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EXCAVATION

REMOVAL
CLEARING
EARTHWORKS
CLEARING AND GRUBBING
The clearing, grubbing and disposing of vegetation and debris
according to contract except objects that is to remain in place.

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL

EXCEPTIONS:
1. Non-perishable objects with a minimum depth of 1
meter below subgrade
2. Non-perishable objects should not be cut off not
more than 6 inches above the ground line.
3. Stumps shall be cut flushed with or below the
surface of the final slope line.
4. Grubbing of pits, channel changes and ditches
required according to excavation
5. In areas cover with vegetation top soil should not
be cut off more than 150mm from original surface.
CLEARING AND GRUBBING
DISPOSAL
1. BURNING – BURNING OF MATERIAL USING HIGH INTENSITY

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL

BURNING PROCEDURES.
2. DUMPING – DISPOSED TO APPROVED LOCATIONS BY THE
ENGINEER.
3. BURYING – DEBRIS SHOULD BE PLACED IN LAYERS TO AVOID
NESTING. THE TOP MATERIAL SHALL BE COVERED WITH
AT LEAST 12 INCHES OF EARTH OR ANY APPROVED
MATERIAL .
4. CHIPPING – WOOD DISPOSAL
CLEARING AND GRUBBING
INDIVIDUAL REMOVAL OF TREES AND STUMPS

Individual trees or stumps designated by the Engineer for

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL

removal and located in areas other than those established for clearing
and grubbing and roadside cleanup shall be removed and disposed
off as specified under Subsection 100.2.2 except trees removed shall
be cut as nearly flush with the ground as practicable without removing
stumps.
CLEARING AND GRUBBING
METHOD OF MEASUREMENT

1. AREA BASIS – PAYMENT IS BASED ON THE LIMITATIONS OF THE

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL

AREA COVERED OF CLEARING AND GRUBBING.

2. LUMP-SUM BASIS - WHEN THE BILL OF QUANTITIES CONTAINS A


CLEARING AND GRUBBING LUMP-SUM ITEM, NO
MEASUREMENT OF AREA WILL BE MADE FOR SUCH
ITEM.

3. INDIVIDUAL UNIT BASIS - THE DIAMETER OF TREES WILL BE


MEASURED AT A HEIGHT OF 1.4 M (54 INCHES) ABOVE
THE GROUND. TREES LESS THAN 150 MM (6INCHES) IN
DIAMETER WILL NOT BE MEASURED FOR PAYMENT.
CLEARING AND GRUBBING
BASIS OF PAYMENT
EXCAVATION

CLEARING
REMOVAL
REMOVAL OF STRUCTURES AND OBSTRUCTION

• Construction Requirements

CLEARING
EXCAVATION

REMOVAL
• Removal of Bridges, Culverts and other Drainage structures
• Removal of Pipes other than Culverts
• Removal of Existing Pavements, Sidewalks, Curbs, etc.
• Method of Measurement
• Basis of Payment
CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

All designated salvable material shall be removed,

CLEARING
EXCAVATION

REMOVAL
without unnecessary damage, in sections or pieces which may
be readily transported, and shall be stored by the
Contractor at specified places on the project or as otherwise
shown in the Special Provisions. Perishable material shall be
handled as designated in Subsection 100.2.2. Nonperishable
material may be disposed off outside the limits of view from
the project with written permission of the property owner on
whose property the material is placed.
REMOVAL OF EXISTING BRIDGES, CULVERTS AND OTHER
DRAINAGE STRUCTURES

ARRANGEMENTS ARE MADE TO ACCOMMODATE TRAFFIC

CLEARING
EXCAVATION

REMOVAL
INSTALLATION OF NEW STRUCTURES

BROKEN DOWN, CRUSHED, SEALED OR PLUG


REMOVAL OF EXISTING BRIDGES, CULVERTS AND OTHER
DRAINAGE STRUCTURES
SUBSTRUCTURES

CLEARING
EXCAVATION

REMOVAL
SUBSTRUCTURES OF EXISTING STRUCTURES SHALL BE
REMOVED DOWN TO THE NATURAL STREAM BOTTOM
AND THOSE PARTS OUTSIDE OF THE STREAM SHALL BE
REMOVED DOWN TO AT LEAST 300 MM (12 INCHES)
BELOW NATURAL GROUND SURFACE.
REMOVAL OF EXISTING BRIDGES, CULVERTS AND OTHER
DRAINAGE STRUCTURES

STEEL BRIDGES AND WOOD BRIDGES WHEN SPECIFIED TO BE

CLEARING
EXCAVATION

REMOVAL
CAREFULLY DISMANTLED WITHOUT DAMAGE.

