Basic Life Support

Define :

Simpl

Breathing (respiratory arrest). . or severe bleeding). B.Prompt Basic Life Support is Essential for: A . C. A irw ay obstructions. Circulation (cardiac arrest.

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OPENING THE AIRWAY .

Look Listen Feel .

MOUTH-TO-MOUTH VENTILATION .

MOUTH-TO-NOSE VENTILATION .

FOREIGN BODY AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION .

Finger sweeps and manual removal of the object .

Abdominal Thrust Maneuver (The Heimlich maneuver) .

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ARTIFICIAL CIRCULATION IN ADULTS External chest compression .

The correct hand position for chest compression A B C D .

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5 to 2 inches .External chest compression is produced by vertical downward pressure through both extended arms to depress the adult sternum 1.

AIRWAY BREATHING CIRCULATION Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation .

DEFINE : CPR Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) consists of mouth-to-mouth or mouth-to-nose respiration and chest compression. CPR allows oxygenated blood to circulate to vital organs such as the brain and heart. CPR can keep a person alive until more advanced procedures (such as defibrillation . .an electric shock to the chest) can treat the cardiac arrest. CPR started by a bystander doubles the likelihood of survival for victims of cardiac arrest.

CPR SUMMARY One Rescuer (Ratio 15 : 2) Gives : 15 Compressions (rate : 80 to 100 per minute) then two breaths (1 1/2 seconds) Two Rescuer (Ratio 15 : 2) Gives : 15 Compressions (rate : 80 to 100 per minute) then two breath (1 1/2 seconds) Evaluation : Spontaneous carotid pulse (5 seconds) No pulse Sequence continues .

CPR with two rescuer .

BLEEDING .

External bleeding Internal bleeding If uncontrolled Shock Death .Bleeding = Hemorrhage of blood escaping from blood vessels.

Important! The average amount of blood in adult body is 6 liters The acute loss of over 10 percent of that circulating blood volume will cause shock In an adult In a child In an infant 600 ml 200 to 300 ml 25 or 30 ml .

Maintain compression by wrapping a roller bandage over the entire compressive dressing. .Controlling External Bleeding A. C. Apply direct local pressure at the bleeding site (the best and most effective way). Elevate the bleeding extremity – extremely efficient especially in controlling venous bleeding. B.

local pressure B. Elevate . Wrapping C.A.

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Proximal arterial pressure .

Bleeding from avulsion injury .

• Facial injuries. infections.Epistaxis (Nosebleed) Can be caused by the following conditions: • A fractured skull. • High blood pressure. • Bleeding diseases. • Sinusitis. . including those caused by a direct blow to the nose. dried or cracked nasal mucous or other abnormalities inside the nose. use/abuse of nosedrops.

C. Apply pressure. pinch nostrils. Place a rolled gauze bandage between the upper lip and the gum. Apply ice over the nose. Keep the patient quiet and in a sitting position with the head tilted forward. .Methods of Controlling Nosebleed Are: A. B.

Immediate transportation to emergency unit is required for the injured patient whom we suspect has internal bleeding. .Control of internal bleeding An urgent operation or complex equipment is usually needed to control internal bleeding.

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The dressing should be secured to the chest wall with tape .A. A sucking chest wound B. A sucking chest wound should be sealed with a large airtight dressing of aluminum foil or Vaseline gauze. C.

Shock .

Define : A condition of acute peripheral circulatory failure causing inadequate and progressively failing perfusion of tissue. .

Causes of shock Important! Shock is not a specific disease or injury. it is a physiological state with specific manifestations. .

Sign and Symptoms of Shock • A quickening pulse rate. and moist. and feeling of impending doom. . • Shortness of breath. • Agitation. ashen. anxiety. cool. • Skin is pale. • Falling blood pressure. • Poor urinary output.

Be certain the patient can be breathe well. • Prevent loss of body heat by placing blankets under and over the patient. • Elevate the lower extremities about 30 degrees. .Treatment of Shock • Secure and maintain an open airway. • Control all obvious external bleeding by direct compression.

• Do not give patient anything to eat or drink. . keep an injured patient supine.• Splint any fractures. • Observe patient’s A-B-C at 10 minute intervals until the patient is delivered to emergency unit. • In general. • Avoid rough and excessive handling.

RESPONSE OF LIFE SAVING IN MEDICAL EMERGENCY Injury/Illness The patient/someone communicates the incident to the first aider First aider is expected to arrive in < 4 minutes to conduct “BLS” First aider (Co physician) communicates the case to a designated hospital for advanced life support preparation Transport vehicle is expected to arrive in < 30 minutes for advanced life support & definitive therapy .

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The Steps of Basic Life Support Handling 1 Safety 2 The first step (evaluate) Scene Situation The second step (primary survey) ABC within 15 seconds 3 The third step ABC action .

FRACTURES . DISLOCATIONS AND SPRAINS .

Crepitus False motions. Swelling and ecchymosis.Fracture Any break in the continuity of a bone Signs and Symptoms • • • • • • Deformity. Exposed fragments. Tenderness. .

• Swelling in the region of the joint. .Dislocation The disruption of a joint Signs and Symptoms • Marked deformity of the joint. • Virtually complete loss of normal joint motion (a ‘locked’ joint). • Pain at the joint aggravated by any attempt to move. • Tenderness to palpation about the joint.

• Swelling and ecchymosis. • Inability to use the extremity. .Sprain A joint injury in which some supporting ligaments are damaged A joint sprain occurs when a joint is twisted or stretched beyond its normal range of motion Signs and Symptoms • Tenderness.

Open Fracture

Close Fracture

Greenstick fracture

Fracture of the proximal end of the humerus

Various mechanisms of injury may produce fractures and dislocations

Dislocation and Sprains • All open wounds are managed initially by covering with dressings and applying local pressure to control bleeding. swelling. dislocation or sprain to allow inspection of the wounds. • Do not move the patient before splinting extremity injuries • When in doubt. • In most situations. remove clothing from the area of any suspected fracture. deformity. splint ! .Emergency Management of Fractures. and ecchymosis.

.The Splint Principal • In a suspected fracture of the shaft of any bone. make sure the splint immobilizes the joint above and joint below the fracture. make sure the splint immobilizes the bone above and the bone below the injured joint. • With injuries in and around the joint.

A B Splinting with a sling and swathe C .

sling. and swathe 1 3 2 Two padded board splints adequately stabilize the injured elbow Immobilization for Humeral Shaft Fracture .A dislocated shoulder must be splinted in the position of deformity with a pillow.

The injured hand is splinted in the “position of function” The position that one would most comfortably hold a baseball .

Splinting of the Lower Extremity .

Apply gentle traction to the limb in a line parallel to the normal axis of the injured. deformed limb .

SPINAL INJURIES .

• Falls from significant heights with the patient landing on the head or feet. • Gunshot wounds to the neck or trunk. or pelvis. torso. neck.‘Think spinal injury’ • Violent impact to the head. • All victims of a vehicular crash. • Sudden acceleration or deceleration accidents. • All shallow water diving accidents. .

tingling. • Paralysis or anesthesia. • Deformity. or weakness.Sign and Symptoms of Spine Injury • Pain? • Numbness. or the abdomen). the back. . • Lacerations or contusions (over the shoulders. • Pain with movement (the injured area of the spine).

• Control serious bleeding using local pressure dressings.splint the patient before removal. • Most importantly . .Emergency Management of Spinal Injuries • Restore the patient’s airway and ensure adequate ventilation.

A Supine spine immobilization sequence C D B E F G H .

Place blanket rolls between a child and the sides of a spine board to prevent slipping .

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