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2.2 Effects of Nonlinearity

2.3 Noise

2.4 Sensitivity and Dynamic Range

2.5 Passive Impedance Transformation

2.6 Scattering Parameters

2.7 Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamic Systems

2.8 Volterra Series

1

Behzad Razavi, RF Microelectronics. Prepared by Bo Wen, UCLA

Chapter Outline

Nonlinearity

Noise

Impedance

Harmonic Distortion Transformation

Compression Noise Spectrum

Intermodulation Device Noise Series-Parallel

Dynamic Nonlinear Noise in Circuits Conversion

Systems Matching Networks

S-Parameter

General Considerations: Units in RF Design

Voltage only holds when the input and

output impedance are equal

resistance of 50 Ω. Determine the peak-to-peak voltage swing across the load.

Solution:

Chapter 2 Basic Concepts in RF Design 3

Example of Units in RF

dBm. If the front-end amplifier provides a voltage gain of 15 dB, calculate the

peak-to-peak voltage swing at the output of the amplifier.

Solution:

Since the amplifier output voltage swing is of interest, we first convert the received signal

level to voltage. From the previous example, we note that -100 dBm is 100 dB below 632

mVpp. Also, 100 dB for voltage quantities is equivalent to 105. Thus, -100 dBm is equivalent

to 6.32 μVpp. This input level is amplified by 15 dB (≈ 5.62), resulting in an output swing of

35.5 μVpp.

dBm Used at Interfaces Without Power Transfer

dBm can be used at interfaces that do not necessarily entail power transfer

We mentally attach an ideal voltage buffer to node X and drive a 50-Ω load. We

then say that the signal at node X has a level of 0 dBm, tacitly meaning that if

this signal were applied to a 50-Ω load, then it would deliver 1 mW.

General Considerations: Time Variance

(superposition) of responses to individual inputs.

A system is time-invariant if a time shift in its input results in the same time

shift in its output.

If y(t) = f [x(t)]

Comparison: Time Variance and Nonlinearity

time variance plays a critical role and must not be confused with nonlinearity:

Nonlinear Linear

Time Variant Time Variant

Example of Time Variance

Plot the output waveform of the circuit above if vin1 = A1 cos ω1t and vin2 = A2

cos(1.25ω1t).

Solution:

As shown above, vout tracks vin2 if vin1 > 0 and is pulled down to zero by R1 if vin1 < 0. That is,

vout is equal to the product of vin2 and a square wave toggling between 0 and 1.

Time Variance: Generation of Other Frequency

Components

A linear system can generate frequency components that do not exist in the

input signal when system is time variant

Nonlinearity: Memoryless and Static System

linear

nonlinear

approximated with a polynomial

Example of Polynomial Approximation

can be expressed as

square root and assuming

Effects of Nonlinearity: Harmonic Distortion

The output of a “dynamic” system depends on the past values of its

input/output

Harmonic Harmonic

Even-order harmonics result from αj with even j

nth harmonic grows in proportion to An

Chapter 2 Basic Concepts in RF Design 12

Example of Harmonic Distortion in Mixer

An analog multiplier “mixes” its two inputs below, ideally producing y(t) =

kx1(t)x2(t), where k is a constant. Assume x1(t) = A1 cos ω1t and x2(t) = A2 cos ω2t.

(a) If the mixer is ideal, determine the output frequency components.

(b) If the input port sensing x2(t) suffers from third-order nonlinearity, determine

the output frequency components.

Solution:

(a)

(b)

Example of Harmonics on GSM Signal

Explain the effect of the harmonics of this signal.

Solution:

The second harmonic falls within another GSM cellphone band around 1800 MHz and must

be sufficiently small to negligibly impact the other users in that band. The third, fourth, and

fifth harmonics do not coincide with any popular bands but must still remain below a certain

level imposed by regulatory organizations in each country. The sixth harmonic falls in the 5-

GHz band used in wireless local area networks (WLANs), e.g., in laptops. Figure below

summarizes these results.

