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# Quine-McCluskey (Tabular) Minimization

**y Two step process utilizing tabular listings to:
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Identify prime implicants (implicant tables) Identify minimal PI set (cover tables)

**y All work is done in tabular form
**

Number of variables is not a limitation Basis for many computer implementations Don¶t cares are easily handled

y Proper organization and term identification are key factors for correct results

Quine-McCluskey Minimization (cont.form ..) y Terms are initially listed one per line in groups Each group contains terms with the same number of true and complemented variables Terms are listed in numerical order within group y Terms and implicants are identified using one of three common notations full variable form cellular form 1.0.

variables and complements in algebraic form hard to identify when adjacency applies very easy to make mistakes y Cellular form .Notation Forms y Full variable form . indexes must differ by power of two (one bit) Implicants identified by term nos. in () following terms .terms are identified by their decimal index value Easy to tell when adjacency applies. differing bit pos. separated by comma.

) y 1..form .Notation Forms (cont.terms are identified by their binary index value Easier to translate to/from full variable form Easy to identify when adjacency applies.0.shows variable(s) dropped when adjacency is used y Different forms may be mixed during the minimization . one bit is different .

D) = 7 m(4.8.6.0.10. C.13) Full variable 1 2 ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD Cellular 4 8 5 6 10 13 1.Example of Different Notations F(A.0100 1000 0101 0110 1010 1101 3 . B.5.

6. Group by number of true variables (# of 1¶s).D) = m(4. Implication Table Column I 0000 0100 1000 0101 0110 1001 1010 0111 1101 1111 NOTE: DCs are included in this step! .B.-) y Quine-McCluskey Method Tabular method to systematically find all prime implicants (A.7.9.5.Implication Table (1.13) + d(0.15) Part 1: Find all prime implicants Step 1: Fill Column 1 with active-set and DC-set minterm indices.8.0.C. 10.

6. Group by number of true variables (# of 1¶s).C. Implication Table Column I 0 4 8 5 6 9 10 7 13 15 NOTE: DCs are included in this step! .5.D) = m(4.15) Part 1: Find all prime implicants Step 1: Fill Column 1 with active-set and DC-set minterm indices.8.B. 10.7.9.13) + d(0.Implication Table (cellular) y Quine-McCluskey Method Tabular method to systematically find all prime implicants (A.

One bit difference implies adjacent.g.Compare elements of group with N 1's against those with N+1 1's. Repeat until nothing left.5. If cannot be combined.8. These are the prime implicants. E.15) Part 1: Find all prime implicants Step 2: Apply Adjacency .13) + d(0.C. Eliminate variable and place in next column. mark with a check.10. mark with a star. 0000 vs..B.D) = m(4. Implication Table Column I 0000 0100 1000 0101 0110 1001 1010 0111 1101 1111 Column II 0-00 -000 01001-0 10010-0 01-1 -101 0111-01 -111 11-1 .7.First Pass (1.9.6.-) y Quine-McCluskey Method Tabular method to systematically find all prime implicants (A. 1000 yields -000 When used in a combination.0. 0100 yields 0-00 0000 vs.Minimization .

4 yields 0.First Pass (cellular) y Quine-McCluskey Method Tabular method to systematically find all prime implicants (A. 0 vs.6(2) 8. mark with a check.Minimization .15(2) . E.13(4) 7.9. Next col is numbers with diff in parentheses.8(8) 4.7(2) When used in a combination..7(2) 5.15(8) 13.13(8) 6.D) = m(4.6.10.5(1) 4.Compare elements of group with N 1's against those with N+1 1's.7.g.8. These are the prime implicants.5.13) + d(0.4(4) 0.B.10(2) 5.9(1) 8.7(1) 9. mark with a star.15) Part 1: Find all prime implicants Step 2: Apply Adjacency . If cannot be combined. Repeat until nothing left. 7 yields 5. Implication Table Column I 0 4 8 5 6 9 10 7 13 15 Column II 0.C.4(4) 5 vs. 2n difference implies adjacent.

mark with a check.: Apply Adjacency . One bit difference implies adjacent.* 10-0 * 01-1 -101 011.g. These are the prime implicants.Minimization . Repeat until nothing left. If cannot be combined. Eliminate variable and place in next column. 1000 yields -000 When used in a combination.-) y Quine-McCluskey Method Step 2 cont. Implication Table Column I 0000 0100 1000 0101 0110 1001 1010 0111 1101 1111 Column II Column III 0-00 * -000 * 010. 01-0 100..Second Pass (1. 0100 yields 0-00 0000 vs.* -1-1 * . mark with a star. 0000 vs.Compare elements of group with N 1's against those with N+1 1's. 1-01 * -111 11-1 01-. E.0.

