# Seventh Edition

2

CHAPTER

VECTOR MECHANICS FOR ENGINEERS:

STATICS
Ferdinand P. Beer E. Russell Johnston, Jr. Lecture Notes: J. Walt Oler Texas Tech University

Statics of Particles

© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reser

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Contents
• • • • • • • • • Introduction • Resultant of Two Forces • Vectors • Addition of Vectors • Resultant of Several Concurrent Forces • Sample Problem 2.1 Sample Problem 2.3 Equilibrium of a Particle Free-Body Diagrams Sample Problem 2.4 Sample Problem 2.6 Rectangular Components in Space Rectangular Components of a Force: Unit Vectors Addition of Forces by Summing Components

Seventh Edition

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Introduction
• The objective for the current chapter is to investigate the effects of forces on particles: - replacing multiple forces acting on a particle with a single equivalent or resultant force, - relations between forces acting on a particle that is in a state of equilibrium. • The focus on particles does not imply a restriction to miniscule bodies. Rather, the study is restricted to analyses in which the size and shape of the bodies is not significant so that all forces may be assumed to be applied at a single point.

Seventh Edition

magnitude. and sense.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Resultant of Two Forces • force: action of one body on another. All rights reserved. • Force is a vector quantity. Inc. Seventh Edition • Experimental evidence shows that the combined effect of two forces may be represented by a single resultant force. characterized by its point of application. line of action. • The resultant is equivalent to the diagonal of a parallelogram which contains the two forces in adjacent legs. © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. .

accelerations. • Scalar: parameter possessing magnitude but not direction. • Equal vectors have the same magnitude and direction. . . velocities. Examples: displacements.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Vectors • Vector: parameter possessing magnitude and direction which add according to the parallelogram law. • Negative vector of a given vector has the same magnitude and the opposite direction. Examples: mass. Inc. .Fixed or bound vectors have well defined points of application that cannot be changed without affecting an analysis. temperature • Vector classifications: . Seventh Edition © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. volume.Sliding vectors may be applied anywhere along their line of action without affecting an analysis. All rights reserved.Free vectors may be freely moved in space without changing their effect on an analysis.

Inc. . sin A sin B sin C = = Q R A • Vector addition is commutative. C B C Seventh Edition R 2 = P 2 + Q 2 − 2 PQ cos B    R = P+Q • Law of sines.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Addition of Vectors • Trapezoid rule for vector addition • Triangle rule for vector addition • Law of cosines.     P+Q = Q+ P • Vector subtraction B © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Addition of Vectors • Addition of three or more vectors through repeated application of the triangle rule Seventh Edition • The polygon rule for the addition of three or more vectors. • Vector addition is associative. All rights reserved.          P + Q + S = ( P + Q ) + S = P + (Q + S ) • Multiplication of a vector by a scalar © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. .

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Resultant of Several Concurrent Forces • Concurrent forces: set of forces which all pass through the same point. • Vector force components: two or more force vectors which. . All rights reserved. Seventh Edition © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. together. A set of concurrent forces applied to a particle may be replaced by a single resultant force which is the vector sum of the applied forces. Inc. have the same effect as a single force vector.

Determine their resultant. Inc. • Trigonometric solution .1 SOLUTION: • Graphical solution .use the triangle rule for vector addition in conjunction with the law of cosines and law of sines to find the resultant. . © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.construct a parallelogram with sides in the same direction as P and Q and lengths in proportion. Graphically evaluate the resultant which is equivalent in direction and proportional in magnitude to the the diagonal.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 2. Seventh Edition The two forces act on a bolt at A.

1 • Graphical solution . R = 98 N α = 35° © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. The magnitude and direction of the resultant or of the third side of the triangle are measured.A triangle is drawn with P and Q head-to-tail and to scale.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 2. The magnitude and direction of the resultant or of the diagonal to the parallelogram are measured. . All rights reserved.A parallelogram with sides equal to P and Q is drawn to scale. R = 98 N α = 35° Seventh Edition • Graphical solution .

73N Seventh Edition = sin 155° A = 15.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 2. From the Law of Cosines.04° α = 20° + A α = 35. Inc. .04° © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Apply the triangle rule. sin A sin B = Q R sin A = sin B Q R 60 N 97.1 • Trigonometric solution . All rights reserved.73N From the Law of Sines. R 2 = P 2 + Q 2 − 2 PQ cos B = ( 40 N ) 2 + ( 60 N ) 2 − 2( 40 N )( 60 N ) cos155° R = 97.

© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. • Find a trigonometric solution by applying If the resultant of the forces the Triangle Rule for vector addition. for α = 45o. All rights reserved. The parallelogram has sides in the directions of the two ropes and a diagonal in the direction of the barge axis and length proportional to 5000 lbf. determine sides parallel to the ropes. a) the tension in each of the ropes • The angle for minimum tension in rope 2 is determined by applying the Triangle Rule b) the value of α for which the and observing the effect of variations in α . tension in rope 2 is a minimum.2 SOLUTION: • Find a graphical solution by applying the Parallelogram Rule for vector addition.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 2. Inc. apply the Law of Sines to find the rope tensions. Seventh Edition A barge is pulled by two tugboats. . With exerted by the tugboats is 5000 lbf the magnitude and direction of the resultant directed along the axis of the known and the directions of the other two barge.

All rights reserved.Triangle Rule with Law of Sines T1 T2 5000 lbf = = sin 45° sin 30° sin 105° T1 = 3660 lbf © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. known directions for sides.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 2.2 Seventh Edition • Graphical solution . T2 = 2590 lbf . Inc. T1 = 3700 lbf T2 = 2600 lbf • Trigonometric solution .Parallelogram Rule with known resultant direction and magnitude.

T2 = ( 5000 lbf ) sin 30° T1 = ( 5000 lbf ) cos 30° T2 = 2500 lbf T1 = 4330 lbf Seventh Edition α = 90° − 30° α = 60° © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Inc. .Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 2.2 • The angle for minimum tension in rope 2 is determined by applying the Triangle Rule and observing the effect of variations in α . • The minimum tension in rope 2 occurs when T1 and T2 are perpendicular.

   F = Fx i + Fy j Seventh Edition  Fx and Fy are referred to as the scalar components of F © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. • Vector components may be expressed as products of the unit vectors with the scalar magnitudes of the vector components. All rights reserved. .Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Rectangular Components of a Force: Unit Vectors • May resolve a force vector into perpendicular components  that  resulting parallelogram is a so the rectangle. Fx and Fy are referred to as rectangular vector components and    F = Fx + Fy   • Define perpendicular unit vectors i and j which are parallel to the x and y axes. Inc.

Inc. 2 2 −1 R y R = Rx + R y θ = tan Rx © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Addition of Forces by Summing Components • Wish to find the resultant of 3 or more concurrent forces. .     R = P+Q+S • Resolve each force into rectangular components         R x i + R y j = Px i + Py j + Q x i + Q y j + S x i + S y j   = ( Px + Q x + S x ) i + Py + Q y + S y j Seventh Edition ( ) • The scalar components of the resultant are equal to the sum of the corresponding scalar components of the given forces. R y = Py + Q y + S y R x = Px + Q x + S x = ∑ Fx = ∑ Fy • To find the resultant magnitude and direction.

Four forces act on bolt A as shown. . Inc. • Calculate the magnitude and direction of the resultant. Seventh Edition © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. • Determine the components of the resultant by adding the corresponding force components.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 2. Determine the resultant of the force on the bolt.3 SOLUTION: • Resolve each force into rectangular components. All rights reserved.

force mag x − comp y − comp  F1 150 + 129.6 N Seventh Edition α = 4.32 14. R = 199.4 + 75.9 + 75.1 N R = 199.1 R y = +14. Inc.0  F4 100 + 96.3 • Determine the components of the resultant by adding the corresponding force components.0  F2 80 − 27.3 SOLUTION: • Resolve each force into rectangular components.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 2. All rights reserved.12 + 14. .3 N tan α = 199. • Calculate the magnitude and direction.2  F3 110 0 − 110.6 − 25.1° © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.9 R x = +199.

the particle will remain at rest or will continue at constant speed in a straight line.algebraic solution   R = ∑F = 0 ∑ Fx = 0 ∑ Fy = 0 © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.opposite sense • Particle acted upon by three or more forces: . the particle is in equilibrium. All rights reserved. .Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Equilibrium of a Particle • When the resultant of all forces acting on a particle is zero. Inc. Seventh Edition • Particle acted upon by two forces: .same line of action .graphical solution yields a closed polygon . • Newton’s First Law: If the resultant force on a particle is zero.equal magnitude .

All rights reserved. Inc. Free-Body Diagram: A sketch showing only the forces on the selected particle. © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. .Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Free-Body Diagrams Seventh Edition Space Diagram: A sketch showing the physical conditions of the problem.

