Hypnosis

Celeste Radelet Alicia Poston Kim Briggs

APA Definition
According to the American Psychological Association (APA)¶s Division of Psychological Hypnosis, hypnosis is a procedure during which a health professional or researcher suggests while treating someone that he or she experience changes in sensations, perceptions, thoughts, or behavior. Although some hypnosis is used to make people more alert, most hypnosis includes suggestions for relaxation, calmness, and well-being. Instructions to imagine or think wellabout pleasant experiences are also commonly included during hypnosis. People respond to hypnosis in different ways. Some describe hypnosis as a state of focused attention, in which they feel very calm and relaxed. Most people describe the experience as pleasant.

Contents            APA Definition of Hypnosis Father of Hypnosis --Mesmer --Mesmer History of Hypnosis Suggestibility/Susceptibility Hypnosis and Emotional Health Hypnosis and Physical Health Facts and Fiction False memory/Confabulation Self Hypnosis Hypnosis vs. Sleep and Dreams Brain Activity Delta Theta Alpha Beta Sources  .

scandal and embarrassment caused him to leave Vienna. and used magnets to ³heal´ her. Although his abilities have since been discredited.       . The Austrian physician referred to his ability as a type of animal magnetism. Germany 1734 In 1774. In 1777. Born in Swabia. Mesmer was unsuccessful in curing the blindness of a young musician. In 1775. he is immortalized in the verb ³to mesmerize´. Mesmer believed that illness was caused by obstruction of the free-flow of freelife processes. and as a conductor of animal magnetism he was able to help restore the natural process.Father of Hypnosis Franz Anton Mesmer  Mesmer used the power of suggestion to µcure¶ illnesses in the 18th century. Mesmer had a patient swallow iron. The evolution of Mesmer's ideas and practices led James Braid to develop hypnosis in 1842.

looking fixedly into the patient's eyes.Mesmer¶s Treatment Mesmer treated patients both individually and in groups. Mesmer made "passes". Mesmer would often conclude his treatments by playing some music on a glass armonica. . With individuals he would sit in front of his patient with his knees touching the patient's knees. Many patients felt peculiar sensations or had convulsions that were regarded as crises and supposed to bring about the cure. moving his hands from patients' shoulders down along their arms. He then pressed his fingers on the patient's hypochondriac region (the area below the diaphragm). pressing the patient's thumbs in his hands. sometimes holding his hands there for hours. A glass armonica is a type of musical instrument that uses a series of glass bowls or goblets graduated in size to produce musical tones by means of friction.

During this time. Liebeault reconciled the sleep metaphor with suggestibility theory. polygraph19601960-1990: ³Halcyon Days´ of hypnosis. Late 19th Century: A. This group of clinicians banded together after the war and formed the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis and later on the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis. 19th Century: Hypnosis was viewed as a matter of the degree of a person¶s suggestibility. ± They concluded that Animal Magnetism did not exist and therefore had no curative powers. artificial somnamulbism. ³hypnos´. 1950¶s: Invention of the electroencephalogram (EEG) which measured differences between hypnosis¶ pattern that is indistinguishable from being relaxed. Today.A. First three decade of 20th century: Interest in hypnosis declined until Clark L. one still remains in Philadelphia at the University of Pennsylvania. alert with eyes closed and sleep¶s EEG that consists of four distinct polygraph-defined stages. three major hypnosis laboratories for the research of hypnosis were formed.   World War II: Small group of hypnosis clinicians were able to provide pain relief and alleviation of suffering to their severely injured patients through the use of hypnosis.         Marquis de Puysegur renamed what we now know as hypnosis.History of Hypnosis   18th Century Paris: Franz Anton Mesmer gained popularity for what he termed ³Animal Magnetism´ 1784: The Royal Commission of Inquiry into Animal magnetism was established. Hypnosis and Suggestibility: An Experimental Approach. The Abbe Jose Custodia di Faria called it lucid sleep. End of the 19th Century: Two ³schools³ of hypnosis were formed in France. . which comes from the Greek work for sleep. 1843: James Braid coined the term hypnosis. Approach. Hull¶s book.

Under hypnosis the subject becomes more susceptible to suggestion than in his or her normal state. It is possible to induce alterations in the following areas: ± Memory ± Perception ± Sensation ± Emotions ± Feeling ± Attitudes ± Beliefs ± Muscular states   . Dialogue is directly related to how the hypnotist directly or indirectly gives suggestions.Suggestibility and Susceptibility   Highly susceptible subjects show significantly more brain activity in the left side of the prefrontal cortex.

which although not presently in the conscious. but still available to be recalled at will. . Conscious: is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity. such as memories not being recalled at present. Unconscious: is the aspect (or alleged aspect) of the mind of which we are not directly conscious or aware. maybe recalled by "directing attention to them". selfselfawareness. and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and one's environment.   Subconscious: information contained in the mind.

are the underlining factors responsible for most of our behavior.Hypnosis and Emotional Health Emotions and imagination. both part of the subconscious. and has tied certain emotions to that event. Our present behaviors are usually linked to how our imagination has perceived a past event. Accessing the subconscious through hypnosis can help to alleviate some or all symptoms associated with following difficulties people experience:           Anxiety Depression Sleep difficulty Social anxiety Panic Phobias PTSD SelfSelf-esteem Abusive relationships Addiction .

