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Engineering Training

ZXG10-BSS
Goal and Objectives

•Goal
•Be capable of installing and commissioning on ZXG10-BSS

•Objectives
• Be familiar with GSM fundamental
• Be familiar with the base principles of ZXG10-BSC,BTS
• Be good at OMCR operation
• Be familiar with common operation of Solaris and Oracle DB
• Be able to complete installation and commissioning independently
Agenda

Feb 20 ~ Mar 4

 GSM Fundamentals
 BSC Fundamentals
 OMCR Fundamental and Operation
 BTS Structure
 Equipment Installation
 Solaris Maintenance
 OMCR Server Operation
 Data Configuration-1
 Data Configuration-2
 OMCR Installation
 On-site training
GSM Fundamental

Shengmin Jiang
jiang.shengmin@zte.com.cn
Agenda

 Development of Mobile Communication

 Basic Theory
 Network Architecture
 Functional Layer of GSM
 Air Interface
 System Capacity
 Anti Interference Technology
 Network Planning
 Numbering arrangement
Development of Mobile Communication

AMPS ( America )
Analog NMT ( North Europe )
TACS ( U.K. )

Evolution

D - AMPS GSM PDC


Digital

CDMA
Development of Mobile Communication

AMPS(America)
NMT (North Europe)
TACS (U.K.)

 Disadvantages of First Generation Analog


Mobile Communication System
• Not standard interface
• No Mobile Data Services
• Less efficiency of the Freq
• No roaming automatically
• Lower security
Development of Mobile Communication

GSM
CDMA
PDC
 Advantages of 2G Digital Mobile
Communication System
• High efficiency of the Freq
• Mobile Data Services available
• Automatic roaming
• High security
• Better quality of speech
• More flexible on new services
Worldwide GSM System Application

PDC Analog
5% 4% GSM
TDMA
9% CDMA
TDMA
CDMA PDC
13%
Analog
GSM
69%

Worldwide Mobile Subscribers: 1,155 million


Source: Gartner Dataquest (October 2002)
Worldwide Mobile Penetration Rate

Percentage
100
80
60
40
20
0
1998 2000 2002 2004

Africa Asia/Pacific and Japan


Latin America North America
Western Europe Total Worldwide

Source: Gartner Dataquest (October 2002)


Agenda

 Development of Mobile Communication

 Basic Theory
 Network Architecture
 Multiple Access Mode
 System Capacity
 Anti Interference Technology
 Network Planning
 Numbering arrangement
 Security Management
GSM Network Structure

OMC

MSC/VLR

BSC
E
BIE
Abi A PSTN
BTS s MSC/VLR ISDN
BSS PSPDN

C
Um F H
HLR/
AUC EIR SC/VM
MS

MSS
Terms

• MS : Mobile Station
• BSS: Base Station Subsystem
• BSC: Base Station Controller
• BTS: Base Transceiver Station

• MSC: Mobile Services Switching Center


• OMC: Operation and Maintenance Center
• AUC: Authentication Center
• EIR: Equipment Identification Register
Terms

• HLR: Home Location Register


• VLR: Visitor Location Register
• MS: Mobile Station
• ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network
• PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network
• PSPDN: Packet Switched Public Data Network
• PLMN: Public Land Mobile Network
GSM Network Entity

MSC holds all the switching functions


manages the necessary radio resources,
updating the location registration
carrying out the inter-BSC and inter-MSC tender

Inter-working with other networks (IWF).


GSM Network Entity

HLR Manages the mobile subscribers database

 subscriber information

 part of the mobile location information

 3 identities essential
the International Mobile subscriber Identity
the Mobile station ISDN Number
the VLR address
GSM Network Entity

VLR dynamically stores subscriber information needed to handle


incoming/outgoing calls

Mobile Station Roaming Number


When a roaming mobile enters an MSC area. This MSC
warns the associated VLR of this situation; the mobile
enters a registration procedure through which it is
assigned a mobile subscriber roaming number (MSRN)

Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity, if applicable


The location area in which the mobile has been
registered
Data related to supplementary service parameters
GSM Network Entity

AUC/EIR Authentication Center(s) (AUC)

Providing the authentication key used for


authorizing the subscriber access to the
associated GSM PLMN.

