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Business and Academic Marketing Research

Dr. Alvi Furwanti Alwie,SE.,MM

Lecturer MFEB Riau University
WA 081372478448
IG alvi_Alwie
FB Alvi Furwanti Alwie
Dr. Alvi Furwanti Alwie, SE.,MM

S3 Political Marketing UB
S2 Marketing UNPAD
S1 Management UNRI
Lecturer at MFEB UNRI S1/S2
Independent Business OwneR
Licensed STIFIn Promotor
Early Phases
of Market
1 of Marketing
Classification of
2 Marketing

3 Marketing
Research Process

The Role of
Marketing Research
of Marketing
The American Marketing Association (AMA) redefined
Marketing Research as:

The function that links the consumer, the

customer, and public to the marketer

1 2 3 4
Used to identify Generate,
and define refine, and Monitor Improve
evaluate marketing understanding
marketing performance of marketing
performance as a process
and problems
Marketing Research
Is The Systematic And Objective

Step 2 Step 4
collection Dissemination

1 2 3 4 5
Step 1 Step 3 Step 5
Identification And Use Of
For The Purpose Of
Improving Decision Making
Related To The …

• Identification and
• Solution of problems and opportunities in marketing.
• Specifies the information necessary to address these issues
• Manages and implements the data collection process
• Analyzes the results
• Communicates the findings and their implications
• Helps managers use this information to make decisions
of Marketing
Problem-Identification Research
Research undertaken to help identify
problems which are not necessarily
apparent on the surface and yet exist or
are likely to arise in the future. Examples:
market potential, market share, image,
market characteristics, sales analysis,
forecasting, and trends research.

Problem-Solving Research
Research undertaken to help solve
specific marketing problems.
Examples: segmentation, product,
pricing, promotion, and
distribution research
A Classification of Marketing Research

Marketing Research

Problem Problem-Solving
Identification Research Research

Market Potential Research Segmentation Research

Market Share Research
Market Characteristics Research Product Research
Sales Analysis Research Pricing Research
Forecasting Research Promotion Research
Business Trends Research
Distribution Research
Problem-Solving Research
Table 1.1

 Determine the basis of segmentation
 Establish market potential and
responsiveness for various
 Test concept
 Select target markets
 Determine optimal product design
 Create lifestyle profiles:
demography, media, and  Package tests
product image characteristics  Product modification
 Brand positioning and repositioning
 Test marketing
Problem-Solving Research
 Optimal promotional budget
0.00 APR
 Sales promotion relationship
%  Optimal promotional mix
 Copy decisions
 Media decisions
 Creative advertising testing
 Evaluation of advertising effectiveness
 Pricing policies
 Importance of price in brand selection
 Product line pricing
 Price elasticity of demand $ALE
 Initiating and responding to price
Problem-Solving Research

Types of distribution
Attitudes of channel members
Intensity of wholesale & resale coverage
Channel margins
Location of retail and wholesale outlets
11 – Steps in Marketing Research Process
Step 1 • Establish the need for marketing research

Step 2 • Define the problem

Step 3 • Establish research objectives

Step 4 • Determine research design

Step 5 • Identify information types and sources

Step 6 • Determine methods of accessing data

Step 7 • Design data collection forms

Step 8 • Determine sample plan and size

step 9 • Collect data

Step 10 • Analyze data

Step 11 • Prepare and present the final research reports

Dr. Hj. Alvi Furwanti Alwie, SE.,MM -
Marketing Research
Step 1: Establish the Need for Marketing
• The need for marketing research arises when
managers must make decisions and they have
inadequate information.
• Not all decisions will require marketing research.
• Research takes time and costs money
• Managers must weight the value possibly derived
from conducting marketing research and having the
information at hand against, the cost of obtaining
that information.

Dr. Hj. Alvi Furwanti Alwie, SE.,MM -

Marketing Research
When is Marketing Research Not Needed?
(page 70)

 The information is already available

 Managers make many decisions. Many of these decisions are routine
and the manager has the experience to make the decision without any
additional information.
 The timing is wring to conduct marketing research
 Funds are not available for marketing research
 Costs outweigh the value of marketing research

Dr. Hj. Alvi Furwanti Alwie, SE.,MM -

Marketing Research
Step 2: Define the Problem
• This is the most important step, because if the
problem is incorrectly defined, all else is wasted
• Defining the problem is the most important step in
the marketing research process. If the wrong problem
is defined, everything else is wrong.

