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# Chapter 2 – Material Balances

##  In material balance the concept of

the law mass conservation is
applied
 Mass can neither be created nor
destroyed but it can be
transformed from one form to
another
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Process classifications
Industrial processes are normally
classified as follows:
 Batch process

 Continuous process

 Semi-continuous

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Processes cont..
Continuous processes may also be classfied as
follows:
 Steady state: whereby all parameters ( e.g.
temp., pressure, volume, flow rate, etc) in
the process do not change with time.
 Transient (unsteady state): in this case
process parameters change with time. A
typical example is during starting up of a
process plant
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Systems

## In our case, a system will be referred to any

part of the process which is set aside for
studying
 Open system: there is material/ mass flow
across the system boundaries during period
of study
 Closed system: No material/mass flow
across the system boundaries during period
of study. However the system can exchange
heat and work with the surroundings.
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Systems cont..
 Isolated system: in this case, during the
period of study; there is NO
material/mass, NO heat and work
flows across the system boundaries

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General material balance
equation
 The general equation for material
balance can be presented as follows:

## Accumulation = input – output +

generation – consumption (2.1b)

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Types of material balances
 Differential balances:
These are balances, which indicate what is
happening in the system at an instant of
time. Normally applied to continuous
processes
 Integral balances:
These are balances that describe what
happens between two instants of time
(say t1 and t2). Normally applied to batch
processes.
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Balances on non- reacting
systems
 For non-reacting systems:
generation =0, consumption = 0.
 For a continuous steady state process;

Accumulation = 0
 Hence the MBE becomes;

## Input – output = 0 or input = output

(2.2)

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Example 2.1
 1000 kg/h of mixture of Benzene (B) and Toluene (T) that contain 50% B by mass are
separated by distillation into two fractions. The mass flow rate of B in the top stream is 450
kg/h and that of Toluene in the bottom stream is 475 kg/h. The operation is at steady
state. Calculate the unknown components in the output streams.
Solution: Take basis of 1 h of operation

Distilled
450 kg B
Q1 kg T
F = 1000 kg
50% B = 500 kg
50% T = 500kg Distillation

475 kg T
Fig. 2.3: Figure for example 2.1 Bottom Q2 kg B

## Component Balance: input = output

Benzene: 500 = 450 + Q2; Q2 = 50 kg
Toluene: 500 = Q1 + 475; Q1 = 25 kg
Overall: 1000 = (450 + 25) + (475 + 50) = 1000 kg O.K.

## NB: It is normally recommended to check the consistency of material balance with

the overall balance.
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Example 2.2
 Given that in a certain desalination plant sea water containing salt and water is
evaporated to produce pure water and concentrated brine (salt, water) suppose
that sea water containing 0.0035 mass fraction salt is evaporated to produce
1000 1b/h pure water. Determine the mass flow rate of seawater required if
corrosion considerations limit the waste brine mass fraction 0.07.

## Pure water (P)

100 lb
Seawater
F=? Evaporation
XNaCl = 0.035 Plant Waste Brine (W)
XH20 = 0.965 XNaCl = 0.07
XH2O = 0.93
Fig. 2.4: Figure for example 2.2
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Example 2.2 cont..
Component balance: input = output:
NaCl balance: 0.035F = 0.07W - (1)
H2O balance: 0.965F = P + 0.93W - (2)
but P = 1000
Overall balance: F=P+W - (3)
Equations (1) and (2) can be solved: The results are
W = 1000 lb.; F = 2W = 2000lb

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Example 2.3
A mixed acid containing 65% (by weight) H2SO4, 20% HNO3 and 15% H2O is to
be made by blending the following liquids:
1) A spent acid containing 10% HNO3, 60% H2SO4, and 30% H2O.
 2) A concentrated nitric acid containing 90% HNO3, and 10% H2O.
 3) Concentrated sulphuric acid containing 98% H2SO4 and 2% H2O.
How many kg of each of the three must be used to obtain 1000 Kg of the Mixed
Acid.
Solution: This is a mixing process; no chemical reaction involved

## Basis: 1000 kg of the mixed Acid

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Example 2.3 cont…
Basis: 1000 kg of the mixed Acid SPENTACID
10% HNO3
60% H2SO4
30% H2O
X

## CONC. NITRIC ACID

90% HNO3 MIXING 1000 kg MIXED
Y
10% H2O ACID (P)
65% H2SO4
20% HNO3
Z
15% H2O

## CONC. H2SO4 ACID

98% H2SO4
2% H2O
Fig. 2.5: Figure for example 2.3

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Example 2.3 cont..
In the mixed Acid stream (P) the quantities of will be:

## H2SO4 = 0.65 x 1000 = 650 kg

HNO3 = 0.2 x 1000 = 200 kg.
H2O = 0.15 x 1000 = 150 kg.