Equipment Identity Register(s) (EIR)

Handling Mobile Station Equipment Identity


GSM Network Structure

OMC

MSC/VLR

BSC
E
BIE
Abi A PSTN
BTS s MSC/VLR ISDN
BSS PSPDN

C
Um F H
HLR/
AUC EIR SC/VM
MS

MSS
Mobile Station

Equipment used by mobile service subscribers for access to services.


MS
.

Mobile Equipment
Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)
Mobile stations are not fixed to one subscriber.
A subscriber is identified with the SIM card.
GSM Network Entity

BTS Base Transceiver Station (BTS)

Wireless transmission
Wireless diversity
Wireless channel encryption
Conversion between wired and wireless signals
Frequency Hopping

BaseBand Unit:
voice and data speed adapting and channel coding
RF Unit:
modulating/demodulating, transmitter and receiver
Common Control Unit:
BTS operation and maintenance
GSM Network Entity

BSC Managing Wireless network-BSS


Monitoring BTS

Controls:
Wireless link distribution between MS and BTS
Communication connection and disconnection
MS location, handover and paging
Voice encoding, transecoding (TC), rate, adaptation,
The operation and maintenance functions of BSS.
TC in BSC

• Voice conversion
16kbit/s RPE-LTP  64kbit/s A-law PCM codes.

Typically TC is located between MSC and BSC.

• The Position of TC?


TC in BSC

BT S
BIE BIE

MS U m int erf ace Abis OMC


in terface
BSC Q 3 int erf ace

SM SM TC MSC

Ate rin terfac e A in terfa ce

Fig .1-3 BSS Struct ure


Location Area Identification

GSM Service Area (Global area)


PLMN Service Area (one or several in one country)
MSC Service Area (areas covered by one MSC)
Location Area (MS does not update VLR data inside of LAC))
Cell (the smallest unit the network can identify in wireless)

GSM Service Area

PLMN Service Area

MSC Service Area


Location Area
Cell
Agenda

 Development of Mobile Communication

 Basic Theory
 Network Architecture
 Functional Layer of GSM
 Air Interface
 System Capacity
 Anti Interference Technology
 Network Planning
 Numbering arrangement
 Security Management
Overview: Function Layers of GSM-1

S ervice carrie r

O AM Subsc riber

CM

MM

RR

Tran smissi on
Protocol Stack Structure of GSM

MS BT S BSC M SC
CM CM
MM MM
RR BS SAP BS SAP
RR RR
BTSM BTSM SCCP SCCP
MT P3 MT P3
L APDm LAP Dm LAPD LAPD
MT P2 MT P2
Um Abis A
Agenda

 Development of Mobile Communication

 Basic Theory
 Network Architecture
 Functional Layer of GSM
 Air Interface
 System Capacity
 Anti Interference Technology
 Network Planning
 Numbering arrangement
 Security Management
TDMA

Concept:
time channel is composed of a
series of timeslots of
User 3
periodicity. Different signal
energies are distributed
User 2 into different timeslots. The
User 1 adjacent channel
interference is restricted by
Frequency
connection choosing from
time to time. So the useful
GSM adopts TDMA/FDMA mode signal is passed only in the
channel width: 200KHz specified timeslot.
each channel has 8 timeslots
FDMA

Concept:
In a relative narrow channel inside a
frequency domain, the signal power
is concentrated to transmit the signal.
Different channels are distributed into
Time
different channel. The interference
from and to adjacent channels is
restricted by the BPF. Thus, in
specified narrow channel, only the
User 1
User 2
User 3

useful signal energy can be passed,


Frequency while any other signal will be
excluded.
FDMA TDMA CDMA Demonstration

time time

User 3
User 1
User 2
User 3 User 2
User 1
frequency frequency
FDMA TDMA
code

time

User 3
User 2
User 1
CDMA frequency
GSM Timeslot and Frame structure

Frequency

200KHz

BP time
15/26ms
interval
Frequency Resource

GSM900 : EGSM900 :
up: 890~915MHz up: 880~890MHz
down: 935~960MHz down: 925~935MHz
duplex interval: 45MHz duplex interval: 45MHz
bandwidth: 25MHz , bandwidth: 10MHz ,
frequency interval: 200KHz frequency interval: 200KHz

GSM1800 : GSM1900MHz:
up: 1710-1785MHz up:1850~1910MHz
down: 1805-1880MHz down:1930~1990MHz
duplex interval: 95MHz , duplex interval: 80MHz ,
working bandwidth: 75MHz , working bandwidth:
frequency interval: 200KHz 60MHz ,
frequency interval: 200KHz
Frequency Resource

