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RATIONALIZATION

PERSONHOOD DEVELOPMENT PROF. ED


1. Along Erikson’s psychosocial theory,
which describes intimacy?

a.I believed that no man is an island


b.I prefer my thoughts in private
c.I want to be alone
d.I feel proud to be the sort of person I am
2. According to Erik Erikson, this
maladaptive tendency is a sort shameless
willfulness that leads a person to jump into
things without proper consideration of
abilities.

a. Compulsiveness
b. Impulsiveness
c. Inhibition
d. Ruthlessness
3. Erikson has emphasized the importance
of developing the child’s autonomy, or else,
the child might develop shame and doubt
of oneself. Which of the following situation
indicates autonomy in the learning
environment?
a. Students achieve high grades
b. Students having high responsibility for own learning
c. Students have high bonding or relatedness in school
d. Students contribute to warm and friendly school
atmosphere
4. If a child struggles to do well in
school, what problem might emerge?
a.Struggle with feeling of inferiority
b.Experience a sense of guilt
c. Develop a poor self-identity
d.Begin to mistrust the people around him
5. Jorem is an extravagant buyer of fashion
stuff. Every time he notices an attractive
men’s wear, he tends to buy-it without
carefully thinking. This maladaptive
tendency happens when there is little
shame and doubt. Erikson calls this as

a.Compulsiveness
b.Ruthlessness
c.Impulsiveness
d.Fanaticism
6. According to Erikson's Psychosocial
Stages of Development, the stage in which
a child needs to learn important academic
skills and compare favorably with peers in
school to achieve competence is the ____
stage.
a.Trust vs. Mistrust
b.Identity vs. Role Confusion
c.Initiative vs. Guilt
d.Industry vs. Inferiority
7. Mary and Fred have one child and want to adopt a second. Since
their first child's infancy had been extremely difficult on Mary, she was
excited at the possibility of adopting an older child, perhaps a well-
behaved, toilet-trained 3-year-old, and skipping the infancy period
entirely. Fred, on the other hand, had serious misgivings not knowing
about the quality of care giving and relationships in this child's early
life. In a 3-year-old’s case, he felt that inadequate care and improper
resolution of what Ericksonian stage could lead to irreparable damage
in later development?

a.Intimacy vs. Isolation


b.Identity vs. Role Confusion
c.Trust vs. Mistrust
d.Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
RATIONALIZATION

If an infant's needs for nourishment, stimulation,


affection, and attention are not met during this
stage from 0-1 year-old, infants will fail to
establish basic trust or to feel valuable, carrying
"mistrust" with them into the next stage of
development. Mistrust in others and self will
make it more difficult to successfully achieve a
sense of autonomy.
8. A 38-year-old woman quits her high-paying
marketing job to focus on her children and
become a school counselor. What stage would
Erikson consider this to be:

a.Identify vs. Role Confusion


b.Generativity vs. Stagnation
c.Ego Integrity vs. Despair
d.Industry vs. Inferiority
9. Which best describe the dynamic force
motivating all human activity according to
Adler?

a.organ dialect
b.a feeling of superiority
c.the striving for superiority or success X
d.inferior physical endowment
10. The tendency toward completion, Adler
believed:

a.was a result of birth order


b.was innate but needed to be developed
c. was learned during preadolescence
d.resulted from the masculine protest X
11. Three of the following statements (except for
one) are fundamental principles of Adlerian
theory. Which ONE of the following is NOT a
principle of Adlerian theory?
a. Behavior is goal oriented.
b. Humans are driven by unconscious desires.
c. Humans are fundamentally social, with the
desires to belong and to have a place of value
as an equal human being.
d. The individual is indivisible and functions with unity
of personality.
12. The founder of individual psychology
was which ONE of the following?

a.Sigmund Freud
b.Carl Gustav Jung
c.Alfred Adler
d.Fritz Perls
13. Latisha often feels as though she has been displaced
by her baby brother. She often tries to do "good deeds" by
being overly responsible, serving as the caretaker of her
baby brother, and taking on extra chores or activities.
Which ONE of the following BEST represents the ordinal
position of Latisha in her family?

a.The oldest child


b.The only child
c.The middle child
d.The second-born child
14. Sawto is a young man who expects to get
everything from others. He is not very independent
and tends to leans on others to get his needs met.
Sawto most likely represents which ONE of the
following four-character types as defined by the
author?
a.The ruling type
b.The getting type
c.The avoiding type
d.The useful type
15. All of the following statements (except for one)
are limitations of Adlerian therapy as noted by the
chapter authors. Which ONE is NOT a limitation of
Adlerian therapy?