Gain Compression– Sign of α1, α3

Expansive Compressive

Gain Compression: 1-dB Compression Point

Output falls below its ideal value by 1 dB at the 1-dB compression point

Peak value instead of peak-to-peak value

Gain Compression: Effect on FM and AM Waveforms

compression.

AM contains information in its amplitude, hence distorted by compression

Gain Compression: Desensitization

For A1 << A2

by the interferer even though the desired signal itself is small.

Example of Gain Compression

must the second harmonic of the signal be suppressed (filtered) so that it does

not desensitize a 1.8-GHz receiver having P1dB = -25 dBm? Assume the receiver is

1 m away and the 1.8-GHz signal is attenuated by 10 dB as it propagates across

this distance.

Solution:

The output power at 900 MHz is equal to +30 dBm. With an attenuation of 10 dB, the second

harmonic must not exceed -15 dBm at the transmitter antenna so that it is below P1dB of the

receiver. Thus, the second harmonic must remain at least 45 dB below the fundamental at

the TX output. In practice, this interference must be another several dB lower to ensure the

RX does not compress.

Effects of Nonlinearity: Cross Modulation

Thus

Example of Cross Modulation

Does cross modulation occur in this case?

Solution:

Expressing the input as:

where the second term represents the interferer (A2 is constant but Φ varies with time)

We now note that (1) the second-order term yields components at ω1 ± ω2 but not at ω1; (2)

the third-order term expansion gives 3α3A1 cos ω1t A22 cos2(ω2t+Φ), which results in a

component at ω1. Thus,

Chapter 2 Basic Concepts in RF Design 21

Effects of Nonlinearity: Intermodulation— Recall

Previous Discussion

Effects of Nonlinearity: Intermodulation

assume

Thus

Intermodulation products:

Fundamental components:

Intermodulation Product Falling on Desired Channel

Interferer

desired

Intermodulation product falls onto the desired channel, corrupts signal.

Example of Intermodulation

Suppose four Bluetooth users operate in a room as shown in figure below. User 4

is in the receive mode and attempts to sense a weak signal transmitted by User 1

at 2.410 GHz. At the same time, Users 2 and 3 transmit at 2.420 GHz and 2.430 GHz,

respectively. Explain what happens.

Solution:

Since the frequencies transmitted by Users 1, 2, and 3 happen to be equally spaced, the

intermodulation in the LNA of RX4 corrupts the desired signal at 2.410 GHz.

Intermodulation: Tones and Modulated Interferers

In intermodulation Analyses:

(a) approximate the interferers with tones

(b) calculate the level of intermodulation products at the output

(c) mentally convert the intermodulation tones back to modulated components

so as to see the corruption.

Chapter 2 Basic Concepts in RF Design 26

Example of Gain Compression and Intermodulation

input impedance of 50 Ω. The LNA senses a desired signal level of -80 dBm at

2.410 GHz and two interferers of equal levels at 2.420 GHz and 2.430 GHz. For

simplicity, assume the LNA drives a 50-Ω load.

(a) Determine the value of α3 that yields a P1dB of -30 dBm.

(b) If each interferer is 10 dB below P1dB, determine the corruption experienced by

the desired signal at the LNA output.

Solution:

(b) Each interferer has a level of -40 dBm (= 6.32 m Vpp), we determine the amplitude of the

IM product at 2.410 GHz as:

Intermodulation: Two-Tone Test and Relative IM

A is given

Intermodulation: Third Intercept Point

extrapolation

Chapter 2 Basic Concepts in RF Design 29

Example of Third Intercept Point

A low-noise amplifier senses a -80-dBm signal at 2.410 GHz and two -20-dBm

interferers at 2.420 GHz and 2.430 GHz. What IIP3 is required if the IM products

must remain 20 dB below the signal? For simplicity, assume 50-Ω interfaces at the

input and output.

Solution:

Thus

Third Intercept Point: A reasonable estimate

For a given input level (well below P1dB), the IIP3 can be calculated by halving

the difference between the output fundamental and IM levels and adding the

result to the input level, where all values are expressed as logarithmic

quantities.

