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Mariano Marcos State University

College of Teacher Education

Laoag City

(Bio Chem)

Prepared by:
Stharla Jane Escobar
Claire Abalos
Mariel Dy-Anne Quetulio
(BSEd III-C Bio Sci)
Group 6

Prof. Aleli Martin

What are enzymes?

• Enzymes are proteins that have catalytic

functions indispensable to maintenance
and activity of life.
• All chemical reactions occurring in a living
organism are dependent on the catalytic
actions of enzymes, and this is why
enzymes are called Biotransformation.
• Most enzymes are specific for
substrates while enzymes involved in
digestion, such as papain attack
many substrates.
Functions of Enzymes
Catalysts for Change
• speed up the rate at which reactants interact
to form products in a chemical reaction, while
not being consumed in the reaction.
• physically combine chemical reactants in a
way that lowers the energy required for
bonds to break and new bonds to form,
making the formation of a product much
• lower what is called the activation energy of
the reaction, or the amount of energy
required for a hybrid of the reactants and
products to form.
Making Energy
• ATP is a charged battery that can be
discharged to release energy that powers
the movement of enzymes.

• Enzymes are also required to make ATP,

however. The main enzyme that produces
ATP is called ATP Synthase, which is part of
the electron transport chain in the
mitochondria of cells
Molecular Motors
• Enzymes are the protein machines that
perform the day-to-day functions within
cells. They deliver packages from one part of
the cell to another.
• Common motor proteins are myosins,
kinesins and dyneins. These families of motor
proteins catalyze the breakage of ATP into
ADP (adenosine diphoshphate) to get the
energy they need to do their grunt work.
Breaking and Building
• Breaking molecules(fats, sugar,.etc.) down
into smaller parts is called catabolism,
while building new molecules from these
recycled smaller parts is called anabolism.
• Energy sources such as glucose, a simple
sugar, store a lot of energy. But the cell
cannot access that energy to make ATP
unless it is able to break the bonds within
the glucose molecule.
Types of Enzymes by Function
• Enzymes are usually grouped according to the kind of
reaction they catalyze, not by their structures
Activators and Inhibitors
• Enzyme activators are molecules that bind to
enzymes and increase their activity. They are the
opposite of enzyme inhibitors. These molecules are
often involved in the allosteric regulation of
enzymes in the control of metabolism. An example
of an enzyme activator working in this way is
fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, which activates
phosphofructokinase 1 and increases the rate of
glycolysis in response to the hormone insulin In some
cases, when a substrate binds to one catalytic
subunit of an enzyme, this can trigger an increase in
the substrate affinity as well as catalytic activity in
the enzyme's other subunits, and thus the substrate
acts as an activator.
• Enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to
an enzyme and decreases its activity. Since
blocking an enzyme's activity can kill a
pathogen or correct a metabolic imbalance,
many drugs are enzyme inhibitors. They are
also used in pesticides. Not all molecules that
bind to enzymes are inhibitors; enzyme
activators bind to enzymes and increase their
enzymatic activity, while enzyme substrates
bind and are converted to products in the
normal catalytic cycle of the enzyme.
Enzyme Activity
Factors affecting Enzyme Activity
The activity of an Enzyme is affected
by its environmental conditions. Changing
these alter the rate of reaction caused by
the enzyme. In nature,
organisms adjust the conditions of their
enzymes to produce an Optimum rate of
reaction, where necessary, or they may
have enzymes which
are adapted to function well in extreme
conditions where they live.
• Increasing temperature increases the Kinetic
Energy that molecules possess. In a fluid, this means that
there are more random collisions between molecules per
unit time.
• Since enzymes catalyse reactions by randomly
colliding with Substrate molecules, increasing temperature
increases the rate of reaction, forming more product.
• However, increasing
temperature also increases the Vibrational Energy that
molecules have, specifically in this case enzyme molecules,
which puts strain on the bonds that hold them together.
• As temperature increases, more bonds, especially
the weaker Hydrogen and Ionic bonds, will break as a
result of this strain. Breaking bonds within
the enzyme will cause the Active Site to change shape.
• This change in shape means that the Active
Site is less Complementary to the shape of
the Substrate, so that it is less likely to catalyse the
reaction. Eventually, the enzyme will
become Denatured and will no longer function.
• As temperature increases, more enzymes'
molecules' Active Sites' shapes will be less
Complementary to the shape of their Substrate,
and more enzymes will be Denatured. This
will decrease the rate of reaction.
• In summary, as temperature
increases, initially the rate of reaction will
increase, because of increased Kinetic Energy.
However, the effect of bond breaking will
become greater and greater, and the rate of
reaction will begin to decrease.
The temperature at which the maximum rate of
reaction occurs is called the enzyme's Optimum
Temperature. This is different for different enzymes. Most