a. Adlerian theory is limited by a lack of research demonstrating its specific


effectiveness in counseling and therapy.
b. Adlerian therapy usually requires a long-term commitment in terms of
time, money, and personal effort.
c. Adlerian theory appears to lack the depth that the more analytic
approaches offer and it is not as scientific as the more behavioral
approaches might prefer.
d. Adlerian theory emphasizes individual responsibility, not blaming others or
society for one's problems. These beliefs run contrary to the general
cultural thinking regarding human behavior and human relationships.
16. Adler believed that a child's ordinal position in the family plays an
important role. Of the following statements, which ONE is the BEST
statement about what Adler believed about the ordinal position of a
child?

a. The ordinal position is important for the child's development of a


view of self and the world; and it has a significant impact on the
child's developing pattern of living (of lifestyle).
b. The ordinal position is important for the child's development of
sibling relationships, an event that has a significant impact on the
family's pattern of relating.
c. The ordinal position is important to the development of counselor
insight into the client's beliefs, goals, and behaviors, which have a
significant impact on the counselor-client relationship.
d. The ordinal position is important to the development of the
relationship between child and parent, which has a significant
impact on the security (or insecurity) of the child.
17. According to Erikson, what years are
critical for the development of self-
confidence?

a.High school years


b.Elementary years
c.Preschool years
d.College years
18. In Erikson`s psychosocial stage, which
affirmation does not belong to the stage of
initiative vs. guilt?
a.People can be trusted
b.In difficulty, I will not give up
c.I feel what happens to me is the result of what I
have done
d.I am prepared to take risks
19. Contrary to Freud`s concept that the primary
motivation of human behavior is sexual in nature,
Erikson`s is ________ in nature
a.Social
b.Cultural
c.Physical
d.Biological
20. Trust: syntonic; mistrust: _________

a.Syntonic
b.Dystonic
c.Iconic
d.Symbolic
21. Positive: maladaptation: negative: _____

a.Maladjustment
b.Malignancy
c.Malfunction
d.Maltreatment
22. Maladaptation: Promiscuity:
malignancy: ___________

a.Exclusion
b.Inertia
c.Repudiation
d.Overextension
23. “Terrible two” belongs to what stage of
Erikson`s Psychosocial development?

a.Infancy
b.Toddlerhood
c.Preschool years
d.Adolescence
24. It highlighted the influence of one`s
environment, particularly on how earlier
experiences gradually build upon the next
and result into one`s personality.

a.Maladaptation
b.Malignancy
c.Epigenetic principle
d.Virtue
25. Vanessa has always been afraid to try
things because she is afraid to be blamed
when it fails. She says “nothing ventured,
nothing lost”. This malignancy of Vanessa is
caused by the unbalanced psychosocial
crisis of
a. Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
b. Initiative vs. guilty
c. Industry vs. inferiority
d. Intimacy vs. isolation
26. Ivan Paul tried to answer his teacher`s
question, but the teacher outspokenly says “No,
you`re wrong”. As a result, Ivan Paul never
participates in the class. We can conclude that he
has developed a malignancy called

a.Inhibition
b.Inertia
c.Repudiation
d.Exclusion
27. Your grandfather says “I am always right,
I don’t accept your views and opinions”.
Judging his moral reasoning, we could say
that he has a maladaptation called
a.Disdain
b.Presumption
c.Overextension
d.Rejectivity
28. You have this friend that always says “Guys!
Come here. You know what? You should believe
me because I am always right, my way is the only
way, you know.” We could conclude that he has
a maladaptation of ______?

a.Impulsiveness
b.Sensory Maladjustment
c.Narrow Virtuosity
d.Fanaticism
29. Dashiel`s friend, Mark Lister, has always been
cheated by his girlfriend. But he always forgives
and still trusts her girlfriend again and again, thus,
making him gullible. If you were Dashiel, you
would probably conclude that he has developed
this trust issue, a maladaptation called _______.

a.Sensory Maladjustment
b.Withdrawal
c.Impulsiveness
d.Ruthlessness
30. The following are the characteristics
of neglected lifestyle as stated by
Adler EXCEPT:

a.Children feel unloved and unwanted


b.Too lack social interest
c.Feel unloved and because of their
parents love
d.They are too suspicious for others
31. The following are the characteristic
of a neurotic person EXCEPT:

a.Set their goals too high


b.Live in their own public worlds
c.Have a rigid and dogmatic lifestyle
d.Lack of social interest
32. What best describe the safeguarding
techniques?

a.It is a tool for self-development


b.Protective devices that enables people to
hide their inflated self-image
c.Helps people to be famous
d.Creates superiority to others
33. Alder believed that organ inferiorities
results to:
a.cause superiority personalities.
b.cause inferiority personalities.
c.bestow meaning and purpose on
all behavior.
d.stimulate feelings of inferiority.
34. According to Adler, what is the "sole
criterion of human values."