Chapter 2 Basic Concepts in RF Design 31

Effects of Nonlinearity: Cascaded Nonlinear Stages

Thus,

Example of Cascaded Nonlinear Stages

equation above such that IP3 goes to infinity?

Solution:

With no asymmetries in the cascade, α2 = β2 = 0. Thus, we seek the condition α3β1 + α13β3 = 0,

or equivalently,

Since both stages are compressive, α3/α1 < 0 and β3/β1 < 0. It is therefore impossible to

achieve an arbitrarily high IP3.

Cascaded Nonlinear Stages: Intuitive results

To “refer” the IP3 of the second stage to the input of the cascade, we must

divide it by α1. Thus, the higher the gain of the first stage, the more

nonlinearity is contributed by the second stage.

Chapter 2 Basic Concepts in RF Design 34

IM Spectra in a Cascade (Ⅰ)

Let us assume x(t) =Acos ω1t + Acos ω2t and identify the IM products in a cascade:

IM Spectra in a Cascade (Ⅱ)

Adding the amplitudes of the IM products, we have

Heavily attenuated in narrow-band circuits

Thus, if each stage in a cascade has a gain greater than unity, the nonlinearity

of the latter stages becomes increasingly more critical because the IP3 of each

stage is equivalently scaled down by the total gain preceding that stage.

Chapter 2 Basic Concepts in RF Design 36

Example of Cascaded Nonlinear Stages

followed by a mixer with an input IP3 of +4 dBm. Which stage limits the IP3 of the

cascade more?

Solution:

Since the scaled IP3 of the second stage is lower than the IP3 of the first stage, we say the

second stage limits the overall IP3 more.

Linearity Limit due to Each Stage

Examine the relative IM magnitudes at the output of each stage to find out

which stage limits the linearity more

Effects of Nonlinearity: AM/PM Conversion

Assume that

obtaining

fundamental, Const.

Chapter 2 Basic Concepts in RF Design 39

AM/PM Conversion: Time-Variation of Capacitor

Example of AM/PM Conversion: Second Order

Voltage Dependence

Suppose C1 in above RC section is expressed as C1 = C0(1 + α1Vout + α2Vout2).

Study the AM/PM conversion in this case if Vin(t) = V1 cos ω1t.

Figure below plots C1(t) for small and large input swings, revealing that Cavg indeed depends

on the amplitude.

input-dependent term, -(α2R1C0ω1V12 )/2. This figure

also suggests that AM/PM conversion does not

occur if the capacitor voltage dependence is odd-

symmetric.

Noise: Noise as a Random Process

Higher temperature

The average current remains equal to VB/R but the instantaneous current

displays random values

frequency.

Chapter 2 Basic Concepts in RF Design 42

Measurement of Noise Spectrum

remainder of the spectrum and measure the average power of the 10-kHz

component.

Chapter 2 Basic Concepts in RF Design 43

Noise Spectrum: Power Spectral Density (PSD)

Two-Sided One-Sided

Total area under Sx(f) represents the average power carried by x(t)

Example of Noise Spectrum

where k = 1.38 × 10-23 J/K denotes the Boltzmann constant and T the absolute

temperature. Such a flat PSD is called “white” because, like white light, it contains

all frequencies with equal power levels.

(a) What is the total average power carried by the noise voltage?

(b) What is the dimension of Sv(f)?

(c) Calculate the noise voltage for a 50-Ω resistor in 1 Hz at room temperature.

(a) The area under Sv(f) appears to be infinite, an implausible result because the resistor

noise arises from the finite ambient heat. In reality, Sv(f) begins to fall at f > 1 THz, exhibiting

a finite total energy, i.e., thermal noise is not quite white.

(b) The dimension of Sv(f) is voltage squared per unit bandwidth (V2/Hz)

(c) For a 50-Ω resistor at T = 300 K

Effect of Transfer Function on Noise/ Device Noise

deterministic signals to be applied to random signals as well.

