Artificial Intelligence Introduction

Alison Cawsey room: G36 email: Ruth Aylett Room: 1.37 Email:

 All tasks require reasoning on knowledge.  Getting computers to do tasks which require human intelligence.  Understanding what someone says. .What is AI?  Various definitions:  Building intelligent entities.  Navigating a busy street.   But what is ³intelligence´? Simple things turn out to be the hardest to automate:  Recognising a face.

 To create useful ³smart´ programs able to do tasks that would normally require a human expert.  To . We test theories of human intelligence by writing programs which emulate it.Why do AI?  Two main goals of AI: understand human intelligence better.

Who does AI?  Many disciplines contribute to goal of creating/modelling intelligent entities:  Computer Science  Psychology (human reasoning)  Philosophy (nature of belief. etc)  Linguistics (structure and meaning of language)  Human Biology (how brain works)  Subject draws on ideas from each discipline. . rationality.

.  Navigating round obstacles on the street.  Planning  Expert tasks are things like:  medical diagnosis.consider going shopping: a route.  Communicating (through natural language). people. and sequence of shops to visit!  Recognising (through vision) buses. and manipulating objects for purchase.  equipment repair.Typical AI Problems   Intelligent entities (or ³agents´) need to be able to do both ³mundane´ and ³expert´ tasks: Mundane tasks .  Often ³mundane´ tasks are the hardest.

Philosophical Issues What is intelligence?  Can a machine be truly ³intelligent´? Is there more to human intelligence than rules. data and calculations? Tests:  Turing Test: Can someone tell which is the machine.  . Describes a thought experiment where talk in Chinese by looking up what to say from huge rule book.  Loebner contest: Contest for most human-like conversation system. can we call the machine intelligent?  Chinese room: Searle says no. when communicating to human and to a machine in another room? If not.

with prestored amusing replies.  Human-like performance doesn¶t guarantee intelligence. should my age really matter.  Try esc-x doctor while in emacs for a version of Eliza. How old are you then. Didn¶t mean to offend. how old are you?  P: That¶s OK. Just don¶t do it again.a program to emulate psychotherapist. These simple methods first used in ³Eliza´ . sorry. Well..Example conversation with system winning Loebner prize P: No worries! Hey! I didn¶t come here to be subjected to bad language! How rude!  J: Sorry. System was based on fairly simple methods. Just for the record I¶m 24. So. . But.

 Knowledge representation: How do we represent knowledge about the world in a formal manner that can be manipulated in a sound and efficient manner?  Search: How can an AI system go through all the possibilities in a systematic manner when looking for solutions to complex problems.About this Module Covers following AI topics  AI Programming. using Prolog. .

or from past case data.  Agents: How can we develop and use practical ³intelligent agents´. .  Knowledge Engineering: How do we elicit the human expertise required to build intelligent applications.  Machine learning and neural networks: How can a system learn from experience.About this Module  Natural Language: How can a system communicate in a natural language such as English.

Labs and Coursework    Weekly lab. Weeks 1-4: Exercises on AI Programming in Prolog.  Some of these must be ³ticked off´ by Lab demonstrators and will contribute to your coursework mark.  Weeks 5-8: NetLogo with assessed exercise. . starting Wed 16th April! Labs give you experience of two AI programming languages: Prolog and NetLogo.

Prentice Russell & Norvig.  Review: ³I missed most of the lectures but thanks to this short and sweet book I passed my first year introduction to AI course.Books etc. Prentice Hall. If you are a slack student taking an AI course .uk/~alison/ai3/ . lab exercises etc for weeks 1-4 on www. Luger. ³  Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach (second edition).macs.hw.  ³Essence of Artificial Intelligence´ by Alison Cawsey.   Slides. 2003 Artificial Intelligence: Structures and Strategies for Complex Problem this book. Benjamin Cummings.

. CS students will benefit from:  Logic and Proof Science.  IT students will benefit from  Cognitive  Relevant material from logic and proof will be reviewed again for benefit of IT students.Module prerequisites/assumptions   Programming (software engineering).

artificialIntelligence). short(fred). tall(sue). (Will revise/introduce this later).  Note: lower case letters. We can assert some facts and some rules. mary). tall(john). . Facts: likes(john.Getting Started with Prolog    Prolog is a language based on first order predicate logic. teaches(alison. then ask questions to find out what is true. full stop at end.

Meant to look a bit like a backwards arrow  NOTE: Use of capitals (or words starting with capitals) for variables.teaches(Person.  NOTE: ³:-´ used to mean IF. examines(Person. Course). Course) :.tall(X).  John likes someone if that someone is tall.  A person examines a course if they teach that course. X) :.Prolog  Rules: likes(fred. .

X = sue ? . X). Type ³.likes(fred.Prolog   Your ³program´ consists of a file containing facts and rules. no . You ³run´ your program by asking ³questions´ at the prolog prompt.´ to get more answers: (Note: darker font for system output) X = john ? .   John likes who? Answers are then displayed. |?.

Prolog and Search    Prolog can return more than one answer to a question. It has a built in search method for going through all the possible rules and facts to obtain all possible answers. Search method ³depth first search´ with ³backtracking´. .

. Solving problems involves search. with a range of abilities such as language. . Prolog programs based on facts and rules. vision. manipulation/navigation.Summary      AI about creating intelligent entities. Prolog is a language geared to representing knowledge and searching for solutions. and run by asking questions.this must be represented with and reasoned with. Intelligence involves knowledge .

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