PROPERTY OF THE CONTRACTOR MUST BE REMOVED FROM THE


RIGHT OF WAY

BLASTING AND OTHER OPERATIONS SHALL BE COMPLETED


PRIOR TO PLACING THE NEW WORK, UNLESS OTHERWISE
PROVIDED IN THE SPECIAL PROVISIONS.
REMOVAL OF PIPES OTHER THAN PIPE CULVERTS

CLEARING
EXCAVATION

REMOVAL
PIPES TO BE RELAID SHALL BE REMOVED AND STORED WHEN
NECESSARY SO THAT THERE WILL BE NO LOSS OF DAMAGE
BEFORE RE-LAYING.

THE CONTRACTOR SHALL REPLACE SECTIONS LOST FROM


STORAGE OR DAMAGE BY NEGLIGENCE, AT HIS OWN EXPENSE.
REMOVAL OF EXISTING PAVEMENT, SIDEWALKS, CURBS
ETC.
DESIGNATED FOR REMOVAL

CLEARING
EXCAVATION

REMOVAL
1. BROKEN INTO PIECES, USED FOR RIPRAP.
2. BROKEN INTO PIECES WITH A DIMENSION NOT MORE
THAN 12 INCHES.
3. OTHERWISE DEMOLISHED AND DISPOSED BY THE
ENGINEER.
METHOD OF MEASUREMENT

LUMP-SUM BASIS

CLEARING
EXCAVATION

REMOVAL
PAYMENT WILL INCLUDE ALL STRUCTURES AND
OBSTRUCTION THE PAY ITEM WILL INCLUDE ALL
STRUCTURES AND OBSTRUCTIONS IN THE ROADWAY.
EXCAVATION
BASIS OF PAYMENT

REMOVAL
CLEARING
EXCAVATION
ROADWAY EXCAVATION

Removal Of Unsuitable Material From The Roadbed

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
And Beneath Embankment Areas; And Excavating Selected
Material Found In The Roadway As Ordered By The Engineer
For Specific Use In The Improvement.

• UNCLASSIFIED EXCAVATION
• ROCK EXCAVATION
• COMMON EXCAVATION
• MUCK EXCAVATION
EXCAVATION
BORROW EXCAVATION

Borrow excavation shall consist of the excavation and

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
utilization of approved material required for the construction
of embankments or for other portions of the work

• BORROW CASE 1 - SOURCES


• BORROW CASE 2 - CONTRACTOR
EXCAVATION

CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
All excavations shall be finished to reasonably smooth and uniform
surfaces. No materials shall be wasted without authority of the
Engineer. Excavation operations shall be conducted so that material
outside of the limits of slopes will not be disturbed.
EXCAVATION

CONSERVATION TOP SOIL

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
THE SUITABLE TOPSOIL ENCOUNTERED IN EXCAVATION AND ON
AREAS WHERE EMBANKMENT IS TO BE PLACED SHALL BE REMOVED
TO SUCH EXTENT AND TO SUCH DEPTH AS THE ENGINEER MAY
DIRECT. THE REMOVED TOPSOIL SHALL BE TRANSPORTED AND
DEPOSITED IN STORAGE PILES AT LOCATIONS APPROVED BY THE
ENGINEER.
EXCAVATION
Utilization of Excavated Materials
All suitable material removed from the excavation shall be used in the
formation of the embankment, subgrade, shoulders, slopes, bedding,
and backfill for structures, and for other purposes shown on the Plans or

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
as directed.

Only approved materials shall be used in the construction of


embankments and backfills.

Borrow material shall not be placed until after the readily accessible
roadway excavation has been placed in the fill, unless otherwise
permitted or directed by the Engineer.
EXCAVATION
PRE-WATERING

Excavation areas and borrow pits may be pre-watered before

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
excavating the material.

When pre-watering is used, the areas to be excavated shall be


moistened to the full depth, from the surface to the bottom of the
excavation.
EXCAVATION
PRE-SPLITTING

Presplitting to obtain faces in the rock and shale formations shall be

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
performed by:

1. DRILLING HOLES AT UNIFORM INTERVALS ALONG THE


SLOPE LINES.