Hypnosis and Physical Health Although the exact mechanism by which hypnosis works is still unknown. psoriasis and atopic dermatitis . The following list are examples of how hypnosis can be used to do this in order to help a person gain control of their physical well-being:         Treat pain during childbirth and reduce labor time Control pain during dental and surgical procedures Relieve symptoms associated with Irritable Bowel Syndrome Lower blood pressure Control nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy Reduce the frequency and intensity of headaches. such as neuropeptides. This alteration is useful in helping control some of the physiological processes that occur within the body. hormones and body chemicals. results in an alteration of how the brain communicates with the rest of your body through nerve impulses. including migraines Treat and ease symptoms of asthma Hasten the healing of some skin diseases including warts. it appears that the effect that hypnosis has.

However MOST people remember everything that occurs under hypnosis. FACT: A small number of people who go into a very hypnotic state. FACT: You do hypnotherapy only FOR YOURSELF.       . A hypnotherapist serves only as a guide or facilitator. free-will.Facts and Fiction about Hypnosis   FICTION: When your under hypnosis you surrender your free will. freeFICTION: When your under hypnosis the therapist controls you. experience spontaneous amnesia. FICTION: Under hypnosis you lose consciousness. FACT: Hypnosis is a heighten state of concentration and focus. or suffer from amnesia. FICTION: You can be put under hypnosis without your consent. not everyone can be led into a hypnotic state. or personal strength. FACT: Successful hypnosis depends on your willingness to experience it²even with it² voluntary hypnosis. When your under hypnosis you DO NOT lose your personality.

 Our sense of identity. or largely self-created selfimpressions that appear to have actually occurred. . emotions. of who we are and what we have done. and it can be disturbing to have those challenged. whether by failing to remember at all or by remembering incorrectly. or desired outcome. the implied beliefs of others. For example.  Memory is a complicated process.  Continuity of memory is no guarantee of truth. is tied to our memories. inappropriate interpretation.False Memory/Confabulation  It is common experience that human memory may be unreliable to some degree. and disruption of memory is no guarantee of falsity.  Memory is believed to be a reconstructed phenomenon. a vivid and detailed memory may be based upon inaccurate reconstruction of facts. but research suggests that the qualities of a memory do not provide a reliable way to determine accuracy. and so it can often be strongly influenced by expectation (one's own or other people's). only partly understood.

constructive and beneficial! Otherwise. and you will project this out in your personality! .Self Hypnosis The subconscious mind is like an obedient servant²it doesn¶t think or servant² reason² reason²and herein lies the power of self-hypnosis« self- YOU have the power! Your subconscious mind will accept your suggestions and make them a part of your reality! It tells your unconscious that will act on these suggestions and your on your way to a more healthy lifestyle! ***It is important to remember that your subconscious mind does not know the difference between good or bad suggestion²so BE suggestion² POSITIVE! Don¶t tell yourself that you are fat. or ugly or unworthy« You should always remain positive. you will ACTUALLY start to believe it.

Sleep and Dreams  SLEEP: While asleep. your brain automatically cycles down from the beta range into alpha. Then it cycles back up into alpha where you spend most of your time sleeping and dreaming.Hypnosis vs. Hypnosis is a technique that causes the brain to cycle down into alpha without going to sleep.  HYPNOSIS: A hypnotist takes advantage of the above natural phenomena. and briefly into theta and delta. the subconscious mind is open for suggestive input. . In alpha. delta.

. The EEG is a brain function test. but in clinical use it is a "gross correlate of brain activity.Brain Activity  Electroencephalography is the neurophysiologic measurement of the electrical activity of the brain by recording from electrodes placed on the scalp or. but rather voltage differences between different parts of the brain.  The resulting traces are known as an electroencephalogram (EEG) and represent an electrical signal (postsynaptic potentials) from a large number of neurons. Electrical currents are not measured. in special cases. within the subdural or the cerebral cortex.

wide It makes connections quickly. focused. neurons fire abundantly. play sports. In the Beta state. helping you achieve peak performance. hand-eye coordination and visual acuity. give a presentation. and you're primed to do work that requires your full attention. hand-   . The Beta state is associated with peak 13concentration. Beta training is one of the frequencies that biofeedback therapists use to treat Attention Deficit Disorder.Beta: Alertness/ Concentration/ Cognition 1212-40 Hz EEG (electroencephalograph) 1 second sample. in rapid succession. BetaBeta-centered programs help you prepare to take an exam. heightened alertness. Your mind is sharp. New ideas and solutions to problems flash like lightning into your mind. The signal is filtered to present only the gamma waves. easily. alert. Beta waves range between 13-40 HZ. You are wide-awake. analyze and organize information and other activities where mental alertness and high levels of concentration are key to your success.