enzymes in the human body have an Optimum
Temperature of around 37.0 °C.
pH - Acidity and Basicity
• pH measures the Acidity and Basicity of a solution. It is a
measure of theHydrogen Ion (H+) concentration, and
therefore a good indicator of theHydroxide Ion (OH-)
concentration. It ranges from pH1 to pH14. Lower
pH values mean higher H+ concentrations and lower OH-
• Acid solutions have pH values below 7,
and Basic solutions (alkalis are bases) have pH
values above 7. Deionised water is pH7, which is termed
• H+ and OH- Ions are charged and
therefore interfere with Hydrogen andIonic bonds
that hold together an enzyme, since they will
be attracted orrepelled by the charges created by the
bonds. This interference causes achange in shape of
the enzyme, and importantly, its Active Site.
• Different enzymes have different Optimum pH
values. This is the pH value at which the bonds
within them are influenced by H+ and OH- Ions
in such a way that the shape of their Active
Site is the most Complementary to the shape of
their Substrate. At the Optimum pH, therate of
reaction is at an optimum.
• Any change in pH above or below the Optimum
will quickly cause adecrease in the rate of
reaction, since more of the enzyme molecules
will have Active Sites whose shapes are not (or at
least are less)Complementary to the shape of
their Substrate.
•Small changes in pH above or below the Optimum do not cause
apermanent change to the enzyme, since the bonds can
be reformed. However, extreme changes in pH can cause enzymes
to Denature andpermanently lose their function.
•Enzymes in different locations have different Optimum pH values
since their environmental conditions may be different. For
example, the enzyme Pepsin functions best at around pH2 and is
found in the stomach, which contains Hydrochloric Acid (pH2).
• Changing the Enzyme and Substrate concentrations affect
the rate of reaction of an enzyme-catalysed
reaction. Controlling these factors in a cell is one way that an
organism regulates its enzyme activity and so its Metabolism.
• Changing the concentration of a substance only affects the rate
of reaction if it is the limiting factor: that is, it the factor that
is stopping a reaction from preceding at a higher rate.
• If it is the limiting factor, increasing
concentration will increase the rate of reaction up to a point,
after which any increase will not affect the rate of reaction.
This is because it will no longer be the limiting factor
and another factor will be limiting the maximum rate of
• As a reaction proceeds, the rate of reaction will decrease, since
the Substrate will get used up. The highest rate of reaction,
known as the Initial Reaction Rate is the maximum reaction
rate for an enzyme in an experimental situation
Substrate Concentration
• Increasing Substrate Concentration increases the rate of reaction.
This is because more substrate molecules will
be colliding with enzyme molecules, so more product will be formed.
• However, after a certain concentration, any increase will have no
effecton the rate of reaction, since Substrate Concentration will no
longer be the limiting factor. The enzymes will effectively
become saturated, and will be working at their maximum possible
Enzyme Concentration
• Increasing Enzyme
Concentration will increase the rate of reaction, asmore
enzymes will be colliding with substrate molecules.
• However, this too will only have an effect up to a certain
concentration, where the Enzyme Concentration is no
longer the limiting factor.
Multiple Uses of Enzymes
1 Enzymes used to treat disorders:
– Enzymes are used in three cases here
a) To break the internal blood clots.
b) To dissolve the hardening of walls of blood vessels.
c) To dissolve the wound swelling to promote healing.
– In some disorders like low blood pressure, or head or
spinal injuries, there are chances of formation of blood
clots. These clots lead to obstruction of blood flow to the
target organ. This can be life threatening if it is in the
brain or heart which require constant supply of oxygen
and energy. The only way out then is to dissolve the clots.
– These clots are usually removed by dissolution by enzymes
that can break them.
– Examples of such enzymes like Streptokinase,
2 Enzymes used to assist metabolism:
In old or geriatric patients, the digestive
capacity is low due to insufficient secretion of
digestive enzymes. Hence their digestive system
cannot digest food materials efficiently. In such
cases they can experience malnutrition,
constipation, bloating etc. To aid
digestion, enzymes like Papain are
administered orally after food for easier
3 Enzymes used to assist drug delivery:
Some drugs need to penetrate deeper tissues for
better action. For this some enzymes are used along
with drugs in intra-muscular injection forms to help
proper penetration of tissues. One of the such enzyme
is Hyaluronidase.
This is a natural human enzyme present in human
sperm to help sperm penetrate uterine tissue
and fertilize with ova. Here the same enzyme is
manufactured by rDNA technology and administered
along with drugs to enable efficient drug delivery to
the target site.
4 Enzymes to diagnose disorders:
Enzymes of liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, heart
etc leak into blood during related disorders.
Measuring the levels of the corresponding enzyme
for their presence in high or low levels in blood
indicates the specific disorder.
• Ex: Creatine kinase for muscle weakness and injury.

