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the law mass conservation is

applied

Mass can neither be created nor

destroyed but it can be

transformed from one form to

another

21/06/2019 MP 221 1

Process classifications

Industrial processes are normally

classified as follows:

Batch process

Continuous process

Semi-continuous

21/06/2019 MP 221 2

Processes cont..

Continuous processes may also be classfied as

follows:

Steady state: whereby all parameters ( e.g.

temp., pressure, volume, flow rate, etc) in

the process do not change with time.

Transient (unsteady state): in this case

process parameters change with time. A

typical example is during starting up of a

process plant

21/06/2019 MP 221 3

Systems

part of the process which is set aside for

studying

Open system: there is material/ mass flow

across the system boundaries during period

of study

Closed system: No material/mass flow

across the system boundaries during period

of study. However the system can exchange

heat and work with the surroundings.

21/06/2019 MP 221 4

Systems cont..

Isolated system: in this case, during the

period of study; there is NO

material/mass, NO heat and work

flows across the system boundaries

21/06/2019 MP 221 5

General material balance

equation

The general equation for material

balance can be presented as follows:

generation – consumption (2.1b)

21/06/2019 MP 221 6

Types of material balances

Differential balances:

These are balances, which indicate what is

happening in the system at an instant of

time. Normally applied to continuous

processes

Integral balances:

These are balances that describe what

happens between two instants of time

(say t1 and t2). Normally applied to batch

processes.

21/06/2019 MP 221 7

Balances on non- reacting

systems

For non-reacting systems:

generation =0, consumption = 0.

For a continuous steady state process;

Accumulation = 0

Hence the MBE becomes;

(2.2)

21/06/2019 MP 221 8

Example 2.1

1000 kg/h of mixture of Benzene (B) and Toluene (T) that contain 50% B by mass are

separated by distillation into two fractions. The mass flow rate of B in the top stream is 450

kg/h and that of Toluene in the bottom stream is 475 kg/h. The operation is at steady

state. Calculate the unknown components in the output streams.

Solution: Take basis of 1 h of operation

Distilled

450 kg B

Q1 kg T

F = 1000 kg

50% B = 500 kg

50% T = 500kg Distillation

475 kg T

Fig. 2.3: Figure for example 2.1 Bottom Q2 kg B

Benzene: 500 = 450 + Q2; Q2 = 50 kg

Toluene: 500 = Q1 + 475; Q1 = 25 kg

Overall: 1000 = (450 + 25) + (475 + 50) = 1000 kg O.K.

the overall balance.

21/06/2019 MP 221 9

Example 2.2

Given that in a certain desalination plant sea water containing salt and water is

evaporated to produce pure water and concentrated brine (salt, water) suppose

that sea water containing 0.0035 mass fraction salt is evaporated to produce

1000 1b/h pure water. Determine the mass flow rate of seawater required if

corrosion considerations limit the waste brine mass fraction 0.07.

100 lb

Seawater

F=? Evaporation

XNaCl = 0.035 Plant Waste Brine (W)

XH20 = 0.965 XNaCl = 0.07

XH2O = 0.93

Fig. 2.4: Figure for example 2.2

21/06/2019 MP 221 10

Example 2.2 cont..

Component balance: input = output:

NaCl balance: 0.035F = 0.07W - (1)

H2O balance: 0.965F = P + 0.93W - (2)

but P = 1000

Overall balance: F=P+W - (3)

Equations (1) and (2) can be solved: The results are

W = 1000 lb.; F = 2W = 2000lb

21/06/2019 MP 221 11

Example 2.3

A mixed acid containing 65% (by weight) H2SO4, 20% HNO3 and 15% H2O is to

be made by blending the following liquids:

1) A spent acid containing 10% HNO3, 60% H2SO4, and 30% H2O.

2) A concentrated nitric acid containing 90% HNO3, and 10% H2O.

3) Concentrated sulphuric acid containing 98% H2SO4 and 2% H2O.

How many kg of each of the three must be used to obtain 1000 Kg of the Mixed

Acid.

Solution: This is a mixing process; no chemical reaction involved

21/06/2019 MP 221 12

Example 2.3 cont…

Basis: 1000 kg of the mixed Acid SPENTACID

10% HNO3

60% H2SO4

30% H2O

X

90% HNO3 MIXING 1000 kg MIXED

Y

10% H2O ACID (P)

65% H2SO4

20% HNO3

Z

15% H2O

98% H2SO4

2% H2O

Fig. 2.5: Figure for example 2.3

21/06/2019 MP 221 13

Example 2.3 cont..

