# Quine-McCluskey (Tabular) Minimization

y Two step process utilizing tabular listings to: 
Identify prime implicants (implicant tables)  Identify minimal PI set (cover tables)

y All work is done in tabular form 
Number of variables is not a limitation  Basis for many computer implementations  Don¶t cares are easily handled

y Proper organization and term identification are key factors for correct results

Quine-McCluskey Minimization (cont.form ..) y Terms are initially listed one per line in groups  Each group contains terms with the same number of true and complemented variables  Terms are listed in numerical order within group y Terms and implicants are identified using one of three common notations  full variable form  cellular form  1.0.

variables and complements in algebraic form  hard to identify when adjacency applies  very easy to make mistakes y Cellular form .Notation Forms y Full variable form . indexes must differ by power of two (one bit)  Implicants identified by term nos. in () following terms .terms are identified by their decimal index value  Easy to tell when adjacency applies. differing bit pos. separated by comma.

) y 1..form .Notation Forms (cont.terms are identified by their binary index value  Easier to translate to/from full variable form  Easy to identify when adjacency applies.0.shows variable(s) dropped when adjacency is used y Different forms may be mixed during the minimization . one bit is different  .

D) = 7 m(4.8.6.0.10. C.13) Full variable 1 2 ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD ABCD Cellular 4 8 5 6 10 13 1.Example of Different Notations F(A.0100 1000 0101 0110 1010 1101 3 . B.5.

6. Group by number of true variables (# of 1¶s).D) = m(4. Implication Table Column I 0000 0100 1000 0101 0110 1001 1010 0111 1101 1111 NOTE: DCs are included in this step! .B.-) y Quine-McCluskey Method  Tabular method to systematically find all prime implicants  (A.7.9.5.Implication Table (1.13) + d(0.15)  Part 1: Find all prime implicants  Step 1: Fill Column 1 with active-set and DC-set minterm indices.8.0.C. 10.

6. Group by number of true variables (# of 1¶s).C. Implication Table Column I 0 4 8 5 6 9 10 7 13 15 NOTE: DCs are included in this step! .5.D) = m(4.15)  Part 1: Find all prime implicants  Step 1: Fill Column 1 with active-set and DC-set minterm indices.8.B. 10.7.9.13) + d(0.Implication Table (cellular) y Quine-McCluskey Method  Tabular method to systematically find all prime implicants  (A.

One bit difference implies adjacent.g.Compare elements of group with N 1's against those with N+1 1's. Repeat until nothing left.5. If cannot be combined.8. These are the prime implicants. E.15)  Part 1: Find all prime implicants  Step 2: Apply Adjacency .13) + d(0.C. Eliminate variable and place in next column. mark with a check.10. mark with a star. 0000 vs..B.D) = m(4. Implication Table Column I 0000  0100  1000  0101  0110  1001  1010  0111  1101  1111  Column II 0-00 -000 01001-0 10010-0 01-1 -101 0111-01 -111 11-1 .7.First Pass (1.9.6.-) y Quine-McCluskey Method  Tabular method to systematically find all prime implicants  (A. 1000 yields -000 When used in a combination.0. 0100 yields 0-00 0000 vs.Minimization .

4 yields 0.First Pass (cellular) y Quine-McCluskey Method  Tabular method to systematically find all prime implicants  (A. 0 vs.6(2) 8. mark with a check.Minimization .15(2) . E.13(4) 7.9. Next col is numbers with diff in parentheses.8(8) 4.7(2) When used in a combination..7(2) 5.15(8) 13.13(8) 6.D) = m(4.6.10.5(1) 4.Compare elements of group with N 1's against those with N+1 1's.7.g.8. These are the prime implicants.5.13) + d(0.4(4) 0.B.10(2) 5.9(1) 8.7(1) 9. mark with a star.15)  Part 1: Find all prime implicants  Step 2: Apply Adjacency . If cannot be combined. Repeat until nothing left. 7 yields 5. Implication Table Column I 0 4 8 5 6 9 10  7 13  15  Column II 0.C.4(4) 5 vs. 2n difference implies adjacent.

mark with a check.: Apply Adjacency . One bit difference implies adjacent.* 10-0 * 01-1  -101  011.g. These are the prime implicants.Minimization . Repeat until nothing left. If cannot be combined. Eliminate variable and place in next column. 1000 yields -000 When used in a combination.-) y Quine-McCluskey Method  Step 2 cont. Implication Table Column I 0000  0100  1000  0101  0110  1001  1010  0111  1101  1111  Column II Column III 0-00 * -000 * 010. 01-0  100..Second Pass (1. 0100 yields 0-00 0000 vs.* -1-1 * . mark with a star. 0000 vs.Compare elements of group with N 1's against those with N+1 1's. 1-01 * -111  11-1  01-. E.0.

