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Lecturer, Mechanical Engineering

Department, Isra University Hyderabad.

Contents

• Fluid in motion defined

• Types of fluid flow

• Reynold’s number

• Equation of continuity

Fluid in Motion

Fluid can move or flow in many ways.

Water may flow smoothly and slowly in a quiet stream or

violently over a waterfall.

The air may form a gentle breeze or a raging tornado.

To deal with such diversity, it is necessary to know basic

types of fluid flow.

Types Of Fluid Flow

1) Uniform and Non Uniform Flow

2) Steady and Unsteady Flow.

3) Compressible & Incompressible Flow.

4) Viscous and Non-viscous Fluid Flow

5) Laminar & Turbulent Flow.

Uniform and Non Uniform Flow

uniform flow: A uniform flow is one in which the

velocity of fluid is of same magnitude and direction

at every point.

non-uniform: But, if at a given instant, the velocity is

not the same, then the flow is termed as non

uniform flow.

Steady or Unsteady Flow

The term steady implies no change at a point with time.

In steady flow the velocity of the fluid particles at any point is

constant as time passes.

Unsteady flow exists whenever the velocity at a point in the

fluid changes as time passes.

Steady or Unsteady Fluid Flow

Compressible and

Incompressible Flow

Compressible Flow: In which the density of fluid changes

during flow .

Gases are highly compressible

Incompressible Flow: If the density of flowing fluid remains

nearly constant throughout the flow (e.g., liquid flow).

Most liquids are nearly incompressible; that is, the density of a

liquid remains almost constant as the pressure changes.

Viscous and Non-viscous Fluid

Flow

Viscosity is a measure of the amount of internal friction in the

fluid. It is due to the cohesion and interaction of molecules

with each other.

It is also a measure of thickness of a fluid, and very gloppy

fluids such as motor oil or shampoo are called viscous fluids.

When a fluid flows, the layers of fluid rub against one

another, and in very viscous fluids, the friction is so great that

the layers of flow pull against one another and hamper that

flow.

In Viscous flow Energy dissipates into the fluid.

Streamline Flow

Streamline flow in which the motion of a fluid follows the

same path at a particular point as that followed by previous

particles.

When the flow is steady, streamlines are often used to represent

the trajectories of the fluid particles.

A streamline is a line drawn in the fluid such that a tangent to

the streamline at any point is parallel to the fluid velocity at that

point.

Laminar flow

The highly ordered fluid flow is

known as laminar flow

The flow of high-viscosity fluids such

as oils at low velocities is typically

laminar.

Also known as streamline flow

Occurs when the fluid flows in

parallel layers, with no disruption

between the layers

Laminar flow

3 Conditions

– fluid moves slowly

– viscosity is relatively high

– flow channel is relatively small

as it satisfies the 3 conditions.

Turbulent flow

The highly disordered fluid motion that typically occurs at

high velocities and is characterized by velocity

fluctuations.

Usually occurs when the liquid is moving fast.

The flow of low-viscosity fluids such as air at high

velocities is typically turbulent.

The flow is ‘chaotic’ and there are irregular fluctuations

Includes:

high momentum convection

rapid variation of pressure and velocity of the fluid

Turbulent Flow

The speed of the fluid at a point is continuously

undergoing changes in both magnitude and

direction.

Examples of turbulence

Turbulence during air-plane’s flight

Transitional Flow

A flow that alternates between being laminar

and turbulent.

Reynolds Number

A dimensionless number in fluid mechanics

Viscous Forces μ

from laminar to turbulent

Reynold’s number

Flow in a pipe or liquid

p is the density of the fluid

V is the mean fluid velocity

D is the diameter

Dynamic Pressure

Q is the volumetric flow rate

Shearing Stress

v is the kinematic velocity of the fluid

A is the pipe cross-sectional area.

Reynold’s number

• The Reynold’s number can be used to

determine if a flow is laminar, transient or

turbulent

• Turbulent when Re > 4000

• Transient when 2300 < Re < 4000

The Equation of Continuity

Q: Have you ever used your thumb to control the water flowing

from the end of a hose?

A: When the end of a hose is partially closed off, thus reducing

its cross-sectional area, the fluid velocity increases.

This kind of fluid behavior is described by the equation of

continuity.

Equation of Continuity

Questions?

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