You are on page 1of 19

CRUDE OIL POLLUTION

INTRODUCTION
1. Petroleum (Crude oil + Petroleum products) is used in manufacturing a
wide variety of materials, and it is estimated that the world consumes
about 88 million barrels each day.
2. The excess use of petroleum is exerting a negative impact on Earth's
environment.

3. This negative impact is termed as CRUDE OIL POLLUTION.


4. Oil spills are the major source of chemical pollution and have devastating
effects.
TOXIC SUBSTANCES IN OIL ..
• Petroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring flammable liquid
consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various
molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds.

1. Light weight components (bp<150°C):


MAIN
High acute toxicity, e.g., benzene, COMPONENTS OF
toluene, xylene THE CRUDE OIL:
• AROMATICS
2.Medium weight components (bp: 150-
450°C): • HYDROCARBONS
Moderate acute and chronic • NAPTHELENE
toxicity , e.g., naphthalene
• SULFUR
3.High weight components( bp> 450°C):
• N2 , O2
Moderate acute toxicity
• Na , Ni , Fe , Va
High chronic toxicity, e.g.,
benzopyrene
TYPES OF OIL CAUSING POLLUTION
OILS SOURCES…

THE GRAPH SHOWS HOW MANY MILLIONS OF GALLON


OF OIL EACH SOURCE PUTS INTO THE OCEANS
WORLDWIDE EACH YEAR..
NATURAL
SEEPS
If oil is natural to the oceans and if it is the biggest
source of input, what is the fuss about oil as a
pollutant ??

Oil seeps are generally old, so the marine plants


and animals in these ecosystems have had
hundreds to thousands of years to adjust and
acclimate to the exposure to petroleum chemicals.
On the other hand, the production, transportation,
and consumption of oil by humans often results in
the input of oil to ecosystems that have not
experienced significant direct inputs.
OIL SPILLS ??

OIL SPILL IS THE


ACCIDENTAL OR
INTENTIONAL RELEASE OF
LIQUID PETROLEUM
HYDROCARBON INTO THE
OCEAN OR COASTAL
WATERS DUE TO HUMAN
ACTIVITY MAINLY…
CAUSES OF OIL SPILLS…
• Sinking or leakage of Oil
carrying vessels or Oil
pipelines

• Illegal dumping by
industries

• Countries at war

• Terrorist activities

• Natural Disasters
SOURCES OF OIL
SEA POLLUTION
LAND BASED
• OPERATIONAL
BASED
DISCHARGES • DISCHARGES OF UNTREATED
MUNICIPAL SEWAGE OR SORM
• ACCIDENTAL WATER
DISCHARGES
• DISCHARGES OF UNTREATED
• LEAKAGES FROM WASTE WATER FROM
SUNKEN , GROUNDED COASTAL INDUSTRIES
OR ABANDONED SHIPS
• ACCIDENTAL OR OPERATIONAL
• FROM SHIPS ACCIDENTS DISCHARGES OF OIL FROM
• FROM OFFSHORE COASTAL REFINERIES, OIL
DRILLINGS STORAGE FACILITIES AND OIL
TERMINALS
• FROM OFFSHORE
PIPELINES
• SOME MAJOR OIL SPILLS…

1) DEEPWATER HORIZON
2)GULF WAR OIL SPILL
3) IXTOC 1 OIL WELL
4) ABT SUMMER
5) ATLANTIC EMPRESS
EFFECTS ON HUMAN LIFE

• RESPIRATORY PROBLEMS
• EYE AND SKIN IRRITATION
• NEUROLOGICAL EFFECTS
• HEADACHE AND DIZZINESS
EFFECT ON MARINE LIFE
• FISH AND OTHER PLANTS
AND ANIMAL DIE.
• FILM OF OIL ON WATER
SURFAC RESULTS IN LACK OF
OXYGEN.
• FISHES HATCH WITH TWISTED SPINE &
DEFORMED HEARTS.
EFFECTS FOOD WEB WHEN OIL
REACHES SEA BED.
NATURAL RECOVERY PROCESS MAY
REQUIRE 10 YEARS.
Frequently crude oil is set on fire in a wrecked ship
when an accident occurs. The problem of burning
surface oil is very difficult due to less thickness of the
layer and large surface area. The volatile fraction
evaporates quickly and makes it impossible to ignite
without doping special measures.

It can be performed by employing devices for collecting


oil from a large area of water to make it a thicker layer in
harbor sheltered places.
Spraying gelling agents with a certain amount of mixing
energy into the oil spill causes formation of gel or
coagulation. The resulting lumps can be collected easily
in the vicinity of a wrecked ship.

Mixing small fine granular solids of fairly high density


(sand) culminates into slurry, sinking the oil spill to the
bottom of the seabed.

Floating oil can be separated due to absorption applying


chemicals.
THANK YOU

PRESENTED BY-
SANKLAN CHANDAK
ADESH JALATKAR
ROHIT ALAI
SAGAR BADE
JAYESH THACKAREY