These are the prime implicants.7(1) yields 4.13(8)  6.8(8) * 4. Repeat until nothing left.15 (10) * .5(1)  4.7(2)  5.10(2) * 5.5.7(3) * 5.5(1) and 6.7. If cannot be combined. E.7(1)  9.Compare elements of group with N 1's against those with N+1 1's.4(4) * 0.13(4) * 7.13.15(8)  13.: Apply Adjacency . mark with a check.7(3) When used in a combination. mark with a star.6. Next col is numbers with differences in parentheses. 2n difference implies adjacent. Implication Table Column I 0 4 8 5 6 9 10  7 13  15  Column II Column III 0.5.6.15(2)  4.Minimization .9(1) * 8.Second Pass (cellular) y Quine-McCluskey Method  Step 2 cont.6(2)  8.g.. 4.

Prime Implicants Prime Implicants: AB 00 CD 00 01 11 C 10 A 01 11 10 X 0 0 0 1 1 X 1 B 0 1 X 0 1 1 D 0 .00 ! A C D ..! A C 10 .0 ! A -1 -1 ! D D 0 1 1 .01 ! A C D .! A 01 .000 ! CD 100 .

000 ! CD 100 .0 ! A -1 -1 ! D D 0 1 1 .01 ! A C D Stage 2: find smallest set of prime implicants that cover the active-set recall that essential prime implicants must be in final expression ..! A C 10 .Prime Implicants (cont.! A 01 .) Prime Implicants: AB 00 CD 00 01 11 C 10 A 01 11 10 X 0 0 0 1 1 X 1 B 0 1 X 0 1 1 D 0 .00 ! A C D .

15(-1-1) X X X X X 4 5 6 8 9 10 13 X X X X X X X X Note: Don¶t include DCs in coverage table.6.7.13(1-01) 4.10(10-0) 9.8(-000) 8.7(01--) 5.4(0-00) 0.9(100-) 8.5.Coverage Table Coverage Chart 0. they don¶t have covered by the final logic expression! rows = prime implicants columns = ON-set elements place an "X" if ON-set element is covered by the prime implicant .13.

It must appear in minimum cover .13.10(10-0) 9.13(1-01) 4.7(01--) 5.7.15(-1-1) X X X X X 4 5 6 8 9 10 13 X X X X X X X X 0.6.10(10-0) 9.13(1-01) 4.5.8(-000) 8.5.Coverage Table (cont. than the implicant associated with the row is essential.4(0-00) 0.7(01--) 5.6.15(-1-1) X X X X X 4 5 6 8 9 10 13 X X X X X X X X rows = prime implicants columns = ON-set elements place an "X" if ON-set element is covered by the prime implicant If column has a single X.9(100-) 8.4(0-00) 0.) Coverage Chart 0.8(-000) 8.7.13.9(100-) 8.

15(-1-1) X X X X X 4 5 6 8 9 10 13 X X X X X X X X Eliminate all columns covered by essential primes .4(0-00) 0.10(10-0) 9.13(1-01) 4.13.6.5.9(100-) 8.7(01--) 5.Coverage Table (cont.7.) 0.8(-000) 8.

Coverage Table (cont.5.13.15(-1-1) X 4 5 6 8 9 10 13 X X X X X X X X 0.4(0-00) 0.7(01--) 5.7.13(1-01) 4.6.8(\000) 8.9(100-) 8.13.7.6.) 0.7(01--) X X X X 4 5 6 8 9 10 13 X X X X X X X X Eliminate all columns covered by essential primes Find minimum set of rows that cover the remaining columns A  AC  A .10(10-0) 9.8(\000) 8.9(100-) 8.10(10-0) 9.13(1-01) 4.5.4(0-00) 0.15(-1-1) X X X X X 5.