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• Functions of Transmission
– To provide a means to vary the torque ratio by set of gears
between the engine and the road wheels as required. That is to
provide the high torque at the time of starting, hill climbing,
accelerating and pulling a load since high tractive effort is
– It permits engine crankshaft to rotate at high speed, while the
wheels turn at slower speeds and Vehicle speed can be changed
keeping engine speed same with certain limit
– To provide a neutral position so that the engine and road wheel
are disconnected even with the clutch is in engaged position
– To provide a means of reverse the car by reversing the direction
of rotation of the drive.
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Necessity of Transmission
• To vary the torque to overcome the various resistance acting
against the vehicle motion at various speeds
• To vary the tractive effort of the vehicle available at various
speeds in order to overcome the various resistance
• to start the vehicle from rest, with the engine running
• To Stop the vehicle by disconnecting the drive when appropriate
• Total resistance consists of
– Wind resistance
– Gradient Resistance
– Rolling Resistance

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Necessity of Transmission
IV- level

1 Gear
Tractive Effort and Total Resistance

2nd Gear III- level

II- level
I- level

3rd Gear

o A B C
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Necessity of Transmission
• Let the vehicle is traveling on a top gear and the total resistance is
taken curve-I
– OB is the stabilizing speed
– The speed below OB (OA) give acceleration
– The speed beyond OB (OC) gives deceleration
• If the vehicle negotiate the curve-III obstacle
• The top gear curve does not cross curve-III, i.e the vehicle can not
go at this gear to overcome the give resistance
• If the gear shifted to the 2nd gear
– OA is the stabilizing speed
• Similarly with the 2nd gear not possible to negotiate the curve-IV
resistance, for which the 1st gear has to be selected
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Gearbox Designs
Calculation of Gear Ratios
The speed and traction equations can be used to calculate the gear
ratios of a gearbox as well as vehicle performance.
Theoretically the engine should work at its maximum power to
have the best performance.
All automotive transmissions are equipped with:
 a varied number of forward speed gears,
 a neutral gear, and
 one reverse speed.

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Overdrive: reduces engine speed at a given vehicle speed, which
increases top speed, improves fuel economy, and lowers engine

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Selecting the gear ratios for the intermediate gears
• To  determine  the  middle  gear  ratios,  there  are  two 
recommended methods:
1. Geometric ratios
2. Progressive ratios
• The  method  for  selecting  the  gear  ratios  for  the  intermediate 
gears between the highest and the lowest is, to a great extent, 
dependent upon the type of vehicle.
• For heavy commercial vehicles, the gear ratios are usually 
arranged in a geometric ratio. 
– The basis for this is to have the engine operating within the 
same speed range in each gear. 
– This  would  ensure  that  in  each  gear,  the  operating  fuel 
economy is similar. 
• For  instance,  for  a  four­speed  gearbox,  the  following 
relationship can be established: 

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•  If the ratio of the highest gear ξn, and that of the lowest 
gear ξ1, have been determined, and the number of speeds 
in  the  gearbox  ng,  is  known,  the  factor  Kg  can  be 
determined by:

Selection of gear ratio based on geometric progression rule.

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1. Consider the working range for the engine is between 2600 rpm
and 5000 rpm. The differential of the vehicle uses nd = 4, and the
effective tire radius is rw = 0.326 m. We like to design a three-gear
geometric gearbox having overall efficiency of 84%. We assume
that the total resistance force is constant, and the engine cannot
accelerate the car at Vx = 180 km/hr anymore.
2. Calculate the gearbox and final drive ratios for a vehicle from the
given data. Maximum engine torque is 105.2 Nm at 2100 rpm.
Maximum power is 37.3 kW at 4000 rpm, giving a maximum road
speed of 130 km/h. The rolling radius of road wheels is 0.366 m.
Transmission efficiency is 90% and the maximum tractive
resistance is 4890 N.

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3. Sketch a section through which a constant mesh gear box with four
speed and explain how the different gear ratios will be obtained in
the following cases.
– Gear ratios on top gear 1:1
– Gear ratios on 3rd gear 1.38:1
– Gear ratios on 2nd gear 2.24:1
– Gear ratios on 1st gear 3.8:1
• Assume countershaft speed is half that of the engine speed and
smallest gear is not to have less than 15 teeth.