a.social interest
b.productive work
c.self-interest
d.religion
35. Tenant one: Striving for Inferiority; Tenant
six: ___________________

a.Style of life is molded by people’s creative


power
b.Self-consistent personality structures develop
into a person’s style of life
c.Value of all human activity must be seen from
the viewpoint of social interest
d.People’s subjective perceptions shape their
behavior and personality
36. Which does not adhere to Horney’s
ideas about culture?
a.Modern culture is too competitive.
b.Competition is causing hostility
c.People feel united because of modern culture
d.Culture makes people alone and intensified
needs for affection
37. Basic Anxiety arises when:

a.Repressed hostility leads to feelings of


insecurity and apprehension
b.Repressed insecurity leads to feelings of
hostility and apprehension
c.Repressed apprehension leads to feelings
of hostility and insecurity
d.Repressed hostility leads to apprehension
and insecurity
38. Which best describe Horney’s view
about the difference of male and female
personality?

a.Differences are caused by biological


differences
b.Differences are causes by final goal of attaining
superiority
c. Differences are caused mainly by culture and
social experiences
d.None of the above
39. Which is not an aspect of idealized self-
image?

a.Neurotic claim
b.Neurotic pride
c.Neurotic ego
d.Neurotic search for glory
40. Which is not true about basic hostility
and basic anxiety?

a. Normal people have the flexibility to use any of the four


protective mechanisms
b. Neurotic individuals tend to use only one protective
mechanism rigidly
c. People protect themselves from anxiety using protective
mechanisms
d. None of the above
41. What are the four protective
mechanisms?

a. affection, timidity, power or prestige, and


withdrawal
b. affection, submissiveness, authority or prestige,
and withdrawal
c. affection, submissiveness, power or prestige,
and withdrawal
d. none of the above
42. Fernando was raised in a very hostile environment. As a
youngster, he often saw his parents violently arguing, he
and his sibling are not very different either. As a grown
man, he is can be described as a ‘hothead’ he is often
defensive and he reacts aggressively towards others.
Which neurotic trend is he displaying?

a.moving towards people


b.Moving against people
c.Moving away from people
d.None of the above.
43. To cope with her constant feelings of
helplessness, Julie often finds herself obeying
the demands of her peers even if she feels
it’s no longer for the best of her interest.
Which compulsive drive is she displaying?

a.Moving towards people


b.Moving against people
c.Moving away from people.
d.None of the above.
44. People describe Sheena as reserved and even
conservative. What people do not realize is that Sheena is
unhappy of her situation and wishes to be more involved
with others. However, her constant wanting for
detachment and seclusion are preventing her from
socializing. Sheena is displaying what neurotic trend?

a.moving towards people


b.Moving against people
c.Moving away from people.
d.None of the above.
45. Which does not belong to the 10
categories of compulsive drive?

a.Need for affection and approval


b.Need for ambition and personal
achievement
c.Need to exploit others
d.Need for consent from an influential
individual
46. Which best describe the syndrome of
decay?

a.It refers to a person who possess all


personality disorders
b.It refers to a person who possess the
mother fixation
c.An extreme dependence on the mother
surrogate
d.None of the above
47. Assumes that humanity's separation from
the natural world has produced feelings of
loneliness and isolation a condition called
basic anxiety:

a.Individual psychology
b.Psychosocial Theory
c.Psychosexual theory
d.humanistic psychoanalysis
48. Marketing character describes the
following EXCEPT:

a. an outgrowth of modern commerce in which trade


is no longer personal but carried out by large,
faceless corporations
b. They have straight personality towards other people
c. See themselves as commodities with their personal
value of dependent on their exchange value and
their ability to sell themselves
d. Negative qualities include aimless
49. Which best describe transcendence?

a. having no powerful instincts to adapt to a


changing world; instead, have acquired the
facility to reason
b. trying to escape from a sense of aloneness and
isolation by giving up their individuality and
becoming whatever other people desire them to
be
c. the urge to rise above a passive and accidental
existence and into the realm of purposefulness
and freedom
d. does not depend on a continuous relationship
with another person and seeks to do away with
other people
50. Which best describe hoarding
characters?

a. does not depend on a continuous relationship with


another person and seeks to do away with other
people
b. seek to save that which they have already obtained,
hold everything inside and do not let go of anything
c. having no powerful instincts to adapt to a changing
world; instead, have acquired the facility to reason
d. trying to escape from a sense of aloneness and
isolation by giving up their individuality and
becoming whatever other people desire them to be