Dr. Hj. Alvi Furwanti Alwie, SE.,MM -

Marketing Research
• Two sources of problem
• We must understand that problems may come from two different
sources. A problem exists when a gap exists between what was
supposes to happen and what did happen, failure to meet an
• This second type of problem, called an opportunity, occurs when
there is a gap between what did happen and what could have
happened. A marketing opportunity has been defined as an area
of buyer need or potential interest in which a company can
perform profitably.

Dr. Hj. Alvi Furwanti Alwie, SE.,MM -

Marketing Research
Step 3: Establish Research Objectives
• Research objectives state what the researchers must do.
• A process for determining the problem and establishing
research objectives “when the source of the problem is a
failure to meet an objective”:….hal 79.
• assess the background and the manager’s situation.
• Clarify the symptoms of the problem
• Pinpoint suspected causes of the symptom
• Specify solutions that may alleviate the symptom
• Identify the manager’s assumptions about the consequences
of the solutions
• Assess the adequency of information on hand to specify
research objectives.

Dr. Hj. Alvi Furwanti Alwie, SE.,MM -

Marketing Research
Step 4: determine research design
• By research design we are referring to the research
approach undertaken to meet the research
objectives. There are three widely recognized
research designs:
• Exploratory (67): informal research that is undertaken to
learn more about the research problem, learn terms and
definitions, or identify research priority.
• Descriptive : refers to research that describes the
phenomena of interest.
• Causal design: causal studies attempt to uncover what
factor or factors cause some event.

Dr. Hj. Alvi Furwanti Alwie, SE.,MM -

Marketing Research
Step 5: identify Informations types and
• Since research provides information to help solve
problems, researchers must identifify the type and
sources of informations they will use.
• There are two types of information: primary
(information collected specifically for the problem at
hand) and secondary (information already collected).

Dr. Hj. Alvi Furwanti Alwie, SE.,MM -

Marketing Research
Step 6: determine methods of accessing data
• Accessing data may be accomplished throught a
variety of methods. While secondary data is relatively
easy to access, accessing primary data is much more
• When researcher must communicate with
respondents, there are three main choices of
accessing data:
• Have a person ask questions (home survey or telephone
• Use computer-assisted or direct questions (assisted
telephone intervien or OL survey delivered to an e-mail
• Allow respondents to answer questions themselves
without computer assistance (mail survey)
Dr. Hj. Alvi Furwanti Alwie, SE.,MM -
Marketing Research
Step 7: design data collection forms
• If we communicate with respondents (ask them
questions), the form is called questionnaire.
• If we observe respondents, the form is called an
observation form
• The questions asked will generate answers that
satisfy the research objectives and that can therefore
be used to solve the problem.
• The questions must be worded properly so that they
are clear and unbiased.

Dr. Hj. Alvi Furwanti Alwie, SE.,MM -

Marketing Research
Step 8: determine sample plan and size
• Marketing research studies are undertaken to learn about
populations by taking a sample of that population.
• A population consists of the entire group that the
researcher wishes to make inferences about based upon
information provided by the sample data.
• Populations should be defined by the research objectuves.
• A sample is a subset of the population
• Sample plan describe how each sample element, or unit, is
to be drawn from the total population.
• How many elements of the population should be used to
make up the sample? The size of the sample determines
how accuately your sample result reflect values in the
Dr. Hj. Alvi Furwanti Alwie, SE.,MM -
Marketing Research
• Step 9: collect data
• Nonresponse errors (105 malhotra)
• Response errors
• Step 10: Analyze Data
• Marketing researchers transfer data from the data
collection forms and enter the data into software packages
that aid them in analyzing the data
• Step 11: prepare and present the final research
• The reports is very important because, often, this is the
only record of the research project for the client

Dr. Hj. Alvi Furwanti Alwie, SE.,MM -

Marketing Research
The Role of
The Role of Marketing Research
Fig. 1.2 Customer Groups
• Consumers
• Employees
• Shareholders
• Suppliers
Controllable Environmental
Marketing Factors
Marketing • Economy
• Product
Research • Technology
• Pricing
• Laws &
• Promotion Regulations
• Distribution • Social &
Assessing Marketing Cultural Factors
Information Information Decision • Political Factors
Needs Making

Marketing Managers
• Market Segmentation
•Target Market Selection
• Marketing Programs
• Performance & Control
Power Decisions ’Methodology

Opportunity scan
Option generation
Solve Problem
Refine options
Needs Find Seek Plan Act

Achieve Goal

How Clarify Research Evaluate Market Advise

Plan Assist
We Decisions Analysis Interpret Recommend
Facilitate Research Execution

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