2. LOADING AND STEMMING THE HOLES WITH APPROPRIATE


EXPLOSIVES AND STEMMING MATERIAL.

3. DETONATING THE HOLES SIMULTANEOUSLY.


EXCAVATION
Excavation of Ditches, Gutters, etc.

All materials excavated from side ditches and gutters, channel changes,

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
irrigation ditches, inlet and outlet ditches, toe ditchers, furrow ditches,
and such other ditches as may be designated on the Plans or staked by
the Engineer, shall be utilized as provided in Subsection 102.2.3.
EXCAVATION
Excavation of Roadbed Level

Rock shall be excavated to a depth of 150 mm (6 inches) below

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
subgrade within the limits of the roadbed, and the excavation
backfilled with material designated on the Plans or approved by the
Engineer and compacted to the required density.

Material below subgrade, other than solid rock shall be thoroughly


scarified to a depth of150 mm (6 inches) and the moisture content
increased or reduced, as necessary, to bring the material throughout
this 150 mm layer to the moisture content suitable for maximum
compaction. This layer shall then be compacted in accordance with
Subsection 104.3.3.
EXCAVATION
Borrow Areas
The Contractor shall notify the Engineer sufficiently in advance of
opening any borrow areas so that cross-section elevations and
measurements of the ground surface after stripping may be taken, and

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
the borrow material can be tested before being used.

All borrow areas shall be bladed and left in such shape as to permit
accurate measurements after excavation has been completed.

The Contractor shall not excavate beyond the dimensions and elevations
established, and no material shall be removed prior to the staking out
and cross-sectioning of the site.
EXCAVATION
Removal of Unsuitable Material

Where excavation to the finished graded section results in a subgrade

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
or slopes of unsuitable soil, the Engineer may require the Contractor to
remove the unsuitable material and backfill to the finished graded
section with approved material.
EXCAVATION
Method of Measurement

The cost of excavation of material which is incorporated in the Works


or in other areas of fill shall be deemed to be included in the Items of

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
Work where the material is used.

Measurement of Unsuitable or Surplus Material shall be the net volume


in its original position.
EXCAVATION
BASIS OF PAYMENT

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
SHEID

STRUCTURAL
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
CLEARING
SHEID

EMBANKMENT
STRUCTURAL
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
CLEARING
SUBGRADE PREPARATION

FOUNDATION OF PAVEMENT STRUCTURE

STRUCTURAL
EMBANKMENT
SUBGRADE PREP

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
SHALL BE CONSIDERED AS THE SOIL SURFACE
ON WHICH A SUBSEQUENT LAYER OR LAYERS
OF BASE COURSE, GRAVEL SURFACING,
SURFACE TREATMENT, PAVEMENT OR OTHER
MATERIAL IS TO BE PLACED.
SUBGRADE PREPARATION

ALL MATERIALS BELOW SUBGRADE LEVEL TO A


DEPTH 150 MM OR TO SUCH GREATER DEPTH AS

STRUCTURAL
EMBANKMENT
SUBGRADE PREP

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
MAY BE SPECIFIED

Prior to commencing preparation of the subgrade,


all culverts, cross drains, ducts, ditches, drains and
drainage outlets shall be completed.
SUBGRADE PREPARATION

SUBGRADE LEVEL TOLERANCES

SUBGRADE PREP
EMBANKMENT
STRUCTURAL
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
CLEARING
SUBGRADE PREPARATION

Subgrade in Common Excavation

STRUCTURAL
EMBANKMENT
SUBGRADE PREP

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
ALL MATERIALS BELOW SUBGRADE LEVEL IN EARTH
CUTS TO A DEPTH 150 MM OR OTHER DEPTH SHOWN
ON THE PLANS OR AS DIRECTED BY THE ENGINEER
SHALL BE EXCAVATED.

