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Fluid dynamics

Engr. Mansaf Ali Abro


Lecturer, Mechanical Engineering
Department, Isra University Hyderabad.
Contents
• Fluid in motion defined
• Types of fluid flow
• Reynold’s number
• Equation of continuity
Fluid in Motion
 Fluid can move or flow in many ways.
 Water may flow smoothly and slowly in a quiet stream or
violently over a waterfall.
 The air may form a gentle breeze or a raging tornado.
 To deal with such diversity, it is necessary to know basic
types of fluid flow.
Types Of Fluid Flow
1) Uniform and Non Uniform Flow
2) Steady and Unsteady Flow.
3) Compressible & Incompressible Flow.
4) Viscous and Non-viscous Fluid Flow
5) Laminar & Turbulent Flow.
Uniform and Non Uniform Flow
uniform flow: A uniform flow is one in which the
velocity of fluid is of same magnitude and direction
at every point.
non-uniform: But, if at a given instant, the velocity is
not the same, then the flow is termed as non
uniform flow.
Steady or Unsteady Flow
 The term steady implies no change at a point with time.
In steady flow the velocity of the fluid particles at any point is
constant as time passes.

where P is any property like pressure, velocity or density.


 Unsteady flow exists whenever the velocity at a point in the
fluid changes as time passes.
Steady or Unsteady Fluid Flow
Compressible and
Incompressible Flow
Compressible Flow: In which the density of fluid changes
during flow .
 Gases are highly compressible
Incompressible Flow: If the density of flowing fluid remains
nearly constant throughout the flow (e.g., liquid flow).
Most liquids are nearly incompressible; that is, the density of a
liquid remains almost constant as the pressure changes.
Viscous and Non-viscous Fluid
Flow
 Viscosity is a measure of the amount of internal friction in the
fluid. It is due to the cohesion and interaction of molecules
with each other.
 It is also a measure of thickness of a fluid, and very gloppy
fluids such as motor oil or shampoo are called viscous fluids.
 When a fluid flows, the layers of fluid rub against one
another, and in very viscous fluids, the friction is so great that
the layers of flow pull against one another and hamper that
flow.
 In Viscous flow Energy dissipates into the fluid.

Non-viscous flow: The fluid flows with no energy loss.


Streamline Flow
 Streamline flow in which the motion of a fluid follows the
same path at a particular point as that followed by previous
particles.
 When the flow is steady, streamlines are often used to represent
the trajectories of the fluid particles.
 A streamline is a line drawn in the fluid such that a tangent to
the streamline at any point is parallel to the fluid velocity at that
point.
Laminar flow
 The highly ordered fluid flow is
known as laminar flow
 The flow of high-viscosity fluids such
as oils at low velocities is typically
laminar.
 Also known as streamline flow
 Occurs when the fluid flows in
parallel layers, with no disruption
between the layers
Laminar flow
3 Conditions
– fluid moves slowly
– viscosity is relatively high
– flow channel is relatively small

Blood flow through capillaries is laminar flow,


as it satisfies the 3 conditions.
Turbulent flow
 The highly disordered fluid motion that typically occurs at
high velocities and is characterized by velocity
fluctuations.
 Usually occurs when the liquid is moving fast.
 The flow of low-viscosity fluids such as air at high
velocities is typically turbulent.
 The flow is ‘chaotic’ and there are irregular fluctuations
 Includes:
 high momentum convection
 rapid variation of pressure and velocity of the fluid
Turbulent Flow
 The speed of the fluid at a point is continuously
undergoing changes in both magnitude and
direction.
Examples of turbulence
 Turbulence during air-plane’s flight

 Most of terrestrial atmospheric circulation

 Flow of most liquids through pipes


Transitional Flow
A flow that alternates between being laminar
and turbulent.
Reynolds Number
A dimensionless number in fluid mechanics

Re = Inertial Forces = ρvd


Viscous Forces μ

At a critical value of Reynolds number, flow changes


from laminar to turbulent
Reynold’s number
Flow in a pipe or liquid
 p is the density of the fluid
 V is the mean fluid velocity
 D is the diameter
Dynamic Pressure
 Q is the volumetric flow rate

 μ is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid


Shearing Stress
 v is the kinematic velocity of the fluid
 A is the pipe cross-sectional area.
Reynold’s number
• The Reynold’s number can be used to
determine if a flow is laminar, transient or
turbulent

• Laminar when Re < 2300


• Turbulent when Re > 4000
• Transient when 2300 < Re < 4000
The Equation of Continuity

Q: Have you ever used your thumb to control the water flowing
from the end of a hose?
A: When the end of a hose is partially closed off, thus reducing
its cross-sectional area, the fluid velocity increases.
This kind of fluid behavior is described by the equation of
continuity.
Equation of Continuity
Questions?