These are the prime implicants.7(1) yields 4.13(8) 6.8(8) * 4. Repeat until nothing left.15 (10) * .5(1) 4.7(2) 5.10(2) * 5.5.7(3) * 5.5(1) and 6.7. If cannot be combined. E.7(1) 9.Compare elements of group with N 1's against those with N+1 1's.4(4) * 0.13(4) * 7.13.15(8) 13.: Apply Adjacency . mark with a check.7(3) When used in a combination. mark with a star.6. Next col is numbers with differences in parentheses. 2n difference implies adjacent. Implication Table Column I 0 4 8 5 6 9 10 7 13 15 Column II Column III 0.5.6.15(2) 4.Minimization .9(1) * 8.Second Pass (cellular) y Quine-McCluskey Method Step 2 cont.6(2) 8.g.. 4.

Prime Implicants Prime Implicants: AB 00 CD 00 01 11 C 10 A 01 11 10 X 0 0 0 1 1 X 1 B 0 1 X 0 1 1 D 0 .00 ! A C D ..! A C 10 .0 ! A -1 -1 ! D D 0 1 1 .01 ! A C D .! A 01 .000 ! CD 100 .

000 ! CD 100 .0 ! A -1 -1 ! D D 0 1 1 .01 ! A C D Stage 2: find smallest set of prime implicants that cover the active-set recall that essential prime implicants must be in final expression ..! A C 10 .Prime Implicants (cont.! A 01 .) Prime Implicants: AB 00 CD 00 01 11 C 10 A 01 11 10 X 0 0 0 1 1 X 1 B 0 1 X 0 1 1 D 0 .00 ! A C D .

15(-1-1) X X X X X 4 5 6 8 9 10 13 X X X X X X X X Note: Don¶t include DCs in coverage table.6.7.13(1-01) 4.10(10-0) 9.8(-000) 8.7(01--) 5.4(0-00) 0.9(100-) 8.5.Coverage Table Coverage Chart 0. they don¶t have covered by the final logic expression! rows = prime implicants columns = ON-set elements place an "X" if ON-set element is covered by the prime implicant .13.

It must appear in minimum cover .13.10(10-0) 9.13(1-01) 4.7(01--) 5.7.15(-1-1) X X X X X 4 5 6 8 9 10 13 X X X X X X X X 0.6.10(10-0) 9.13(1-01) 4.5.8(-000) 8.5.Coverage Table (cont. than the implicant associated with the row is essential.4(0-00) 0.7(01--) 5.6.15(-1-1) X X X X X 4 5 6 8 9 10 13 X X X X X X X X rows = prime implicants columns = ON-set elements place an "X" if ON-set element is covered by the prime implicant If column has a single X.9(100-) 8.4(0-00) 0.) Coverage Chart 0.8(-000) 8.7.13.9(100-) 8.

15(-1-1) X X X X X 4 5 6 8 9 10 13 X X X X X X X X Eliminate all columns covered by essential primes .4(0-00) 0.10(10-0) 9.13(1-01) 4.13.6.5.9(100-) 8.7(01--) 5.Coverage Table (cont.7.) 0.8(-000) 8.

Coverage Table (cont.5.13.15(-1-1) X 4 5 6 8 9 10 13 X X X X X X X X 0.4(0-00) 0.7(01--) 5.7.13(1-01) 4.6.8(\000) 8.9(100-) 8.13.7.6.) 0.7(01--) X X X X 4 5 6 8 9 10 13 X X X X X X X X Eliminate all columns covered by essential primes Find minimum set of rows that cover the remaining columns A AC A .10(10-0) 9.8(\000) 8.9(100-) 8.10(10-0) 9.13(1-01) 4.5.4(0-00) 0.15(-1-1) X X X X X 5.