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National Institute of Technology, Patna

(An Institution under MHRD, Govt. of India)

Minor Project I

Department of Civil Engineering


2018-2019

LOW COST HOUSING


Guided By: Submitted By:
Dr. S.K SINGH  RANDHIR KUMAR
Assistant Professor (1603011)
Department of Civil Engineering  AYUSH KUMAR
NIT PATNA (1603012)
• It is considered a concept of reduction in the cost of
construction without sacrificing the strength required for the
performance of the building
•Use of low cost building materials for construction of low cost
housing increases the access to buildings by low income group
peoples.
•Low cost housing can be achieved by use of efficient planning
and project management, low cost materials, economical
construction technologies and use of alternate construction
methods available.
WHY LOW COST HOUSING IS REQUIRED ?

 Growing population day by day.


• Increasing cost of land.
• Rising threshold cost of construction.
• Affordable housing for BPL people.
• Easy to build.
• Fulfills the needs of conventional houses.
• We need a solution that is fast, safe and economical too.
Areas from Where Cost Can Be Reduced :
 Reduce plinth area.
 Use locally available material
 Use energy efficient materials which consumes less
energy
 Use environmentally friendly materials
 Pre-plan every component of a house and rationalize
the design procedure for reducing the size of the
component in the building.
 By planning each and every component of a house the
wastage of materials can be avoided.
The Cost Factor !
The building construction cost can be divided into two
parts namely:
• Building material cost : 65 to 70 %
• Labour cost : 25 to 35 %
• In low cost housing, building material cost is less
because :-
• The use of the locally available materials.
• Selection of waste and recyclable materials and with an
improved design.
Selection of Materials :
Materials for Low Cost Housing :
 Lime - Sand Brick
 Cement – Waste Slag Brick
 Concrete Hollow Block
 Decorative Concrete Block
 Light Weight Concrete Block
 Concrete Paving Block
 Wall plaster
 Paint for interior and exterior walls
Statement of Laurie Baker (1975)
 All the building materials should be found within five
miles of the site.
 Low cost techniques should not be considered only for
the poor .
 our aim should be to design simplest of buildings for
all.
Laurie Baker’s Improvements :
Specifications:
 Specifications play an important role in deciding the
cost of housing. Interior and finishing works may have
a large variation in cost depending upon the
specifications adopted.
 For example if in Chennai, sand stone cladding,
marble flooring, are provided and in Delhi, granite
flooring and textured coating are provided.
 Some of the occupants tend to alter specifications even
before they occupy the house on their own and some
after looking to their neighbours.
Reduction in cost:
 Reduction in cost is possible by sacrificing
something.
 Aesthetic
 Uniqueness
 Durability
 Function
 Maintainability
METHODOLOGY:-
 Concept of prefabrication / partial prefabrication has been adopted for
speedier construction, better quality components & saving in material
quantities & costs .

Some of these construction techniques & Materials for walls, roof &
floor slab, doors & windows are as follows:

IN WALLS :
i. Non erodable mud plaster.
ii. Fly –Ash sand lime bricks.
iii. Solid concrete and stone blocks
IN FLOOR AND ROOF:
Some of the prefabricated roofing/flooring components found suitable in
many lowcost housing projects are:
 Precast RC Planks.
 Prefabricated Brick Panels
 Precast RB Curved Panels.
 Precast RC Channel Roofing
 Precast Hollow Slabs
 Precast Concrete Panels
 L Panel Roofing
 Trapezon Panel Roofing
 Un reinforced Pyramidal Brick Roof
DOORS AND WINDOWS:-
 Economy can be achieved by:
 Standardizing and optimizing dimensions;
 Evolving restricted number of doors and window
sizes;
 Use of precast door and window frame
CONCLUSION:-
 Low cost housing is considered housing constructed
with low budget. The definition should have been the
housing with minimum cost even if budget is
available. Thus concept should then be valid for small
or big, single or multistoried and EWS or bungalow
construction and all type of construction.