All rights reserved. What is the tension in the rope? © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.4 SOLUTION: • Construct a free-body diagram for the particle at the junction of the rope and cable. Inc. . a 3500-lb automobile is supported by a cable. • Apply trigonometric relations to determine the unknown force magnitudes. • Apply the conditions for equilibrium by creating a closed polygon from the forces applied to the particle.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 2. Seventh Edition In a ship-unloading operation. A rope is tied to the cable and pulled to center the automobile over its intended position.

All rights reserved. • Apply the conditions for equilibrium. • Solve for the unknown force magnitudes. Inc. T AC T AB 3500 lb = = sin 120° sin 2° sin 58° T AB = 3570 lb T AC = 144 lb Seventh Edition © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.4 SOLUTION: • Construct a free-body diagram for the particle at A.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 2. .

Solve for the two unknown cable tensions. Inc. © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. Seventh Edition It is desired to determine the drag force at a given speed on a prototype sailboat hull. All rights reserved. • Resolve the vector equilibrium equation into two component equations. draw a free-body diagram.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 2. Determine the drag force exerted on the hull and the tension in cable AC. For a given speed. • Express the condition for equilibrium for the hull by writing that the sum of all forces must be zero.6 SOLUTION: • Choosing the hull as the free body. A model is placed in a test channel and three cables are used to align its bow on the channel centerline. the tension is 40 lb in cable AB and 60 lb in cable AE. .

     R = T AB + T AC + T AE + FD = 0 © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.375 4 ft β = 20.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 2. draw a free-body diagram.75 4 ft α = 60. .25° tan β = 1. Inc. All rights reserved.56° Seventh Edition • Express the condition for equilibrium for the hull by writing that the sum of all forces must be zero. tan α = 7 ft = 1.6 SOLUTION: • Choosing the hull as the free body.5 ft = 0.

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 2.9363 TAC j   T = −( 60 lb ) j   FD = FD i  R=0 Seventh Edition  = ( − 34.3512 TAC + FD ) i  + (19.73 + 0.56° i + TAC cos 20. Solve for the two unknown cable tensions.26° j   = −( 34. All rights reserved.56° j   = 0.    TAB = −( 40 lb ) sin 60.84 lb ) j    TAC = TAC sin 20.26° i + ( 40 lb ) cos 60. .73 lb ) i + (19. Inc.84 + 0.9363 TAC − 60 ) j © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.6 • Resolve the vector equilibrium equation into two component equations.3512 TAC i + 0.

All rights reserved.84 + 0.84 + 0.6  R=0  = ( − 34.3512 TAC + FD ( ∑ Fy = 0) 0 = 19.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Sample Problem 2.66 lb © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. .9 lb FD = +19.9363T AC − 60 ) j Seventh Edition This equation is satisfied only if each component of the resultant is equal to zero ( ∑ Fx = 0) 0 = −34.73 + 0. Inc.9363TAC − 60 T AC = +42.73 + 0.3512 T AC + FD ) i  + (19.

 • Resolve F into horizontal and vertical components. Inc. All rights reserved. Fy = F cosθ y Fh = F sin θ y • Resolve Fh into rectangular components Fx = Fh cos φ = F sin θ y cos φ Fy = Fh sin φ = F sin θ y sin φ © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Rectangular Components in Space Seventh Edition  • The vector F is contained in the plane OBAC. .

Fx = F cosθ x Fy = F cosθ y Fz = F cosθ z     F = Fx i + Fy j + Fz k    = F cosθ x i + cosθ y j + cosθ z k  = Fλ     λ = cosθ x i + cosθ y j + cosθ z k   • λ is a unit vector along the line of action of F and cosθ x . and cosθ zare the direction  cosines for F ( ) © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies.Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Rectangular Components in Space Seventh Edition  • With the angles between F and the axes. . All rights reserved. Inc. cosθ y .

Inc. y 2 . z1 ) and N ( x2 .Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics Rectangular Components in Space Direction of the force is defined by the location of two points. y1 . . z 2 )  d = vector joining M and N    = d xi + d y j + d z k d x = x2 − x1 d y = y 2 − y1 d z = z 2 − z1   F = Fλ   1   λ = d xi + d y j + d z k d Fd y Fd x Fd z Fx = Fy = Fz = d d d Seventh Edition ( ) © 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies. M ( x1 . All rights reserved.