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Minerals and Rocks

LESSON 7
What is the difference between magma
and lava?
 Magma is composed of molten rock and is
stored in the Earth's
crust. Lava is magma that reaches the surface
of our planet through a volcano vent
What are Igneous Rocks?
 Igneous rocks are formed from the
solidification of molten rock material.
There are two basic types.

2 types of Rocks in Igneous Rocks


o Intrusive igneous rocks
o Extrusive igneous rocks
What is the Plutonic or Intrusive
rocks?
 Intrusive rock, also called plutonic rock, igneous
rock formed from magma forced into older rocks at
depths within the Earth’s crust, which then slowly
solidifies below the Earth’s surface, though it may later
be exposed by erosion. Igneous intrusions form a
variety of rock types.
Example of Intrusive Rocks
Granite rock

Diorite rock

Gabbro rock
What is the Volcanic and
Extrusive rocks?
 Extrusive igneous rocks form when magma reaches
the Earth's surface a volcano and cools quickly. Most
extrusive (volcanic) rocks have small crystals.
Examples include basalt, rhyolite, andesite, and obsidian.
Example of Extrusive rocks
Rhyolite rock

Andesite rock

Basalt rock
Igneous Rock Composition
What Are Sedimentary Rocks?
 Sedimentary rocks are formed by the
accumulation of sediments. There are three
basic types of sedimentary rocks.

3 types of rocks in Sedimentary rocks


o Clastic sedimentary rocks
o Chemical sedimentary rocks
o Organic sedimentary rocks
Clastic sedimentary rocks

 Clastic sedimentary rocks such as


breccia, conglomerate, sandstone,
siltstone, and shale are formed from
mechanical weathering debris.
Example of Clastic Sedimentary
Rocks
 Breccia is a clastic
sedimentary rock that
is composed of large
(over two-millimeter
diameter) angular
fragments. The
spaces between the
large fragments can
be filled with a matrix
of smaller particles or
a mineral cement
which binds the rock
together.
Example of Clastic Sedimentary
Rocks
 Conglomerate is a
clastic sedimentary rock
that contains large
(greater than two
millimeters in diameter)
rounded particles. The
space between the
pebbles is generally filled
with smaller particles
and/or a chemical cement
that binds the rock
together.
Example of Clastic Sedimentary
Rocks
 Sandstone is a clastic
sedimentary rock made
up mainly of sand-size
(1/16 to 2 millimeter
diameter) weathering
debris. Environments
where large amounts of
sand can accumulate
include beaches, deserts,
flood plains, and deltas.
Example of Clastic Sedimentary
Rocks
 Siltstone is a clastic
sedimentary rock that
forms from silt-size
(between 1/256 and
1/16 millimeter
diameter) weathering
debris.
Example of Clastic Sedimentary
Rocks
 Shale is a clastic
sedimentary rock that
is made up of clay-size
(less than 1/256
millimeter in
diameter) weathering
debris. It typically
breaks into thin flat
pieces.
Chemical sedimentary rocks
 Chemical sedimentary rocks, such as
rock salt, iron ore, chert, flint, some
dolomites, and some limestones, form
when dissolved materials precipitate from
solution.
Example of Chemical Sedimentary
Rock
 Iron Ore is a chemical
sedimentary rock that
forms when iron and
oxygen (and sometimes
other substances)
combine in solution and
deposit as a sediment.
Hematite (shown above)
is the most common
sedimentary iron ore
mineral.
Example of Chemical Sedimentary
Rock
 Chert is a breaks and used it to
microcrystalline or fashion cutting tools and
cryptocrystalline weapons.
sedimentary rock material
composed of silicon
dioxide (SiO2). It occurs as
nodules and
concretionary masses, and
less frequently as a layered
deposit. It breaks with a
conchoidal fracture, often
producing very sharp
edges. Early people took
advantage of how chert
Example of Chemical Sedimentary
Rock
 Flint is a hard, tough, sedimentary rocks
chemical or such as chalk and
biochemical marine limestones.
sedimentary rock that
breaks with a
conchoidal fracture. It
is a form of
microcrystalline
quartz that is typically
called “chert” by
geologists. It often
forms as nodules in
Example of Chemical Sedimentary
Rock
 Dolomite (also known as
"dolostone" and "dolomite
rock") is a chemical
sedimentary rock that is
very similar to limestone.
It is thought to form when
limestone or lime mud is
modified by magnesium-
rich ground water.
Example of Chemical Sedimentary
Rock
 Limestone is a rock that of the most common are:
is composed primarily of production of cement,
calcium carbonate. It can crushed stone, and acid
form organically from the neutralization.
accumulation of shell,
coral, algal, and fecal
debris. It can also form
chemically from the
precipitation of calcium
carbonate from lake or
ocean water. Limestone is
used in many ways. Some
Organic sedimentary rocks