ALL MATERIALS IMMEDIATELY BELOW SUBGRADE LEVEL


IN EARTH CUTS TO A DEPTH OF 150 MM, OR TO SUCH
GREATER DEPTH AS MAY BE SPECIFIED, SHALL BE
COMPACTED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE
REQUIREMENTS OF SUBSECTION 104.3.3.
SUBGRADE PREPARATION

Subgrade in Rock Excavation

STRUCTURAL
EMBANKMENT
SUBGRADE PREP

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
Surface irregularities under the subgrade level
remaining after trimming of the rock
excavation shall be leveled by placing
specified material and compacted to the
requirements of Subsection 104.3.3.
SUBGRADE PREPARATION

Subgrade on Embankment

STRUCTURAL
EMBANKMENT
SUBGRADE PREP

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
The entire roadbed shall be shaped and
compacted to the requirements of Subsections
104.3.3. Scarifying, blading, dragging, rolling,
or other methods of work shall be
performed or used as necessary to provide a
thoroughly compacted roadbed shaped to the
cross-sections shown on the Plans.
SUBGRADE PREPARATION

Subgrade on Existing Pavement

STRUCTURAL
EMBANKMENT
SUBGRADE PREP

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
NEW PAVEMENT IS TO BE CONSTRUCTED
IMMEDIATELY OVER AN EXISTING PORTLAND
CEMENT CONCRETE PAVEMENT AND IF SO
SPECIFIED IN THE CONTRACT THE SLAB BE
BROKEN INTO PIECES WITH GREATEST
DIMENSION OF NOT MORE THAN 500 MM
AND THE EXISTING PAVEMENT MATERIAL
COMPACTED AS SPECIFIED IN SUBSECTION
104.3.3, AS DIRECTED BY THE ENGINEER.
SUBGRADE PREPARATION

Protection of Completed Work

STRUCTURAL
EMBANKMENT
SUBGRADE PREP

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
THE CONTRACTOR SHALL BE REQUIRED TO PROTECT
AND MAINTAIN AT HIS OWN EXPENSE THE ENTIRE
WORK WITHIN THE LIMITS OF HIS CONTRACT IN
GOOD CONDITION SATISFACTORY TO THE ENGINEER
FROM THE TIME HE FIRST STARTED WORK UNTIL ALL
WORK SHALL HAVE BEEN COMPLETED. MAINTENANCE
SHALL INCLUDE REPAIRING AND RECOMPACTING RUTS,
RIDGES, SOFT SPOTS AND DETERIORATED SECTIONS OF
THE SUBGRADE CAUSED BY THE TRAFFIC OF THE
CONTRACTOR’S VEHICLE/EQUIPMENT OR THAT OF THE
PUBLIC.
SUBGRADE PREPARATION

Templates and Straight-edges

STRUCTURAL
EMBANKMENT
SUBGRADE PREP

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
THE CONTRACTOR SHALL PROVIDE FOR USE OF THE
ENGINEER, APPROVED TEMPLATES AND
STRAIGHTEDGES IN SUFFICIENT NUMBER TO CHECK
THE ACCURACY OF THE WORK, AS PROVIDED IN THIS
SPECIFICATION.
SUBGRADE PREPARATION

Method of Measurement

STRUCTURAL
EMBANKMENT
SUBGRADE PREP

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
The compaction of existing ground below subgrade level
in cuts of common material as specified in Subsection
105.3.3.

The breaking up or scarifying, loosening, reshaping and


recompacting of existing pavement as specified in
Subsection 105.3.6. The quantity to be paid for shall be
the area of the work specified to be carried out and
accepted by the Engineer.
SUBGRADE PREPARATION

Method of Measurement

STRUCTURAL
EMBANKMENT
SUBGRADE PREP

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
Payment for all work for the preparation of the
subgrade, including shaping to the required levels and
tolerances, other than as specified above shall be
deemed to be included in the Pay Item for Embankment.
BASIS OF PAYMENT
SUBGRADE PREPARATION

SUBGRADE PREP
EMBANKMENT
STRUCTURAL
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
CLEARING
COMPACTION EQUIPMENT AND DENSITY CONTROL
STRIPS

EMBANKMENT
SUBGRADE PREP
COMPACTION

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
STRUCTURAL

REMOVAL
When specified, this procedure will be used to
determine density requirements of selected
embankments, subgrade, bases, and bituminous
concrete.
COMPACTION EQUIPMENT AND DENSITY CONTROL
STRIPS
Compaction Equipment

EMBANKMENT
SUBGRADE PREP
COMPACTION

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
STRUCTURAL

REMOVAL
Compaction equipment shall be capable of
obtaining compaction requirements without
detrimentally affecting the compacted
material.
COMPACTION EQUIPMENT AND DENSITY CONTROL
STRIPS
Compaction Equipment
MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS:

EMBANKMENT
SUBGRADE PREP
COMPACTION

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
STRUCTURAL

REMOVAL
COMPACTION EQUIPMENT AND DENSITY CONTROL
STRIPS
Construction of Control Strips and Determination of
Target Density

EMBANKMENT
SUBGRADE PREP
COMPACTION

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
STRUCTURAL

REMOVAL
To determine target density, a control strip shall be
constructed at the beginning of work each course of
material to be compacted.