In the mixed Acid stream (P) the quantities of will be:

HNO3 = 0.2 x 1000 = 200 kg.

H2O = 0.15 x 1000 = 150 kg.

H2SO4: 0.6 X+ 0.98Z = 650 - (2)

H2O: 0.3X + 0.1Y + 0.02Z = 150 - (3)

Overall: X + Y + Z = 100 - (4)

be obtained:

21/06/2019 MP 221 14

The system of Equations can be presented as follows:

0.6 0 0.98 Y = 650 650

Z 150 150

0.3 0.1 0.02

200 0 .9 0

X 650 101

0 0.98 = = 413.93 kg

0.244

150 0.1 0.02

0.1 200 0

43

Y 0.6 650 0.98 = = 176.23 kg

0.244

0.3 150 0.02

0.1 0. 9 200

100

Z 0 .6 0 650 = = 409.84 kg

0.244

0.3 0.1 150

Conc. Nitric Acid: 176.23 kg

Conc. H2SO4 Acid: 409.84 kg

1000.0 kg Acid

21/06/2019 MP 221 15

Analysis of material balance

problems

As we move on the complex material

balances we need to develop some

techniques of assessing the problem if it has

unique solution or not. There are problems

that might have no sufficient or less data to

grantee a unique solution.

material balance problem has a unique

solution or not, one needs to determine the

degree of freedom for the problem.

21/06/2019 MP 221 16

Calculation of D.F.

The degree of freedom (DF) of a system is defined as follows:

Total no. of

Total no. of

independent

DF independent

- -

stream var iables material balance

equations

specified independen t - Subsidiary (2.3a)

stream var iables relations

In short:

DF = Variables – Equations – known variables – Subsidiary relation

(2.3b)

21/06/2019 MP 221 17

D.F. Analysis

If D.F. = 0 , the system has unique

solution

If D.F. is positive (greater than 0) the

problem is UNDERSPECIFIED, hence no

unique solution.

IF D.F. is negative (less than 0) the

problem is OVER SPECIFIED, hence no

unique solution.

21/06/2019 MP 221 18

Example 2.4

Carry out DF analysis for the three previous examples and deduce if

they have unique solutions

Distillate

450 kg B

Q1 kg T

50% B = 500 kg Flow =1, component = 1

50% T = 500kg Distillation

Independent variables Variable specified

Flow =1 Component =1

Component =1

Bottoms

Variables specified 475 kg T

Flow =1 Q2 kg B

Component =1 Independent variables

Flow =1, Component =1

Variable specified

Component =1

21/06/2019 MP 221 19

example 2.4 cont..

Number of independent stream variables =6

(Flows = 3, components = 3, total = 6)

Number of independent material balance equations =2

Number of independent specified variables =4

(flow = 1, components = 3, total =4)

Additional relations =0

DF = 6 – 2 – 4 = 0. Hence a unique solution exists

21/06/2019 MP 221 20

For Example 2.2

Pure water (P) , 100 lb

Independent variable

Seawater Flow =1

F=? Variable specified

XNaCl = 0.035 Flow =1

XH20 = 0.965 Evaporation

Plant Waste Brine (W)

Independent variables XNaCl = 0.07

Flow

2 =1 XH2O = 0.93

Component =1 Independent variables

Flow =1, Component =1

Variable specified

Component =1 Variable specified

Component =1

Fig. 2.5: Degree of freedom analysis for example 2.2

Number of independent material balance equations =2

Number of independent specified variables =3

Additional relations = 0

21/06/2019 MP 221 21

For example 2.3

10% HNO3 Flow =1, component =2

60% H2SO4 specified variables

30% H2O components =2

90% HNO3 MIXING 1000 kg MIXED

Y

10% H2O ACID (P)

Independent variables 65% H2SO4

Flow =1, component =1 20% HNO3

Z

15% H2O

Specified variable Independent variables

Flow =1, component =2

Component =1 CONC. H2SO4 ACID

98% H2SO4 Specified variables

2% H2O Flow =1, component =2

Independent variables

Flow =1, component =1

Specified variable

Component =1

21/06/2019 MP 221 22

Number of independent stream variables = 10

Number of independent material balance equations = 3

Number of specified independent variables

Flows 1

= 7

Composition 6

21/06/2019 MP 221 23

Systems involving multiple

units

Example 2.6

Consider a separation train consisting of

two distillation columns that are designed

to separate a three-component mixture of

benzene, toluene, and xylene into three

streams, each rich in one of the species.

