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INTERVIEWING –

GENERAL PRINCIPLES
An INTERVIEW is a planned
and controlled conversation
which has a purpose for at
least one of the participants,
and during which both speak
and listen from time to time.
THE EFFECTIVE INTERVIEW

 Must have a purpose


 Must be planned

 Must have controlled


interaction
THE PURPOSE OF AN
INTERVIEW

 is to exchange information,
this includes:
 Obtaining information

 Passing information

 Clarifying information
The four basic purposes of
interviews are:
 Dissemination of information (teaching, journalism)
 Seeking behavioural change (sales, counseling,
discipline, performance appraisal)
 Problem-solving and decision-making (employment,
performance appraisal, counseling, grievance
procedures, parent-teacher discussions)
 Research and discovery (academic research, polls
and opinions surveys, casework, market research)
TYPES OF INTERVIEW
INFORMATION

 There are six common types of interview


information:
 Description
 Factual knowledge
 Behaviours
 Attitudes and beliefs
 Feelings
 Values
TYPES OF BUSINESS INTERVIEW

 Employment
 Performance appraisal
 Counseling
 Discipline
 Termination
 Induction
 Consulting
 Sales
 Data gathering
 Order-giving
PLANNING AN INTERVIEW

 Successful interviews are the result of careful


planning and preparation
 Always think through what you want to accomplish,
this is related to the why? of the interview.
 Analyze the person/s involved to answer the question
who?
 Analysis of the context should help you to know
about the where and when?
 Determining the topics, the types of questions should
help to answer the question what?
 Deciding on the structure of the interview should give
you clues about the how? of the interview
THE STRUCTURE OF INTERVIEWS

 The structure of the interview


will depend on the purpose
of interview, the type of
interview and the restrictions
(if any).
THE INTERVIEW CAN TAKE ONE
OF THE FOLLOWING SHAPES:

 Non-structured interview – no prearranged


schedule or framing of questions.
 Moderately structured interview – involve
planning and framing of the major
questions.
 Highly structured interview – all questions
arranged and scheduled in advance.
 Standardized / highly structured interviews
– All questions arranged and scheduled,
but in addition potential answers are
preplanned.
STRUCTURING THE INTERVIEW

 The opening
The success of the interview will
depend largely on the relationship
established during the first few minutes;
hence the opening should be handled with
care.
 The body
The body will depend on the extent to
which you will want to structure the
interview.
QUESTIONING AND PROBING
Basic types of questions
 Direct (close-ended) questions – interviewee has
very little or no freedom. One specific answer.
 Used when specific replies are sought
 Disadvantages – limit responses, does not encourage
talking.
 Yes/no (bipolar questions – limits the answer to yes
or no.
 Used when eliciting definite information quickly.
 Disadvantages – limited in answers permitted; force
interviewee to opt for one or other extreme answer.
QUESTIONING AND PROBING
Basic types of questions
 Leading questions – make it obvious what answer
should be; interviewee in charge
 Used when purpose of interview is persuasive
 Disadvantages – can put interviewee under severe
pressure; help interviewee to give the right answer
 Loaded questions – use of emotive words that indicates
the response the interviewer wants.
 Used when interviewer is trying to find out how able the
interviewee is to resist being led, how strongly they hold
their own opinions
QUESTIONING AND PROBING
Basic types of questions
 Open-ended questions – allows interviewee maximum
freedom in responding
 Used when interviewer wants to know about interviewee’s
attitudes, beliefs and motivation; how well interviewee can
collect thoughts, organize what they say, and express
themselves

 Disadvantages – may lead to time being wasted,
futile discussion
 Prompting questions – help interviewee to see clearly what
interviewer is getting at.
 Used to help interviewee who has ‘gone blank’
 Disadvantages – can be tempting to the hasty interviewer
QUESTIONING AND PROBING
Basic types of questions
 Probing questions – indicate the need for a follow-up
question
 Used to elicit more detail, encourage interviewee to keep
talking; steer interviewee on track; move him/her from
general to specific.
 Disadvantages – may make interviewee feel they are
being interrogated
 Hypothetical questions – deal with the’ if?’ and ‘ What
would you do?’ Aspect
 Used to determine how interviewee might handle some
job-related situations.
 Can help discover interviewee’s prejudices, stereotypes,
attitudes, values and beliefs.
QUESTIONING AND PROBING
Basic types of questions
 The last two aspects are:
 Sequencing the questions
• Open-ended questions to specific questions
(funnel sequencing)
• Close-ended to open-ended questions (inverted
funnel sequencing)
• Series of similar questions (tunnel sequencing)
CLOSING THE INTERVIEW – WHEN?

 Time limit is up
 Have the information you wanted
 Managed to persuade the interviewee
 The problem has been solved
 When interview will be unproductive
 More information is needed
 Other people to be interviewed
 Closing note
 Summarize views expressed
 Thank interviewee for participating
 Agree on actions and follow-up.