The materials used in the construction of the control


strip shall conform to the specification requirements.

The equipment used in the construction of the control strip shall


be approved by the Engineer and shall be of the same type and
mass to be used on the remainder of the course represented by
the control strip.
COMPACTION EQUIPMENT AND DENSITY
CONTROL STRIPS
Compaction of control strips shall commence immediately after
the course has been placed to the specified thickness, and shall
be continuous and uniform over the entire surface. Compaction

EMBANKMENT
SUBGRADE PREP
COMPACTION

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
STRUCTURAL

REMOVAL
of the control strip shall be continued until no discernible
increase in density can be obtained by additional compactive
effort.

Upon completion of the compaction, the mean density of the


control strip will be determined by averaging the results of ten
in-place density tests taken at randomly selected sites within
the control strip. The mean density of the control strip shall be
the target density for
the remainder of the course which it represents.
COMPACTION EQUIPMENT AND DENSITY CONTROL
STRIPS
A new control strip may also be ordered by the
Engineer or requested by the Contractor when:

EMBANKMENT
SUBGRADE PREP
COMPACTION

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
STRUCTURAL

REMOVAL
A change in the material or job-mix formula, is made.

Ten days of production have been accepted without


construction of a new control strip.

There is reason to believe that a control strip density


is
not representative of the material being placed.
COMPACTION EQUIPMENT AND DENSITY
CONTROL STRIPS
Basis of Payment

EMBANKMENT
SUBGRADE PREP
COMPACTION
Unless otherwise provided, the cost of constructing

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
STRUCTURAL

REMOVAL
the control strip will be considered incidental to the
cost of the work item for which a control strip is
required. Payment for the work item shall be
deemed to include compensation for performing the
work herein specified and the furnishing of all
materials, labors, tools, equipment and incidentals
necessary to construct the density control strip. No
payment will be made for any material used in the
construction of unacceptable control strip.
OVERHAUL

Overhaul shall consist of


authorized hauling in excess
of the free-haul distance.

STRUCTURAL
EMBANKMENT
OVERHAUL

SUBGRADE PREP
COMPACTION

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
Freehaul distance is the
specified distance that
excavated material shall
be hauled without
additional compensation.
Unless otherwise provided
in the Contract, the free-
haul distance shall be 600
meters.
OVERHAUL

In determining what
constitutes authorized
overhaul, it will be assumed

STRUCTURAL
EMBANKMENT
OVERHAUL

SUBGRADE PREP
COMPACTION

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
that material taken from
excavation will be
deposited in embankment
after having been hauled
the shortest distance.
OVERHAUL

The overhaul distance for material


obtained and placed within the roadway
limits will be measured along the

STRUCTURAL
EMBANKMENT
OVERHAUL
centerline of the roadway. No allowance

SUBGRADE PREP
COMPACTION

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
will be made for transverse or lateral
movement to or from the centerline except
materials moved to or from designated
areas outside the roadway limits; such as
Case 1, Borrow Pits, disposal areas, etc. In
such case, measurement shall be along the
shortest route determined by the Engineer
to be feasible and satisfactory unless
otherwise provided.
OVERHAUL

If the Contractor chooses to haul


material over some other route,
and such other route is longer, the

STRUCTURAL
EMBANKMENT
OVERHAUL

SUBGRADE PREP
COMPACTION

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
computation for payment shall be
based on the overhaul distance
measured along the route
designated by the Engineer.
OVERHAUL

The number of cubic metre-


kilometres of overhaul to be paid
for shall be the number of cubic

STRUCTURAL
EMBANKMENT
OVERHAUL

SUBGRADE PREP
COMPACTION

CLEARING
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
meters of overhaul material
multiplied by the overhaul
distance in kilometers. The unit
“cubic meter-kilometer” is the
amount of hauling required to
move one cubic meter a distance
of one kilometer beyond the free-
haul distance.
OVERHAUL

Basis of Payment

OVERHAUL
COMPACTION
SUBGRADE PREP

EMBANKMENT
STRUCTURAL
EXCAVATION
REMOVAL
CLEARING