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UNIVERSE AND

THE SOLAR
SYSTEM
OBJECTIVES
 Describe the structure and composition of the
Universe;
 State the different hypothesis that preceded the
Big Bang Theory of the Origin of the Universe.
 Explain the red-shift and how it used as proof of
an expanding universe;
 Explain the Big Bang Theory and evidences
supporting the theory.
IMPORTANT TERMS
 BARYONIC MATTER - "ordinary" matter consisting of
protons, electrons, and neutrons that comprises atoms,
planets, stars, galaxies, and other bodies.

 DARK MATTER - matter that has gravity but does not


emit light.

 DARK ENERGY - a source of anti-gravity; a force that


counteracts gravity and causes the universe to expand.
 PROTOSTAR - an early stage in the formation of a
star resulting from the gravitational collapse of gases.

 THERMONUCLEAR REACTION - a nuclear fusion


reaction responsible for the energy produced by stars.

 MAIN SEQUENCE STARS - stars that fuse hydrogen


atoms to form helium atoms in their cores; outward
pressure resulting from nuclear fusion is balanced by
gravitational forces

 LIGHT YEARS - the distance light can travel in a year;


a unit of length used to measure astronomical distance
The Earth as part of the solar system - inner terrestrial (as opposed to the outer gaseous
planets) .
Earth is also known as "the third rock from the Sun".
The Hubble Deep Field
STRUCTURE,
COMPOSITION, AND AGE
 The universe as we currently know it comprises all
space and time, and all matter and energy in it.
 It is made of 4.6% baryonic matter (“ordinary” matter
consisting of protons, electrons, and neutrons: atoms,
planets, stars, galaxies, nebulae, and other bodies), 24%
cold dark matter (matter that has gravity but does not
emit light), and 71.4% dark energy (a source of anti-
gravity)
 Dark matter can explain what may be holding galaxies
together for the reason that the low total mass is
insufficient for gravity alone to do so while dark energy
can explain the observed accelerating expansion of the
STRUCTURE,
 COMPOSITION,
Hydrogen, helium, and lithium areAND
the three AGE
most
abundant elements.
 Stars - the building block of galaxies-are born out of clouds of
gas and dust in galaxies. Instabilities within the clouds
eventually results into gravitational collapse, rotation, heating
up, and transformation into a protostar-the hot core of a future
star as thermonuclear reactions set in.
 Stellar interiors are like furnaces where elements are
synthesized or combined/fused together. Most stars such as
the Sun belong to the so-called “main sequence stars.” In the
cores of such stars, hydrogen atoms are fused through
thermonuclear reactions to make helium atoms. Massive main
sequence stars burn up their hydrogen faster than
smaller stars. Stars like our Sun burnup hydrogen in about 10