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TYPES OF RESEARCH

BY
Mohammed Roshif U
INTRODUCTION
• Research means search of knowledge.
• Research is an art of scientific investigation.
• Research is a movement from the known to the
unknown.
• Research is a scientific and systematic search for
pertinent information on a specific topic.
DEFINITION
“Research comprises defining and redefining problems,
formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions,
collecting and organizing and evaluating data, making
deductions and reaching conclusions, and at last
carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether
they fit the formulating hypothesis”.
- Clifford Woody
PURPOSE
• To identify problems
• Eg: Why is the demand for a product is falling?
• To help making decisions
• Eg: Should we maintain advertising budget same as last year?
• To find alternate strategies.
• Eg: Pull Strategy or Push Strategy?
• To develop new concepts.
• Eg: CRM, Horizontal Marketing etc.
SIGNIFICANCE
• Research inculcates scientific and inductive thinking.
• It promotes the development of logical habits of thinking
and organization.
• Research provides the basis for nearly all government
policies in our economic system.
• Research has its special significance in solving various
operational and planning problems of business and
industry.
• Research is important for social scientists in studying
social relationships and in seeking answers to various
social problems.
• To professionals research may mean a source of
livelihood.
• To philosophers and thinkers, research means the
outlet for new ideas and insights.
• To literary men and women, research may mean the
development of new styles and creative work.
• To analysts and intellectuals, research may mean the
development of new theories
LIMITATIONS
• Formulation of research aims and objectives:
• Implementation of data collection method.
• Sample size
• Lack of previous studies in the research area.
TYPES OF RESEARCH
• DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
• To describe the state of the affairs as it exists at present.
• It is a fact finding investigation.
• The main characteristics of this method is that the
researcher has no control over the variables.
• The researcher can only report what has happened or
what is happening.
• In social science and business research descriptive
research studies can be termed as Ex post facto research
• Descriptive research includes surveys and fact-
finding enquiries of different kinds.
• It deals with the demographic characteristics of the
consumer.
• It describes the characteristics of the respondent in
relation to a particular product.
• In this research definite conclusions can be arrived at.
ANALYTICAL RESEARCH
• It is a specific type of research that involves critical
thinking skills and the evaluation of facts.
• A variety of people including students, doctors and
psychologists use analytical research during studies.
• In analytical research, the researcher has to use facts
or information already available, and analyze these to
make a critical evaluation of the material.
APPLIED RESEARCH
• Aims at finding a solution for an immediate problem
faced by any business organization.
• Deals with real life situations.
• It has a practical problem solving emphasis.
• It brings out many new facts.
EXAMPLE
• Market research (To develop a new market for a
product).
• Improve agricultural crop production
• Treat or cure a specific disease.
• Improve the energy efficiency of homes, offices or
modes of transportation.
Pure/Fundamental or Basic
Research
• Gathering knowledge for knowledge’s sake.
• It is not directly involved with practical problem.
• It does not have any commercial potential.
• There is no intention to apply this into practice.
• It is mainly concerned with generalizations and
formulation of a theory
EXAMPLE
• The basic science investigations probe for answers to
questions such as:
• How did the universe begin?
• What is the genetic code of the fruit fly?
QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
• It refers to the systematic empirical investigation of
any phenomena via, mathematical or computational
techniques.
• It is based on the quantitative measurements of some
characteristics.
• It is applicable to phenomena that can be expressed in
terms of quantities.
• The objective is to develop and employ mathematical
models, theories and or hypotheses pertaining to a
phenomena.
TYPES OF QUANTITATIVE
RESEARCH
• Survey Research
• Correlational Research
• Causal-Comparative Research
• Experimental Research
QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
• This research is concerned with qualitative
phenomena that is phenomena relating to or involving
quality or kind.
• Qualitative research is especially important in the
behavioural sciences where the aim is to discover the
underlying motives of human behaviour.
• Motivation research is an important type of
qualitative research.
• This type of research aims at discovering the
underlying motives and desires using indepth
interviews for the purpose.
• Other techniques of such research are word
association test, Sentence completion, story
completion test etc.
TYPES OF QUALITATIVE
RESEARCH
• One-on-One Interview
• Focus groups
• Ethnographic research
• Record keeping
• Case study research
Conceptual research
• Used by philosophers.
• It is related to some abstract idea or theory.
• The researcher to should collect the data to prove or
disapprove the hypotheses.
• Various ideologies are examples.
• It is generally used by philosophers and thinkers to
develop new concepts or to reinterpret existing ones.
EMPIRICAL RESEARCH
• This research relies on experience or observation
alone.
• It is data based research, coming up conclusions
which are capable of being verified by observation or
experiment.
• This research is otherwise calling it as experimental
type of research.
• This research is characterized by the experimenter’s
control over the variables.
EXAMPLE
• A research is being conducted to find out if listening
to happy music while working may promote
creativity?
Other Types of Research
• a. Phenomenological Research
• b. Historical Research
• c. Grounded Theory research
Challenges
• Lack of a scientific training in the methodology of
research.
• Lack of sufficient interaction between the university
research departments
• code of conduct
• Confidence
• Overlapping
• Researchers face the difficulty of adequate and
timely secretarial assistance, including computer
assistance.
• Unsatisfactory Library facilities.
• Unavailability of data published by the
Government.
THANK YOU