 Fresh creative energy begins to flow.  Alpha waves range between 7-12 HZ.it is the gateway. Fears vanish. When you are truly relaxed.the resonant frequency of the earth's electromagnetic field. .  In Alpha. your brain activity slows from the rapid patterns of Beta into the more gentle waves of Alpha. but not quite meditation. the entry point that leads into deeper states of consciousness. The signal is filtered to present only the gamma waves. we begin to access the wealth of creativity that lies just below our conscious awareness . You experience a liberating sense of peace and well-being. Alpha is also the home of the window frequency known as the Schuman Resonance .Alpha: Relaxation/ Visualization/ Creativity 6-12 Hz EEG (electroencephalograph) 1 second sample. In biofeedback. This is a place of deep 7relaxation. Your awareness expands. Alpha welltraining is most commonly recommended for the treatment of stress.

it is most commonly associated with the deepest levels of meditation. Going deeper into relaxation. enhances learning. superreselfTheta waves range between 4-7 HZ. Finally. or drifting off to sleep." And. we are in a waking dream. vivid imagery flashes before the mind's eye and we are receptive to information beyond our normal conscious awareness. Theta is an ideal state for super-learning. you enter the elusive and mysterious Theta state where brain activity slows almost to the point of sleep. flashes of dreamlike imagery. you may feel your mind expand beyond the boundaries of your body. In biofeedback. It is also known as the twilight state which we normally only experience fleetingly as we rise up out of the depths of delta upon waking. Theta can bring you deep states of meditation. but not quite. reduces stress and awakens intuition and other extrasensory perception skills. inspiration. Theta meditation increases creativity. Theta also plays an important part in behavior modification programs and has been used in the treatment of drug and alcohol addiction.    . and your longlongforgotten memories. Theta rests directly on the threshold of your subconscious. The signal is filtered to present only the gamma waves.  Theta is the brain state where magic happens in the crucible of your own neurological activity. dream recall. Theta brings forward heightened receptivity.Theta: Meditation/ Intuition/ Memory 4-7 Hz EEG (electroencephalograph) 1 second sample. because it is an expansive state. and self-hypnosis. re-programming your mind. Theta is one of the more elusive and extraordinary realms we 4can explore. in Theta. A sensation of "floating. Theta has also been identified as the gateway to learning and memory. In Theta.

but also when you want to access your unconscious activity and help that wellspring of information flow to your conscious mind for clearing and for empowerment. certain frequencies in the Delta range also trigger the release of Human Growth Hormone so beneficial for healing and regeneration. Delta waves range between 0-4 HZ.the kind that Delta frequencies help induce is so essential to the healing process.deep restorative sleep . Delta is not only ideal for sleep and deep regeneration potential. the seat from which intuition arises. slow.Delta: Detached Awareness/ Healing/ Sleep 1-4 Hz EEG (electroencephalograph) 1 second sample. The signal is filtered to present only the gamma waves. Most commonly associated with deep sleep. 0- .  Delta is the brain wave signal of the subconscious.  Delta is the slowest of all four brain wave frequencies. Long. undulating. This is why sleep .

Some researchers do not distinguish gamma waves as a distinct class but include them in beta brain waves.  A gamma wave is a pattern of brain waves. although more attention is currently being paid to them than in years past. which occurs during the process of awakening and during active rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The signal is filtered to present only the gamma waves.   . though researchers have recognized that higher level cognitive activities occur when lower frequency gamma waves suddenly double into the 40 Hz range.Gamma: Precognition/ Clarity/ Perception 40 Hz + EEG (electroencephalograph) 1 second sample. highyour brainwaves reach the Gamma state. The Gamma brain wave state corresponds to frequencies of 40Hz or higher. associated with perception and consciousness. By one definition. Gamma brainwaves are the most rapid in frequency. During moments when bursts of precognition or high-level information processing occur. Research has shown gamma waves are continuously present during low voltage fast neocortical activity (LVFA). but can often be between 26 and upwards of 70 Hz. Until recently gamma brain waves have received the least attention and research. gamma waves are manifest at 24 Hz and higher. Gamma waves are produced when masses of neurons emit electrical signals at the rate of around 40 times a second (40 hertz or Hz).

Theta. unique to you. per second corresponds to the trance-like state of theta trancebrain wave activity. It has a rhythm and pattern and it incorporates Beta. Alpha. or cycles. and Delta frequencies at varying levels over the course of a day as your brain modulates them to match your activities.5 beats. It is no coincidence that 4. You have your very own signature brain wave activity.Vibrations from rhythmic sounds have a profound effect on our brain activity. .

org  http://skepdic.com/whatishypnosis_history.html  science.Sources  www.com www.institute-shot.com/falsememory.wikipedia.com  http://en.com/health/hypnosis/SA00084  http://www.brainsync.toolsforwellness.htm http://www.htm science.com/hypnosis.com  www.fmsfonline.html  http://www.aspx .com/hypnosis.htm  http://www.institute http://hypnosis.mayoclinic.howstuffworks.howstuffworks.brainsync.com/hypnosis_and_health.org/hypnosis.

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