Single Band General Priority


Network
Which High
one?
900MHz

1800MHz

1900MHz Low
New Operator
Reason
Propagation
Characterist
ic
For Operator For Subscriber
Frequency Resource

Single Band
Network
Single Band 900MHz

Dual Band 1800MHz

Triple Band 1900MHz

In a sense, the network determines the handsets


can be selected.
But nowadays, most handsets support dual
band.
Frequency Resource

Single Band
Network Cell coverage radius :
We know

Propagation characteristic

The higher the propagation


frequency 900MHz
1800MHz
The higher the propagation loss
1900MHz
The smaller the cell coverage radius.
Timeslot and Frame structure

1 super high frame = 2048 super frame = 2715648 TDMA frame

0 1 2 3 2044 2045 2046 2047

BCCH
1 super frame = 1326 TDMA frame ( 6.12s ) CCCH
SACCH/TCH SDCH
FACCH 0 1 2 3 47 48 49 50
0 1 24 25

1 multiplex frame = 26 TDMA frames ( 120ms1 )


multiplex frame = 51 TDMA frame
0 1 24 25 0 1 49 50

1 TDMA frame = 8 timeslot ( 120/26 = 4.615ms )


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Physical Channel

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

The physical channel adopts FDMA and TDMA techs.


On the time domain, a specified channel occupies the
same timeslots in each TDMA frame, so it can be
identified by the timeslot number and frame number.
Channel Type-Summary
14.4Kbit/s FR TCH (TCH/F14.4)
9.6Kbit/s FR TCH(TCH/F9.6)
4.8Kbit/s FR TCH (TCH/F4.8)
Data CH
4.8Kbit/s HR TCH (TCH/H4.8)
TCH
FR Voice Traffic Channel (TCH/FS)
Voice CH Enhanced FR Traffic Channel (TCH/EFR)
HR Traffic Channel (TCH/HS)
channel FCCH (down)
SCH (down)
BCH BCCH (down)

RACH (up)
CCH CCCH AGCH (down)
PCH (down)
SDCCH
DCCH FACCH
SACCH
Channel Type

Traffic Channel
Transmit voice and data

Signaling Channel
transmit the signaling and synchronous data
between BTS and MS.
Channel Type

BCH :
Frequency Correction CHannel ( FCCH )
-- for MS error correction
Synchronous Channel ( SCH)
-- for MS frame synchronization and BTS recognization
Broadcasting Control CHannel ( BCCH )
-- broadcasting information(cell selection information, etc..)
Channel Type
DCCH

Self-help Dedicated Control Channel ( SDCCH )


for channel distribution information transmission

Slow Associated Control Channel ( SACCH )


combined with one traffic channel or SDCCH, to
transmit some specific information of user
information

Fast Associated Control Channel ( FACCH )


combined with one traffic channel, taking the same
signal as SDCCH. It occupies the service channel to
transmit signaling information.
Structure of 51-frame Control CH
51 Frame
BCCH+CCCH
F S B C F S C C F S C C F S C C F S C C I
(Downlink)

BCCH+CCCH
RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRR
(uplink)

(a) FCCH+SCH+BCCH+CCCH

8 SDCCH/8
D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 A0 A1 A2 A3 I I I
(Downlink)
D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 A4 A5 A6 A7 I I I

8 SDCCH/8
A1 A2 A3 I I I D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 A0
(uplink)
A5 A6 A7 I I I D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 A4

(b) SDCCH/8(0,...,7)+SACCH/C8(0,...,7)

BCCH+CCCH+
F S B C F S C C F S D0 D1 F S D2 D3 F S A0 A1 I
4SDCCH/4
(Downlink) F S B C F S C C F S D0 D1 F S D2 D3 F S A2 A3 I

BCCH+CCCH+
D3 RR A2 A3 RRRRRRRRR RRRRRRRRRRRRRR D0 D1 F S D2
4SDCCH/4
(uplink) D3 RR A0 A1 RRRRRRRRR RRRRRRRRRRRRRR D0 D1 F S D2

(c) FCCH+SCH+CCCH+SDCCH/4(0,...,3)+SACCH/C4(0,...,3)

F:FCCH S:SCH
B:BCCH C:CCCH(C CCH=PCH+AGCH+RACH)
R:RACH D:SDCCH
A:SACCH/C I: idle
Channel Combination Type

Several logic channels combine together in some way to


form some specific types of channel to transmit user data
or signaling information. They are called combined
channels. One combined channel can be mapped to a
physical channel.