 Organic sedimentary rocks such as


coal, some dolomites, and some limestones,
form from the accumulation of plant or
animal debris.
Example of Organic Sedimetary
Rock
 Coal is an organic
sedimentary rock that
forms mainly from plant
debris. The plant debris
usually accumulates in a
swamp environment. Coal
is combustible and is often
mined for use as a fuel.
The specimen shown
above is about two inches
(five centimeters) across.
Example of Organic Sedimetary
Rock
 Dolomite (also known as
"dolostone" and "dolomite
rock") is a chemical
sedimentary rock that is
very similar to limestone. It
is thought to form when
limestone or lime mud is
modified by magnesium-
rich ground water. The
specimen shown above is
about four inches (ten
centimeters) across.
What are Metamorphic Rocks?
 Metamorphic rocks have been modified
by heat, pressure, and chemical processes,
usually while buried deep below Earth's
surface. Exposure to these extreme
conditions has altered the mineralogy,
texture, and chemical composition of the
rocks.
There are two basic types of
metamorphic rocks.
 Foliated metamorphic rocks such as
gneiss, phyllite, schist, and slate have a
layered or banded appearance that is
produced by exposure to heat and
directed pressure.
 Non-foliated metamorphic rocks
such as hornfels, marble, quartzite, and
novaculite do not have a layered or banded
appearance.
Example of Foliated
metamorphic rocks
 Gneiss is a foliated
metamorphic rock
that has a banded
appearance and is
made up of granular
mineral grains. It
typically contains
abundant quartz or
feldspar minerals.
Example of Foliated
metamorphic rocks
 Phyllite is a foliated
metamorphic rock that
is made up mainly of
very fine-grained mica.
The surface of phyllite is
typically lustrous and
sometimes wrinkled. It
is intermediate in grade
between slate and
schist.
Example of Foliated
metamorphic rocks
 Schist is a metamorphic
rock with well-
developed foliation. It
often contains
significant amounts of
mica which allow the
rock to split into thin
pieces. It is a rock of
intermediate
metamorphic grade
between phyllite and
gneiss.
Example of Foliated
metamorphic rocks
 Slate is a foliated
metamorphic rock
that is formed
through the
metamorphism of
shale. It is a low-
grade
metamorphic rock
that splits into thin
pieces.
Example of Non-foliated
metamorphic rocks
 Hornfels is a fine-grained
nonfoliated metamorphic
rock with no specific
composition. It is
produced by contact
metamorphism. Hornfels
is a rock that was "baked"
while near a heat source
such as a magma chamber,
sill, or dike.
Example of Non-foliated
metamorphic rocks
 Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic
rock that is produced from the
metamorphism of limestone or
dolostone.
Example of Non-foliated
metamorphic rocks
 Quartzite is a non-foliated
metamorphic rock that is produced by
the metamorphism of sandstone. It is
composed primarily of quartz.
Example of Non-foliated
metamorphic rocks
 Novaculite is a dense, silicon dioxide) are
hard, fine-grained, abundant in the water.
siliceous rock that
breaks with a
conchoidal fracture. It
forms from sediments
deposited in marine
environments where
organisms such as
diatoms (single-celled
algae that secrete a
hard shell composed of
The Rock Cycle