Polarity of the sources is unimportant but must be kept same throughout the

calculations

Chapter 2 Basic Concepts in RF Design 46

Example of Device Noise

Sketch the PSD of the noise voltage measured across the parallel RLC tank

depicted in figure below.

Modeling the noise of R1 by a current source and noting that the transfer function Vn/In1 is, in

fact, equal to the impedance of the tank, ZT , we write

At f0, L1 and C1 resonate, reducing the circuit to only R1. Thus, the output noise at f0

is simply equal to 4kTR1. At lower or higher frequencies, the impedance of the tank falls and

so does the output noise.

Can We Extract Energy from Resistor?

Suppose R2 is held at T = 0 K

PR2,max = kT

A Theorem about Lossy Circuit

If the real part of the impedance seen between two terminals of a passive

(reciprocal) network is equal to Re{Zout}, then the PSD of the thermal noise

seen between these terminals is given by 4kTRe{Zout}

Noise in MOSFETS

approximated by a current source tied between the source and drain terminals,

or can be modeled by a voltage source in series with gate.

Gate-induced Noise Current

current flowing through the channel

couples to the gate capacitively

Flicker Noise and An Example

Yes, a MOSFET having a small-signal voltage source of magnitude V1 in series with its gate

is equivalent to a device with a current source of value gmV1 tied between drain and source.

Thus,

Noise in Bipolar Transistors

Bipolar transistors contain physical resistances in their base, emitter, and collector regions,

all of which generate thermal noise. Moreover, they also suffer from “shot noise” associated

with the transport of carriers across the base-emitter junction.

In low-noise circuits, the base resistance thermal noise and the collector

current shot noise become dominant. For this reason, wide transistors biased

at high current levels are employed.

Representation of Noise in Circuits: Input-Referred

Noise

Voltage source: short the input port of models A and B and equate their output

noise voltage

Current source: leave the input ports open and equate the output noise voltage

Example of Input-Referred Noise

below (left). Assume I1 is ideal and neglect the noise of R1.

Solution:

Another Example of Input-Referred Noise

Explain why the output noise of a circuit depends on the output impedance of the

preceding stage.

Solution:

Modeling the noise of the circuit by input-referred sources, we observe that some of noise

current flows through Z1, generating a noise voltage at the input that depends on |Z1|. Thus,

the output noise, Vn,out, also depends on |Z1|.

Noise Figure

Depends on not only the noise of the circuit under consideration but the SNR

provided by the preceding stage

If the input signal contains no noise, NF=∞

Calculation of Noise Figure

Reduce the right hand side to a simpler form:

Calculation of NF: Summary

Calculation of NF

by the gain from Vin to Vout due to the amplifier, divide it

and normalize the result to by the gain, normalize it to

the noise of Rs 4kTRs and add 1 to the

result

incorporate noise and signal voltages, no inconsistency arises in the presence

of impedance mismatches or even infinite input impedances.

Example of Noise Figure Calculation

impedance RS

Solution:

Another Example of Noise Figure Calculation

Determine the noise figure of the common-source stage shown in below (left) with

respect to a source impedance RS. Neglect the capacitances and flicker noise of

M1 and assume I1 is ideal.

Solution:

This result implies that the NF falls as RS rises. Does this mean that, even though the

amplifier remains unchanged, the overall system noise performance improves as RS

increases?!

Chapter 2 Basic Concepts in RF Design 61

Noise Figure of Cascaded Stages (Ⅰ)

Noise Figure of Cascaded Stages (Ⅱ)

This quantity is in fact the “available power gain” of the first stage, defined as the “available

power” at its output, Pout,av (the power that it would deliver to a matched load) divided by the

available source power, PS,av (the power that the source would deliver to a matched load).

Called “Friis’ equation”, this result suggests that the noise contributed by each stage

decreases as the total gain preceding that stage increases, implying that the first few stages

in a cascade are the most critical.

Chapter 2 Basic Concepts in RF Design 63

Example of Noise Figure of Cascaded Stages

Neglect the transistor capacitances and flicker noise.

Solution:

where

Another Example of Noise Figure of Cascaded

Stages

Determine the noise figure of the circuit shown below. Neglect transistor

capacitances, flicker noise, channel-length modulation , and body effect.

Solution:

Noise Figure of Lossy Circuits

Example of Noise Figure of Lossy Circuits

suppress some of the interferers that may desensitize the LNA. If the filter has a

loss of L and the LNA a noise figure of NFLNA, calculate the overall noise figure.

Solution:

we write Friis’ equation as

where NFLNA is calculated with respect to the output resistance of the filter. For example, if L

= 1.5 dB and NFLNA = 2 dB, then NFtot = 3.5 dB.

Sensitivity and Dynamic Range: Sensitivity

The sensitivity is defined as the minimum signal level that a receiver can

detect with “acceptable quality.”

Noise Floor

Chapter 2 Basic Concepts in RF Design 68

Example of Sensitivity

of 200 kHz. A wireless LAN receiver, on the other hand, specifies a minimum SNR

of 23 dB and has a channel bandwidth of 20 MHz. Compare the sensitivities of

these two systems if both have an NF of 7 dB.

Solution:

For the GSM receiver, Psen = -102 dBm, whereas for the wireless LAN system, Psen = -71 dBm.

Does this mean that the latter is inferior? No, the latter employs a much wider bandwidth

and a more efficient modulation to accommodate a data rate of 54 Mb/s. The GSM system

handles a data rate of only 270 kb/s. In other words, specifying the sensitivity of a receiver

without the data rate is not meaningful.

Dynamic Range Compared with SFDR

DR SFDR

Maximum tolerable desired signal Lower end equal to sensitivity.

power divided by the minimum Higher end defined as maximum

tolerable desired signal power input level in a two-tone test for

which the third-order IM products

do not exceed the integrated noise

of the receiver

Chapter 2 Basic Concepts in RF Design 70

SFDR Calculation

Example Comparing SFDR and DR

The upper end of the dynamic range is limited by intermodulation in the presence

of two interferers or desensitization in the presence of one interferer. Compare

these two cases and determine which one is more restrictive.

Solution:

Since

Noise floor

Passive Impedance Transformation: Quality Factor

Series-to-Parallel Conversion

Qs=Qp

Parallel-to-Series Conversion

Series-to-Parallel Conversion: will retain the value of the capacitor but raises

the resistance by a factor of Qs2

Parallel-to-Series Conversion: will reduce the resistance by a factor of QP2

Basic Matching Networks

Thus,

RL transformed

down by a factor

Setting imaginary

part to zero

If

Example of Basic Matching Networks

at a center frequency of 5 GHz.

Solution:

Assuming QP2 >> 1, we have C1 = 0:90 pF and L1 = 1.13 nH, respectively. Unfortunately,

however, QP = 1.41, indicating the QP2 >> 1 approximation cannot be used. We thus obtain C1

= 0:637 pF and L1 = 0:796 nH.

Transfer a Resistance to a Higher Value

If

RL boosted

Another Example of Basic Matching Networks

Solution:

We postulate that conversion of the L1-RL branch to a parallel section produces a higher

resistance. If QS2 = (L1ω/RL)2 >> 1, then the equivalent parallel resistance is

L-Sections

the current by the above factor.

Chapter 2 Basic Concepts in RF Design 80

Example of L-Sections

A closer look at the L-sections (a) and (c) suggests that one can be obtained from

the other by swapping the input and output ports. Is it possible to generalize this

observation?

Solution:

Yes, it is. Consider the arrangement shown above (left), where the passive network

transforms RL by a factor of α. Assuming the input port exhibits no imaginary component,

we equate the power delivered to the network to the power delivered to the load:

If the input and output ports of such a network are swapped, the resistance transformation

ratio is simply inverted.

Impedance Matching by Transformers

Loss in Matching Networks

We define the loss as the power provided by the input divided by that delivered to RL

Scattering Parameters

The difference between the incident power (the power that would be delivered

to a matched load) and the reflected power represents the power delivered to

the circuit.