The system diagram is shown in figure

2.9. Construct a DF analysis for this

problem; and if the unique solution exists,

then determine all unknowns.

21/06/2019 MP 221 24

Example 2.6

, T ,XX 0

2 2 2

F2,X B X

Independent variables (flow =1, component =2 F4

Variable specified (component =1) X B4 0.08

4 X T4 0.72

2

X X4 0.2

F1 1= 1000 mol/h Independent variables

X B 0 .2

Flow =1, component =2

X T1 0.3 Variables specified

X 1X 0.5 Unit

1 Components =2

I Unit

Independent variables II

Flow =1, component =2

3

5

Variables specified

Flow =1, component =2 FX33 0.025

XF5B5 0X T5 X X5

B

X T3 0.35 , ,

X X3 0.625 Independent variables

Flow =1, component =2

Independent variables Variable specified

Flow =1, component =2 Component =1

Variables specified

Component =2

21/06/2019 MP 221 25

EXAMPLE 2.6

Number of independent variables 9 9 15 12

Number of material balance equations 3 3 6 3

Number of specified variables

Component 5 5 8 6

Flows 1 0 1 1

Number of additional relationships 0 0 0 0

Total -9 9 -8 9 -15 15 -10 12

Degree of freedom 0 +1 0 +2

This means that, in order to get a unique solution of this problem one has to start balancing at either

unit 1 or the whole process. Staring at unit 2 or doing overall balance does not yield a unique

solution.

21/06/2019 MP 221 26

We then start the balance by considering Unit I

If follows from equations (1) and (2) that X2B = 0.9 and X2T = 0.1

Toluene: 0.35 (800) = 0.72 (250) + X5T.F5 - (3)

Xylene: 0.625 (800) = 0.2 (250) + X5X.F5 - (4)

Solving (3) and (4) gives, F5 = 550 mol/h

21/06/2019 MP 221 27

Example 2.7

F2 F4 F6 F8

100% 100% 100% 100%

2 vapour 4vapour 6 vapour 8 vapour

UNIT I UNIT

3 II UNIT

5 III UNIT

7 IV

F3 F5 F7

1 Sugar Sugar Sugar 9

Water Water Water

F1 = 50,000 kg/h F9 = 35,000 kg/h

50% sugar 50% sugar

50% water 50% water

21/06/2019 MP 221 28

Example 2.7

Note that in this example we were told that; F2=F4 , F4=F6, F6 =F8. This gives us three

(3) additional information for this problem.

Number of independent 5 5 5 5 14 8

variables

Number of material 2 2 2 2 8 2

balance equations

Number of specified

variables

Component 1 0 0 1 2 2

Flows 1 0 0 1 2 2

Number of additional 0 0 0 0 3 3

relationships

Total -4 5 2 5 2 5 4 5 -15 14 9 8

Degree of freedom +1 +3 +3 +1 -1 -1

So the degree of freedom (D.F.) in any of the cases analyzed in the D.F. table is not

equal to zero, so problem is not correctly specified and in has no unique solution.

21/06/2019 MP 221 29

RULES OF THUMB

1. Draw a flow chart and fill in all given

variable or values.

or flow rate of one of the process stream.

If one such quantity is given, it is most

convenient to use if as a basis of calculation.

e.g. Mass or molar flow rates, mass or more

fractions of stream components.

21/06/2019 MP 221 30

4. Do the problem book keeping, count

unknowns, knowns, and the Relationships that

can be made in general do the DF analysis and

deduce if a solution exists.

given units are mixed, e.g. Mass and mole

fractions. Convert all units into one basis.

in order such that those involving fewest

unknowns are written first.

21/06/2019 MP 221 31

7. Solve the equations for unknowns to be

defined when the values of unknowns

have been calculated write them on the

chart immediately.

stream quantity given in the problem, scale

the balanced process streams by

multiplying them by a ratio e.g. Q given/Q

calculation.

accuracy usually by doing overall balance.

21/06/2019 MP 221 32

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