5 Enzymes used in manufacture of medicines:

Immobilized enzymes are used in manufacture
of many drugs and anti-biotic. This is possible as
enzymes convert the pro-drug molecules to drugs or
starting material to drugs. Also steroidal drugs are
manufactured by enzyme action on plant steroids.
Enzymes are used in few industries for
different purposes like improvement in
product, ease of production etc.
Uses of enzymes in food industry is to process
carbohydrates, proteins & fats. The chief enzymes in food
processing include:

1) Amylase, lactases, cellulases are enzymes used to break

complex sugars into simple sugars. They are used to mainly
breakdown starch and cellulose into simple sugars like
glucose. Lactase is enzymes used to break lactose sugars
from foods as lactose can be intolerant to some people.
2) Pectinase like enzymes which act on hard pectin is used
in fruit juice manufacture. Pectinase breaks pectin
making juice less viscous.
3) Lipase enzymes act on lipids to break them in fatty
acids and glycerol. This can be used in baking industry. Yet
fatty acids and glycerol obtained can be used
in making soaps.

Leather is obtained from skin of animals. The

leather after being removed becomes hard due to
denaturation of proteins and also the fats present in
it. To obtain smooth and soft leather one need to
remove the hair on the skin and also these proteins
and fats in between the leather. This can be done by
using enzymes like proteases and lipases.

• Cloth or textile are made of mostly cotton, wool or

synthetic polymers. Natural cotton fabric are not as
smooth and glossy. To give them smoothness and
glossy appearance, enzymes like cellulase are used.
Further the fabric size or thread thickness is
controlled by treating with these amylase enzymes.
• Catalase is used to remove any hydrogen peroxide
residues after bleaching.

• Clothes get soiled by stains of protein, oil or other

substances. To remove these hard stains besides
lather forming soap, some enzymes are
incorporated in detergents.
• Protease enzymes are used to remove stains
of protein nature like blood, sweat etc.
• Lipases are used to remove stains f grease, oils,
butter etc.
• Amylase is enzyme which can
break carbohydrate stains like that of a chocolate,
curries etc.
• more information can be had at industry enzymes