S11 and S12

incident waves at the input port

when the reflection from RL is zero.

Represents the accuracy of the

input matching

at the input port to the incident

wave into the output port when the

input is matched

Characterizes the reverse isolation

S21 and S22

on the load to that going to the

input when the reflection from RL is

zero

Represents the gain of the circuit

incident waves at the output when

the reflection from Rs is zero

Represents the accuracy of the

output matching

Scattering Parameters: A few remarks

We often express S-parameters in units of dB

The condition V2+=0 does not mean output port of the circuit must be

conjugate-matched to RL.

Input Reflection Coefficient

accuracy of impedance matching at the input of receivers.

Called the “input reflection coefficient” and denoted by Gin, this quantity can

also be considered to be S11 if we remove the condition V2+ = 0

Chapter 2 Basic Concepts in RF Design 88

Example of Scattering Parameters (Ⅰ)

Determine the S-parameters of the common-gate stage shown in figure below

(left). Neglect channel-length modulation and body effect.

Drawing the circuit as shown above (middle), where CX = CGS + CSB and CY = CGD + CDB, we

write Zin = (1/gm)||(CXs)-1 and

For S12, we recognize that above arrangement yields no coupling from the output to the

input if channel-length modulation is neglected. Thus, S12 = 0.

Example of Scattering Parameters (Ⅱ)

Determine the S-parameters of the common-gate stage shown in figure below

(left). Neglect channel-length modulation and body effect.

For S22, we note that Zout = RD||(CY s)-1 and hence

Lastly, S21 is obtained according to the configuration of figure above (right). Since V2-/Vin =

(V2-/VX)(VX/Vin), V2- /VX = gm[RD||RS||(CY s)-1], and VX/Vin = Zin/(Zin + RS), we obtain

Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamic Systems：Basic

Consideration

Input:

Output: harmonics

IM products

substitute for y(t) from this expression, equate the like terms, and compute an,

bn, cm,n, and the phase shifts.

Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamic Systems: Harmonic

Balance

We must now substitute for Vout(t) and Vin(t) in the above equation, convert

products of sinusoids to sums, bring all of the terms to one side of the

equation, group them according to their frequencies, and equate the

coefficient of each sinusoid to zero.

This type of analysis is called “harmonic balance” because it predicts the

output frequencies and attempts to balance the two sides of the circuit’s

differential equation

Volterra Series(Ⅰ)

C1 = C0, then

Volterra Series(Ⅱ)

Linear responses

Nonlinear responses

Example of Volterra Series(Ⅰ)

Determine H2(ω1,ω2) for the RC circuit with nonlinear capacitor previoius shown

Solution:

Example of Volterra Series(Ⅱ)

Determine H2(ω1,ω2) for the RC circuit with nonlinear capacitor previoius shown

Another Example of Volterra Series

determine the amplitude of the second harmonic at the output.

Solution:

As mentioned earlier, the component at 2ω1 is obtained as H2(ω1, ω1)V02 exp[j(ω1 + ω1)t]

Thus, the amplitude is equal to

Since

Volterra Series: Nth-Order Terms

Example of Volterra Kernel Calculation

Determine the third Volterra kernel for the same circuit discussed above.

Solution:

assume

Volterra Series: Harmonic Method

1. Assume Vin(t) = V0 exp(jω1t) and Vout(t) = H1(ω1)V0 exp(jω1t). Substitute for Vout and Vin

in the system’s differential equation, group the terms that contain exp(jω1t), and compute

the first (linear) kernel, H1(ω1).

H1(ω2)V0exp(jω2t)+H2(ω1; ω2)V02 exp[j(ω1 +ω2)t]. Make substitutions in the differential

equation, group the terms that contain exp[j(ω1 + ω2)t], and determine the second kernel,

H2(ω1; ω2).

substitutions, group the terms that contain exp[j(ω1 + ω2 + ω3)t], and calculate the

third kernel, H3(ω1; ω2; ω3).

