Prepared by : Shurouq qadose 29/4/2008

ƒ

An adult human has about 4±6 liters of blood circulating in the body. Among other things, blood transports oxygen to various parts of the body. Blood consists of several types of cells floating around in a fluid called plasma.

ƒ

The platelets help the blood to clot . The white blood cells fight infection. Red blood cells transport oxygen to. . a protein that binds oxygen. the body tissues. The plasma contains salts and various kinds of proteins.The red blood cells contain hemoglobin. and remove carbon dioxide from.

or platelets into the patient¶s venous circulation. The person receiving the blood is the recipient. such as with a major cut or when the body is not adequately producing cells such as platelets.A blood transfusion is the infusion of whole blood or a blood component such as plasma. The person giving the blood is the donor. A blood transfusion is given because of red blood cell loss. . red blood cells.

.

Blood Groups Human blood is commonly classified into four main groups (A. they also known as agglutinogens. Many blood antigens have been identified. and RH are the most important in determining blood group or type.The surface of an individual¶s red blood cells contains a number of proteins known as antigens that are unique for each person. B. and O). but the antigens A. . Because antigens promote agglutination or clumping of blood cells. AB. B.

Neither antigen is present in people with group O blood . the B antigen is present in people with blood group B.The A antigen or agglutinogens is present on the RBCs of people with blood group A . and both A and B antigens are found on the RBC surface in people with group AB blood . .

Preformed antibodies to RBC antigens are present in the plasma. A antibodies are present in people with blood group B . these antibodies are often called agglutinins. People with blood group A have B antibodies (agglutinins ). and people with blood group O have antibodies to both A and B antigens . .People with group AB blood do not have antibodies to either A or B antigens .

If a person with type O blood is transfused with blood from a person with either group A or group B blood. there would be destruction of the recipient¶s red blood cells because his or her anti-A or anti-B agglutinins would react with the A or B antigens in the donor¶s red blood cells. .

This example shows why individuals with type AB blood are often called universal recipients (because people in this blood group have no agglutinins for either A or B antigens) and group O people are often called universal donors (because they have neither A nor B antigens). .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

Rh blood does not naturally contain Rh antibodies. the recipient develops Rh antibodies. Subsequent transfusion with Rh-positive blood may cause serious reactions with clumping and hemolysis of red blood cells. .Rhesus (RH) Factor The Rh factor is an inherited antigen in human blood. If Rhpositive blood is injected into an Rh-negative person. Blood that contains the Rh factor is known as Rh positive. when it is not present the blood is said to be Rh ± negative.

.

.Before any blood can be given to a patient. The laboratory examination to determine a person¶s blood group and Rh factor is called Blood Typing. it must be determined that the blood of the donor is compatible with the patient.

If no antibodies to the donated RBCS are present in the recipient¶s serum. and the mixture is examined for visible agglutination. .The process of determining compatibility between blood specimens is crossmatching. RBCs from the donor blood are mixed with serum from the recipient. agglutination does not occur and the risk of transfusion reaction is small. a reagent from (Coombs¶ serum) is added.

and other viruses that can be transmitted to the recipient. The blood will be tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).Blood donors must be selected with care. Not only must the donor¶s blood be accurately typed. hepatitis B virus (HBV). but it is also important to determine that the donor is free from diseases. .

. Autotransfusion eliminates the danger of transmitting cross-infection from donor to recipient and decreases the risk for complications from mismatched blood but requires advance planning (the blood must be donated 5 weeks before the surgery).Some patients who know in advance that they will need blood can donate their own blood for transfusion (autologous transfusion). also called autotransfusion.

whole blood can be easily separated into its components. With current technology. and patients receive only the blood product they need. .Whole blood is rarely used unless blood loss has been massive.

with a need to increase blood volume and red blood cells while avoiding cardiovascular overload ƒ Patient with GI bleeding.Red blood cells in concentrated form. with a need to maintain adequate hemoglobin levels without increasing blood pressure . may be used in the following situations: ƒ Patient with anemia suffering with a low red blood cell count ƒ Patient with cardiovascular failure. called packed red blood cells.

such as when plasma protein or the blood¶s clotting factor is low. . Fresh frozen plasma is particularly useful in emergencies for immediate restoration of fluid because serum transfusion presents no compatibility problems and time need not be lost seeking donors and matching blood. only plasma is required.In other situations.

.Platelet infusion is indicated for the treatment or prevention of bleeding associated with deficiencies in the number or function of a patient¶s platelets.

Transfusion Reactions Transfusion of ABO ± or Rh incompatible blood can result in a hemolytic transfusion reaction with destruction of the transfused RBCs and subsequent risk of kidney damage or failure. SEE THE TABLE IN PAGE 1474 ƒ .

THANKS .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful