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Belief Systems

What are belief systems?

• Belief systems are organized ways to view the world
• Typically include a moral code, or way to live life
• Religions are belief systems with a god(s)
• Monotheistic- one god
• Polytheistic- more than one god
Nature Religions
• Each of these religions focuses on living in harmony with nature and nature
spirits (making them polytheistic)

Animism Shinto Taoism

• Began in Africa and • Began in Japan • Began in China
the Americas • Kami- ancient • Contemplate Tao-
• Everything has a gods/nature spirits “the way”
spirit • Shrines are marked • Balance of Yin and
• Communicate with by Tori Gates Yang
dead ancestors
• Started in India
• Founded through cultural diffusion from the Aryans
• Main Ideas:
• Polytheistic
• Goal is to unite with Brahman (unifying spirit)
• Reincarnate to get closer to Brahman
• Dharma- moral duty
• Karma- good gets good, bad gets bad
• Caste System
• Ganges River is sacred
• Started in India, but moved to Southeast Asia
• Founded by Siddhartha Gautama
• Main Ideas:
• No god
• Goal is to reach Nirvana (enlightenment)
• Reincarnation to try to reach Nirvana
• Four Noble Truths- life is suffering because of desire
• Eightfold Path- how to end desire and reach Nirvana
• Started in China
• Founded by Confucius
• Main Ideas:
• No god
• Five Relationships- everyone has a position that must
be respected to keep order in society
• Ruler to ruled
• Father to son
• Older brother to younger brother
• Husband to wife
• Friend to friend
• Filial Piety- respect for elders
• Started in the Middle East, practiced worldwide
• Founded by Abraham/Moses
• Main Ideas:
• Monotheistic
• 10 Commandments
• Holy book is the Torah (Old Testament)
• Diaspora- Jews were forced to leave Israel
and searched for a place to practice
• Started in Israel, currently practiced worldwide
• Founded by Jesus (the Messiah)
• Main Ideas
• Monotheistic
• 10 Commandments
• Holy Book- the Bible (New Testament)

The primary difference between

Judaism and Christianity is that the Jews
do not thing the Messiah has come
• Started on the Arabian peninsula, currently practiced worldwide but
primarily in the Middle East
• Founded by Muhammad
• Main Ideas:
• Monotheistic- Allah
• Five Pillars of Faith
• The Hajj- pilgrimage to Mecca
• Sharia Law
Other Belief Systems
• Legalism
• China- based on the idea that humans are evil and harsh punishments
are needed to keep order in society
• Humanism
• Renaissance Europe- focus on humans/individuals and life on earth
instead of on God and Heaven
The Ten Commandments and Five Pillars of Wisdom are
similar in that they
1. established a class structure for society
2. are guidelines for living
3. consist of prayers for salvation
4. promise a happy and easy life
Islam, Judaism, and Christianity are similar in that they
1. place great value on having many statues and
images of holy people
2. believe in Mohammed as the Prophet of God
3. are monotheistic in belief
4. require their members to settle in the Holy Land
Hinduism and Buddhism are similar in that both
1. practice a belief in many gods
2. provide followers with a rigid social caste system
3. stress attainment of a better life through
spiritual rebirth
4. look to the teaching of one person for their basic
The terms Brahma, dharma, and moksha are most
closely associated with which religion?
1. Judaism
2. Islam
3. Hinduism
4. animism
• Showing respect for parents
• Maintaining family honor
• Honoring all elders
Which term is most closely related to these three
1. nirvana
2. animism
3. filial piety
4. hadj (hajj)
2 nd Quiz Music 8
1. Vocal music is music made specifically for voices. It may be performed
with or without instruments
2. Instrumental music – type of music that is made solely for instruments.
3. The country with 17,500 islands and 238M people, its capital is Jakarta
4. The Pinpeat is a Cambodian musical ensemble or an orchestra that
usually accompanies ceremonial music of the royal courts and temples.
5. 5-9 name the instruments used in pinpeat musical ensemble
6. 10-11 – 2 types of music sacle in Indonesia
7. 12- Indonesian term for tempo
8. The Gamelan or Gamelan orchestra is the most popular form of music in
9. 14-15 vocal music used in Gamelan music
10. 16- Karawitan is the term for every kind of gamelan music in Java.