4. To compute the amplitude of harmonics and IM components, choose ω1, ω2, · · · properly.

For example, H2(ω1; ω1) yields the transfer function for 2ω1 and H3(ω1;-ω2; ω1) the transfer

function for 2ω1 - ω2.

Volterra Series: Method of Nonlinear Currents

1. Assume Vin(t) = V0 exp(jω1t) and determine the linear response of the circuit by ignoring

the nonlinearity. The “response” includes both the output of interest and the voltage across

the nonlinear device.

2. Assume Vin(t) = V0 exp(jω1t) + V0 exp(jω2t) and calculate the voltage across the nonlinear

device, assuming it is linear. Now, compute the nonlinear component of the current flowing

through the device, assuming the device is nonlinear.

3. Set the main input to zero and place a current source equal to the nonlinear component

found in Step 2 in parallel with the nonlinear device.

4. Ignoring the nonlinearity of the device again, determine the circuit’s response to the

current source applied in Step 3. Again, the response includes the output of interest and the

voltage across the nonlinear device.

5. Repeat Steps 2, 3, and 4 for higher-order responses. The overall response is equal to the

output components found in Steps 1, 4, etc.

Example Using Method of Nonlinear Currents (Ⅰ)

Solution:

Step 1

The voltage across the capacitor is equal to:

Step 2

Example Using Method of Nonlinear Currents (Ⅱ)

Solution:

Step 3

Set the input to zero, assume a linear capacitor, and apply IC1,non(t) in parallel with C1

Step 4

Example Using Method of Nonlinear Currents (Ⅲ)

Step 5

Another Example Using Method of Nonlinear

Currents (Ⅰ)

Figure below shows the input network of a commonly-used LNA (Chapter 5).

Assuming that gmL1/CGS = RS (Chapter 5) and ID = α(VGS-VTH)2, determine the

nonlinear terms in Iout. Neglect other capacitances, channel-length modulation,

and body effect.

Solution: Step 1

Step 2

assume

Another Example Using Method of Nonlinear

Currents (Ⅱ)

Figure below shows the input network of a commonly-used LNA (Chapter 5).

Assuming that gmL1/CGS = RS (Chapter 5) and ID = α(VGS-VTH)2, determine the

nonlinear terms in Iout. Neglect other capacitances, channel-length modulation,

and body effect.

Solution: Step 3&4

Thus, for s = jω

Another Example Using Method of Nonlinear

Currents (Ⅳ)

Figure below shows the input network of a commonly-used LNA (Chapter 5).

Assuming that gmL1/CGS = RS (Chapter 5) and ID = α(VGS-VTH)2, determine the

nonlinear terms in Iout. Neglect other capacitances, channel-length modulation,

and body effect.

Solution: Step 5

assume

References (Ⅰ)

References (Ⅱ)

References (Ⅲ)

- Chapter 5 Homework SolutionUploaded byözlemArtuk
- PIM TrainingUploaded byAldrichPaypon
- Microwave and Wireless Measurement TechniquesUploaded bygonnos28106
- Radio Monitoring ITU Measurement Request[1]Uploaded bywinapriska
- EC2254Uploaded byshankar
- EN 60068-2-27Uploaded byRaki Rock
- Skymasts Tetra Antenna Product Catalogue 2013Uploaded byFabio Costa
- Output Filters Design GuideUploaded byMohamed
- RPI DAC Lecture Oct 08Uploaded bysivagamipalani
- tmpC43E.tmpUploaded byFrontiers
- 19469588 Do It Your Self OpampUploaded bydudulemarc
- 25961867-7076151-Basic-ElectricalUploaded byshilpisabhikhi
- Ccs Timing WpUploaded bySeshareddy Katam
- 5956-4361Uploaded byEugenCarti
- Single State TransistorUploaded bykaran007_m
- Doc 4774Uploaded bySuleman Jamil
- Xtr101 IC DatasheetUploaded byRick Jordan
- tps65162Uploaded byNaji Fsaisi
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