There are the following combined channels:


a TCH/F + FACCH/F + SACCH/TF
b TCH/H(0,1) + FACCH/H(0,1) + SACCH/TH(0,1)
c TCH/H(0,0) + FACCH/H(0,1) + SACCH/TH(0,1) +
TCH/H(1,1)
d FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH
e FCCH + SCH + BCCH + CCCH + SDCCH/4(0...3) +
SACCH/C4(0...3)
f BCCH + CCCH
g SDCCH/8(0 ..7) + SACCH/C8(0 .. 7)
CCCH = PCH + RACH + AGCH
Channel Assignment inside cells

• Small capacity cell with only 1 TRX


TN0: FCCH+SCH+CCCH+BCCH+SDCCH/4(0,_,3)+SACCH/C4(0,_,3);
TN1-7: TCH/F+FACCH/F+SACCH/TF

• The medium-size cell with 4 TRXs


1TN0 group: FCCH+SCH+BCCH+CCCH;
2 SDCCH/8(0,_,7)+SACCH/C8(0,_,7);
29 TCH/F+FACCH/F+SACCH/TF
Channel Assignment inside cells

• Large-size cell with 12 TRXs


1 TN0 group: FCCH+SCH+BCCH+CCCH;
1 TN2 group, 1 TN4 group and 1 TN6 group: BCCH+CCCH;
5 SDCCH/8(0,_,7)+SACCH/C8(0,_,7);
87 TCH/F+FACCH/F+SACCH/TF
Agenda

 Development of Mobile
Communication

 Basic Theory
 Network Architecture
 Functional Layer of GSM
 Air Interface
 System Capacity
 Anti Interference Technology
 Network Planning
 Numbering arrangement
 Security Management
Cell Mode Layout

Omni-directional cell

Adopt omni-directional antenna , O


the overall directional propagation
characteristic is the same.

Directional cell

In general, cell with multi-sector is in


common use. Every directional cell
adopts directional antenna.
BTS Mode

 Capacity

When the traffic is very low, and no possibility for quick


increment, Omni-directional cell is used in common.
Otherwise, we suggest to adopt the sector cell.

Note: TRX-transceiver,each TRX handles 1 frequency.

 Coverage Area
Sector cell is often used to enlarge the cell coverage
radius because of the higher antenna gain.
For special coverage ,such as road coverage, two-sector
cell is adopted firstly.
System capacity

Erlang :

the traffic intensity of a totally occupied channel (i.e.


the call hour of a unit hour or the call minute of a unit
minute). For example, the traffic of a channel occupied
for 30 minutes in an hour is 0.5 Erlang)

GOS:

defined as the probability of call blocking or the


probability when the call delay time is longer than a
given queuing time.
Agenda

 Development of Mobile Communication

 Basic Theory
 Network Architecture
 Functional Layer of GSM
 Air Interface
 System Capacity
 Anti Interference Technology
 Network Planning
 Numbering arrangement
 Security Management
Reasons for interference

The transmission path is very complex, ranging


from the simple line-of-sight transmission to
encountering such terrain as buildings, hills and
trees. Wireless channels are extremely
unpredictable.

Abrupt drop, or fading, of signal strength in the


land mobile wireless channel is quite common. The
fading feature of the mobile channel depends on the
radio wave propagation environment.
Reasons for interference

Environmental factors:
• Terrain (mountains, hills, plains, water bodies, etc.);
• The quantity, heights, distribution and materials of
buildings;
• The vegetation of the region;
• Weather conditions;
• Natural and artificial electromagnetic noises;
• Frequency;
• How MS is moved.
Interference

Co-Channel Interference

Conception:
the interference among the signals of co-
channel cells is called co-channel interference.
Result from :
Frequency reuse
Reduction method:
co-channel cells must physically be
spaced at a minimum interval to ensure
adequate isolation of transmissions. 
Interference

 Adjacent Channel Interference


Conception:
The signal interference from the frequency
adjacent to that of the signal used is called
adjacent channel interference.
Reduction method:
accurate filtering and channel allocation
(maximizing channel intervals of the
cell). Interval of frequency reuse inter-cell
interference, such as C/I, C/A
Solution --Anti-interference

 FH technology
 Dynamic power control (DPC)
 Discontinuous Transceiving
(DTX)
 Diversity receiving technique
Frequency Hopping Technique
Reason:
• counteract Rayleigh Fading
• scatter interference among multiple calls

Types:
 Base band frequency hopping
keeps the transmission and receiving frequency of
each carrier unit unchanged, but merely sends FU
transmission data to different carrier units at
different FN moments.
 radio frequency hopping
controls the frequency synthesizer of each
transceiver, making it hop according to different
schemes in different time slots.
Discontinuous Speech Transmission (DTX)

Two aims can be achieved by adopting DTX mode:


•lower the total interference electric level in the air
•save transmitter power.