## HNO3: 0.1 X +0.9Y = 200 - (1)

H2SO4: 0.6 X+ 0.98Z = 650 - (2)
H2O: 0.3X + 0.1Y + 0.02Z = 150 - (3)
Overall: X + Y + Z = 100 - (4)

## 2 Independent Equations (1-3) and 3 unknowns (X,Y,Z) so the solution can

be obtained:
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The system of Equations can be presented as follows:

## 0.1 0.9 0 X  200   200 

     
0.6 0 0.98 Y  =  650   650 
Z  150  150 
0.3 0.1 0.02      

##  = 0.1 (0 – 0.098) – 0.9 (0.012 – 0.294) + 0 = 0.244

200 0 .9 0
X  650  101
0 0.98 = = 413.93 kg
0.244
150 0.1 0.02

0.1 200 0
 43
Y  0.6 650 0.98 = = 176.23 kg
0.244
0.3 150 0.02

0.1 0. 9 200
 100
Z  0 .6 0 650 = = 409.84 kg
0.244
0.3 0.1 150

## Spent acid: 413.93 kg

Conc. Nitric Acid: 176.23 kg
Conc. H2SO4 Acid: 409.84 kg

1000.0 kg Acid
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Analysis of material balance
problems
 As we move on the complex material
balances we need to develop some
techniques of assessing the problem if it has
unique solution or not. There are problems
that might have no sufficient or less data to
grantee a unique solution.

##  In order to determine whether the given

material balance problem has a unique
solution or not, one needs to determine the
degree of freedom for the problem.
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Calculation of D.F.
The degree of freedom (DF) of a system is defined as follows:

Total no. of 
Total no. of   
  independent 
DF  independent  
-  -
stream var iables  material balance 
   
equations

## Total no. known  Total no. of 

   
specified  independen t  - Subsidiary  (2.3a)
stream var iables  relations 
   

In short:
DF = Variables – Equations – known variables – Subsidiary relation
(2.3b)
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D.F. Analysis
 If D.F. = 0 , the system has unique
solution
 If D.F. is positive (greater than 0) the
problem is UNDERSPECIFIED, hence no
unique solution.
 IF D.F. is negative (less than 0) the
problem is OVER SPECIFIED, hence no
unique solution.

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Example 2.4
Carry out DF analysis for the three previous examples and deduce if
they have unique solutions

Distillate
450 kg B
Q1 kg T

## F = 1000 kg Independent variables

50% B = 500 kg Flow =1, component = 1
50% T = 500kg Distillation
Independent variables Variable specified
Flow =1 Component =1
Component =1
Bottoms
Variables specified 475 kg T
Flow =1 Q2 kg B
Component =1 Independent variables
Flow =1, Component =1
Variable specified
Component =1

## Fig. 2.4: Degree of freedom analysis for example 2.1

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example 2.4 cont..
Number of independent stream variables =6
(Flows = 3, components = 3, total = 6)
Number of independent material balance equations =2
Number of independent specified variables =4
(flow = 1, components = 3, total =4)
Additional relations =0
DF = 6 – 2 – 4 = 0. Hence a unique solution exists

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For Example 2.2
Pure water (P) , 100 lb
Independent variable
Seawater Flow =1
F=? Variable specified
XNaCl = 0.035 Flow =1
XH20 = 0.965 Evaporation
Plant Waste Brine (W)
Independent variables XNaCl = 0.07
Flow
2 =1 XH2O = 0.93
Component =1 Independent variables
Flow =1, Component =1
Variable specified
Component =1 Variable specified
Component =1
Fig. 2.5: Degree of freedom analysis for example 2.2

## Number of independent stream variables =5

Number of independent material balance equations =2
Number of independent specified variables =3
Additional relations = 0

## DF = 5 – 2 – 3 = 0, Hence a unique solution exists.

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For example 2.3

## SPENTACID, independent variables

10% HNO3 Flow =1, component =2
60% H2SO4 specified variables
30% H2O components =2

## CONC. NITRIC ACID

90% HNO3 MIXING 1000 kg MIXED
Y
10% H2O ACID (P)
Independent variables 65% H2SO4
Flow =1, component =1 20% HNO3
Z
15% H2O
Specified variable Independent variables
Flow =1, component =2
Component =1 CONC. H2SO4 ACID
98% H2SO4 Specified variables
2% H2O Flow =1, component =2
Independent variables
Flow =1, component =1
Specified variable
Component =1

## Fig. 2.6: Degree of freedom analysis for example 2.3

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Number of independent stream variables = 10
Number of independent material balance equations = 3
Number of specified independent variables
Flows  1
 = 7
Composition  6

