meaning but
when used by a person in an expression, you
have to look into the person and the context
in which the word is used to get the actual

“go out” is literally a command or directive. You say these words when you
want someone to physically move from the inside of a building to the
outside. However, if a man says to a woman, “Let’s go out” he is not
necessarily asking her to go outside. He might actually be asking her to go on
a date.
2. There Are Rules in Communication
2. There Are Rules in Communication
• “Communication rules are shared
understandings of what communication
means and what kinds of communication are
and are not appropriate in various situations”
(Wood, 2009).

A. Regulative Rules
B. Constitutive Rules
A. Regulative Rules

• These unwritten rules tell you when, where,

how and with whom
you can have a conversation.

• Example: TURN-TAKING

An example is turn-taking when talking with someone. You know that

you should not interrupt the person speaking but you also need to look
out for signals that will tell you when to enter into a conversation and
when to end it.
• Regulative rules also define when, where, and
with whom you can communicate in a
particular way.
Example: The elders speak first while the
youngsters listen without interruption or
At work, junior officers are expected not to interrupt superior officers when
they speak. However, superior officers can interrupt their junior officer any
time. Employees are also expected to show respect and interest when their
employers speak to them.
B. Constitutive Rules
It define what communication means by
showing us the meaning behind certain kinds of
symbols used in communication

Example: bowing of head – symbol of respect

kissing and hugging – denotes love and affection
Yawning and shouting – denotes rudeness
Another example of a constitutive rule is to clap after a speaker has given a
talk even though we may have found the talk absolutely boring.
Building Friendships
• Socially, good oral communication skills
enable you to effectively share information,
thoughts, feelings, needs and intentions. You
can create close relationships and bond with
family, friends and people at work
A good listener is almost always appreciated. If
you are a good listener, you also tend to win
friends as most people regard someone who
listens to their problems, fears, joys, and
successes as a true friend.
Knowledge Acquisition
• The learning process often requires you to
have an inquiring mind. Good oral
communication skills will help you acquire
knowledge more effectively, especially when
you are able to ask questions, express
opinions and ideas, and summarise

Providing such feedback will enable your lecturers, teachers, or

instructors to gauge how well you understand what has been taught.
Good listening skills will also help you comprehend course content better.
Developing Workplace Competencies
• Professionals depend a lot on oral
communication skills when they engage in
different activities.

Speaking is an important skill when interviewing or training new

employees, participating in social-business discussions and giving public
presentations or speeches.

Listening is important for both employers and employees. As an

employer, you need to listen to the suggestions, complaints and feelings
of your employees. Conversely, an employee needs to listen to the
instructions, demands and advice given by his superiors at work.
• Educationists deliver lectures and hold tutorials,
discussions, forums and seminars.

• Business people use oral communication skills a

great deal when they interact with customers and
suppliers, make reports or give explanations,
participate in meetings, and hold informal
discussions with employers and employees.
Though we mention lots of advantages of oral communication in
many situation people do not prefer oral communication for its
limitations. Oral communication suffers from various drawbacks
or limitations.
• In oral communication, messages are not
preserved and hence they are not found in the
record book.

These messages cannot be retrieved in future.

• Misunderstanding
Due to limitations of human memory, oral
messages cannot be kept in mind in full

Because of inattentiveness in hearing the oral messages, the

communication will be barred.
• Lack of accuracy
There is every possibility of inaccurate
message to reach to the destination.

It may be because of noise or the receiver forgets part or whole message.

• Confused Speech
If a receiver of the message has hearing
problem, then the purpose of oral
communication becomes difficult to be

Partial hearing will obviously produce partial communication. As a result,

there will be confusion among all parties involved in a communication.
• More importance given on presenting the
In oral communication, a speaker always tries
to be a good speaker.

So, naturally communicator gives more importance on presenting

the messages with style. As a result, important messages can be