TRAU BTS

BTS MS

480 ms

comfort noise frame

Speech frame
Diversity Reception Technology

The multi-path propagation of radio signals causes


magnitude fading and delay time.

 Space Diversity (antenna diversity)

 Polarization Diversity
orthogonal polarization diversity.
horizontal polarization and vertical polarization.

 Frequency Diversity
The working principle of this technology is that
such fading won’t take place on the frequency
outside the coherence bandwidth of the channel.
Agenda

 Development of Mobile
Communication

 Basic Theory
 Network Architecture
 Functional Layer of GSM
 Air Interface
 System Capacity
 Anti Interference Technology
 Network Planning
 Numbering arrangement
 Security Management
Frequency Reuse

D3 A1 C2 C3 B1 D2

C1 A2 A3 D1 B2 B3 C1

C3 B1 D2 D3 A1 C2 C3

A1 B2 B3 C1 A2 A3 D1

D2 A1 C2 C3 B1 D2
A1 D3

“4 × 3” reuse mode:
one group includes 3 sectors /site ,12 frequency which
are distributed to 4 sites. Every site owns 3 frequency.
Frequency Reuse

B3 A1 B2 B3 A1 B2

C1 A2 A3 C1 A2 A3 C1

C3 B1 C2 C3 B1 C2 C3

A1 B2 B3 A1 B2 B3 A1

A3 C1 A2 A3 C1 A2
A1 A3

“3 × 3” reuse mode:
one group includes 3 sectors /site ,9 frequency which are
distributed to 3 sites. Every site owns 3 frequency.
Agenda

 Development of Mobile
Communication

 Basic Theory
 Network Architecture
 Functional Layer of GSM
 Air Interface
 System Capacity
 Anti Interference Technology
 Network Planning
 Numbering arrangement
 Security Management
Numbering Arrangement

International mobile subscriber identification


number (IMSI)

It identifies a unique international universal number of a mobile


subscriber, which consists of MCC+MNC+MSIN.
1) MCC: country code, 460
2 ) MNC: network code, 00 or 01
3 ) MSIN: subscriber identification, H1H2H3H4 9XXXXXX,
H1H2H3H4: subscriber registering place
H1H2: assigned by the P&T Administrative Bureau (operator
)to different provinces, to each province
H3H4: assigned by each province/city

the IMSI of user will be written into the SIM card by specific
device and software and be stored into the HLR with other user
information.
Numbering Arrangement
Mobile subscriber ISDN number ( MSISDN )

It is the subscriber number commonly


used. China uses the TDMA independent
numbering plan:

CC+NDC+ H1H2H3H4 +ABC

CC: country code, 86


NDC: network code, 135—139, 130
H1H2H3H4: HLR identification code
ABCD: mobile subscriber number
inside each HLR
Numbering Arrangement

International Mobile Equipment Identification code


(IMEI)

It will uniquely identify a mobile station. It is a


decimal number of 15 digits. Its structure is:

TAC+FAC+SNR+SP

TAC=model ratification code, 6 digits


FAC=factory assembling code, 2 digits
SNR=sequence code, 6 digits
SP=reserved, 1 digit
Numbering Arrangement

Mobile subscriber roaming number (MSRN)

The MSRN is temporarily distributed to the


subscriber by the VLR according to the request
by the HLR when this subscriber is called. The
MSRN is released and can be assigned to other
subscriber later.

   CC + NDC + 00 + M1M2M3 + ABC


   CC: country code, 86
   NDC: mobile network code, 135—139,
130
   M1M2: same as the H2H3 of MSISDN
   ABC: 000 -- 999
Numbering Arrangement

Temporarily Mobile Subscriber Identification Number


(TMSI)

To insure the IMSI


security, the VLR will
assign an unique TMSI
number for the accessed
subscriber. It is used
locally only and is a 4-byte
TMSI number BCD code.