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 A gear train is two or more gear working together by meshing their teeth and
turning each other in a system to generate power and speed.
 It reduces or increases speed and torque
 Types of gear train:
a) Simple gear train
b) Compound gear train
c) Planetary gear train
d) Riveted Gear train
 For any gear, the pitch diameter is
proportional to the number of teeth (T)
 The speeds of the gears are inversely
related to the diameter.
 Torque is proportional to pitch diameter

= - = - =- Number of Out put Gear teeth

GearRatio 
Number of input Gear teeth

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1. Simple Gear Train
 The most common of the gear train is the gear pair connecting parallel
shafts. The teeth of this type can be spur or helical .
 Only one gear may rotate about a single axis Input shaft
Driven gear =
10 teeth

Gear ratio = 2:1 Output shaft Driving

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Simple gear train
• When  there  is  only  one  gear  on  each  shaft  as  shown  in 
figure below it is known as simple gear train.

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2. Compound Gear Train
 For large velocities, compound arrangement is preferred
 Two or more gears may rotate about a single axis
• Multiple simple gear trains in series
• Each set of gears generates an individual ratio

• Multiply individual ratios together to work out overall ratio.

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Compound Gear Ratios

Compound Gear ratio = *

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Compound gear train

• When there is more than one gear on a shaft as shown in figure below it 
is called a compound train of gear.

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3. Reverted Gear Train

When the axes of the first driver

and the last driven are co-axial,
then the gear train is known as
reverted gear train.
 In a reverted gear train, the
motion of the first gear and the last
gear is same.
Since the distance between the
centers of the shaft of gears 1 & 2
as well as gears 3 & 4 is same:
r1+r2 = r3+r4

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Reverted gear train

• Also circular pitch or module of all the

gears is assumed to be same, therefore
number of teeth on each gear is
directly proportional to its
circumference or radius.

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• The speed ratio of the reverted gear train as shown in figure

below, is to be 12. the module pitch of gears A & B is 3.125mm
and of gears C & D is 2.5mm. Calculate the suitable numbers of
teeth for the gears.

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4. Epicyclic gear train
 Epi means Upon and
 Cyclic means Around.
• In epicyclic gear train the axis of the shafts over which the gears
are mounted may move relative to a fixed axis.
• The epicyclic gear trains may be simple or compound.
• The epicyclic gear trains are useful for transmitting high velocity
ratios with gears of moderate size in a comparatively lesser space.
• They are used in Lathe, Automatic transmission, differentials and
pulley blocks etc.

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Simple Epicyclic gear train

• Planetary Gear Set

– Is  a  serious  of  interconnecting 
gears consisting: 
 Sun Gear
 Several  Planetary  pinion 
 Ring Gear
 Carrier: connecting the pinion 
gears to the ring gear

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Simple planetary gear operation
Power Power
Held Rotational direction
input output Speed Torque
Sun gear Carrier Reduced Increased The same direction
Ring gear
Carrier Sun gear Increased Reduced as drive member
Ring gear Carrier Reduced Increased The same direction
Sun gear
Carrier Ring gear Increased Reduced as drive member
Sun gear Ring gear Reduced Increased Opposite direction as
Ring gear Sun gear Increased Reduced drive member

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• The gearing of machine tool is shown as figure below. The 
motor  shaft  is  connected  to  gear  A  and  rotates  at  975 
rpm.  The  gear  wheels  B,C,D  and  E  are  fixed  to  parallel 
shaft. Determine the speed of gear F. the number of teeth 
on each gear are shown as table below.

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1. If number of ring gear teeth is 56 and sun gear is 24, 
determine  gear  ratio  when the  sun  gear  is  fixed and 
ring gear operates as the input member .
2. Based on question number 1, calculate the gear ratio 
when  carrier  is  used  as  input  member  and  the  ring 
gear is the output member.

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4. An Epicyclic gear train has sun and annulus gears with 28
and 56 teeth respectively. If the input speed from the
engine drives the sun shaft at 3000 rev/min, determine
– (a) the number of planet-gear teeth,
– (b) the overall gear ratio, and
– (c) the pinion carrier-shaft output speed.

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(a) the number of planet-gear teeth
 TA  TS 
TP   
 2 
 56  28  28
   14 Teeth
 2  2

(b) the overall gear ratio

N S Z C Z S  2Z P
GR   
 28  56  84
GR     3 :1
 28  28

(c) the pinion carrier-shaft output speed

NS N S 3000
GR   NC    1000rpm
NC GR 3 34