## DF = 10 – 3 – 7 = 0; Hence a unique solution exists.

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Systems involving multiple
units
Example 2.6
Consider a separation train consisting of
two distillation columns that are designed
to separate a three-component mixture of
benzene, toluene, and xylene into three
streams, each rich in one of the species.
The system diagram is shown in figure
2.9. Construct a DF analysis for this
problem; and if the unique solution exists,
then determine all unknowns.
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Example 2.6
, T ,XX  0
2 2 2
F2,X B X
Independent variables (flow =1, component =2 F4
Variable specified (component =1) X B4  0.08
4 X T4  0.72
2
X X4  0.2
F1 1= 1000 mol/h Independent variables
X B  0 .2
Flow =1, component =2
X T1  0.3 Variables specified
X 1X  0.5 Unit
1 Components =2
I Unit
Independent variables II
Flow =1, component =2
3
5
Variables specified
Flow =1, component =2 FX33  0.025
XF5B5  0X T5 X X5
B

X T3  0.35 , ,
X X3  0.625 Independent variables
Flow =1, component =2
Independent variables Variable specified
Flow =1, component =2 Component =1
Variables specified
Component =2

## Fig. 2.9: Figure for example 2.6

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EXAMPLE 2.6

## Unit 1 Unit 2 Process Overall

Number of independent variables 9 9 15 12
Number of material balance equations 3 3 6 3
Number of specified variables
Component 5 5 8 6
Flows 1 0 1 1
Number of additional relationships 0 0 0 0
Total -9 9 -8 9 -15 15 -10 12
Degree of freedom 0 +1 0 +2

This means that, in order to get a unique solution of this problem one has to start balancing at either
unit 1 or the whole process. Staring at unit 2 or doing overall balance does not yield a unique
solution.

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We then start the balance by considering Unit I

## Solving (1) and (2) gives F2 = 200 mol/h

If follows from equations (1) and (2) that X2B = 0.9 and X2T = 0.1

## Benzene: 0.025 (800) = 0.08 F4 + 0, F4 = 250 mol/h

Toluene: 0.35 (800) = 0.72 (250) + X5T.F5 - (3)
Xylene: 0.625 (800) = 0.2 (250) + X5X.F5 - (4)
Solving (3) and (4) gives, F5 = 550 mol/h

## X5T = 0.182, X5X = 0.818

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Example 2.7
F2 F4 F6 F8
100% 100% 100% 100%
2 vapour 4vapour 6 vapour 8 vapour

UNIT I UNIT
3 II UNIT
5 III UNIT
7 IV

F3 F5 F7
1 Sugar Sugar Sugar 9
Water Water Water
F1 = 50,000 kg/h F9 = 35,000 kg/h
50% sugar 50% sugar
50% water 50% water

## Fig. 2.10: Figure for example 2.7

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Example 2.7

Note that in this example we were told that; F2=F4 , F4=F6, F6 =F8. This gives us three
(3) additional information for this problem.

## Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Process Overall

Number of independent 5 5 5 5 14 8
variables
Number of material 2 2 2 2 8 2
balance equations
Number of specified
variables
Component 1 0 0 1 2 2
Flows 1 0 0 1 2 2
Number of additional 0 0 0 0 3 3
relationships
Total -4 5 2 5 2 5 4 5 -15 14 9 8
Degree of freedom +1 +3 +3 +1 -1 -1

So the degree of freedom (D.F.) in any of the cases analyzed in the D.F. table is not
equal to zero, so problem is not correctly specified and in has no unique solution.
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RULES OF THUMB
1. Draw a flow chart and fill in all given
variable or values.

## 2. Choose a basis of calculation; an amount

or flow rate of one of the process stream.
If one such quantity is given, it is most
convenient to use if as a basis of calculation.

## 3. Label unknown stream variables on the chart

e.g. Mass or molar flow rates, mass or more
fractions of stream components.
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 4. Do the problem book keeping, count
unknowns, knowns, and the Relationships that
can be made in general do the DF analysis and
deduce if a solution exists.

##  5. Where necessary do unit conversions if the

given units are mixed, e.g. Mass and mole
fractions. Convert all units into one basis.

##  6. Write material balance equations. Write them

in order such that those involving fewest
unknowns are written first.

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7. Solve the equations for unknowns to be
defined when the values of unknowns
have been calculated write them on the
chart immediately.

## 8. If the basis chosen was not equal to the

stream quantity given in the problem, scale
the balanced process streams by
multiplying them by a ratio e.g. Q given/Q
calculation.

## 9. Check your result for consistency and

accuracy usually by doing overall balance.

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