You are on page 1of 96

°

 


   

 
      




   !

° 




   

 " !

O   O
  O
    
  


|  
         

Outline
1. Overview of GIS
‡ Definition of GIS
‡ Objectives and Potential of GIS
2. Components of GIS
‡ Hardware,Software,Data,Method,Liveware
3. Functions/Task of GIS
‡ Data Input:Data Model,
‡ Data Management:Relational Database
‡ Data quality,Map Scale & Accuracy/Errors
‡ Data analysis: Queries & Spatial Analysis
4. Application of GIS

|  
         

ïhat is GIS?
‡ No consensus on the definition
‡ However, there is consensus that GIS
includes the following major elements:
± hardware/software
± database
± applications/infrastructure

|  
         

ïhat is GIS?
‡ A GIS is a specific information system applied to
geographic data and ;
‡ is mainly referred to as a system of hardware,
software, personnel and procedures;
‡ designed to support capture, management,
manipulation, analysis, modeling and display of
spatially referenced data for solving complex
planning and management problems [Burroughs,
1986; NCGIA, 1990].

|  
         

# $%$" & '

Multipurpose geographical data system
Multipurpose input land use system
Computerized geographical information system
System for handling natural resources inventory data
Geo-information system
Spatial information system
Land resource information system
Spatial data management and comprehensive analysis system
Planning information system
Resource information system
Natural resource management information system
Spatial data handling system
Geographically referenced information system
Environment information system
AGIS - Automated geographical information system
Multipurpose cadastre
Land information system
AM/FM - Automated mapping and facilities management
|  
         

GIS OBJECTIVES
‡ Maximize the efficiency of planning and decision
making
‡ Provide efficient means for data distribution and
handling
‡ Elimination of redundant data base - minimize
duplication
‡ Capacity to integrate information from many
sources
‡ Complex analysis/query involving geographical
referenced data to generate new information.

|  
         

Geographic Information System (GIS)
‡ Powerful tools for addressing
geographical /environmental issues
‡ Allows us to arrange information about a
location as a set of maps
‡ Displaying information about
one characteristic of the region
‡ Needs a location reference
system (such as latitude and longitude)

|  
         

Potential for GIS
    ( 

) # 
 *"
‡ geospatial data are better maintained in a standard
format
‡ revision and updating are easier
‡ geospatial data and information are easier to search,
analyze and represent
‡ more value added product
‡ geospatial data can be shared and exchanged freely
‡ productivity of the staff is improved and more
efficient
‡ time and money are saved
‡ better decisions can be made
|  
         

 + 
     +  

)   

) :
‡   """"", (Locational question ; what exists at a
particular location)
‡   """"", (Conditional question ; which locations
satisfy certain conditions)
‡ -
)    """""", (Trendy question ; identifies
geographic occurrence or trends that have changed or in the
process of changing)
‡     """"", (Relational question :
analyzes the spatial relationship between objects of
geographic features)
‡   """"""", (Model based question ; computers and
displays an optimum path, a suitable land, risky area against
disasters etc. based on model)
|  
         

Components of GIS

|  
         

Components of GIS :Hardware
‡ Input devices (Keyboard, digitizing tablet,
scanner)
‡ Central Processing Unit (Pentium, AMD,
Sun SPARC)
‡ Storage devices (Tape drives, floppy drives,
hard disks)
‡ Output devices (Monitor, printer, plotter)

|  
         

|  
         

Components of GIS:Key software components

‡ Tools for the input and manipulation of


geographic information
‡ A database management system (DBMS)
‡ Tools that support geographic query,
analysis, and visualization
‡ A graphical user interface (GUI) for easy
access to tools

|  
         

manifold

|  
         

|  
         

Components of GIS: GIS Data
‡ Base Maps ± include streets, highways, boundaries
for census, postal, and political areas, rivers and
lakes, parks and landmarks; place names
‡ Environmental maps - include data related to the
environment, weather, environmental risk, satellite
imagery, topography, and natural resources.
‡ Socio-economic data - include data related to
census/demography, health care, real state,
telecommunications, emergency preparedness,
crime, business establishments, and transportation.

|  
         



%

 
   

.&
    
  

|  
         

Components of GIS:Liveware
‡ GIS Manager
‡ GIS Specialist
‡ GIS Technician
‡ GIS Analyst
‡ Computer Programmer
‡ Data Encoder
‡ Information Systems Analyst
‡ Information Technology Officer
‡ Engineer
‡ Planning Officer
|  
         

Components of GIS: Procedures/Methods

‡ ïell-designed plan
‡ Business rules
‡ Models and operating practices unique to
each organization

|  
         

Functions/Tasks of GIS
‡ Data Input
‡ Data Management
‡ Data Analysis and Manipulation
‡ Data Display/Visualization

|  
         

Functions/Tasks of GIS:Data Input
‡ The procedure of encoding data into a
computer-readable form and writing the
data to the GIS database.
‡ Data input includes three major steps (the
latter two steps are also called data
preprocessing):
± Data capture
± Editing and cleaning
± Geo-coding

|  
         

Functions/Tasks of GIS: Data Input
‡ Keyboard entry
‡ Manual digitizing (e.g., tablet, on-
screen)
‡ Scanning

|  
         

|  
         

|  
         


 
 / 
0

|  
         

Data Input :Data Sources for GIS

‡ maps
‡ aerial photos
‡ satellite images
‡ technical
descriptions
‡ GPS data

|  
         

Data Input : Geographic Data Characteristics

‡ Geographic data contains four integrated


components, namely, location, attribute,
spatial relationship and time.
‡ Geographic data include those which are
spatially referenced.
‡ A GIS includes operations which support
spatial analysis.

|  
         

Data Input: Geographic Data Characteristics
‡ Spatial data and
their attributes
are linked
(seamless)
± By their
geographic
location
± By unique
identifiers

|  
         

Data Input: Kinds of Data GIS Handles
‡ Spatial data
± usually translated into simple objects: points, lines,
areas and grids (pixels).
± represented as maps.
± Example: a parcel of land
‡ Attribute data (Non-spatial or Aspatial Data)
± are descriptive information about specified spatial
objects.
± often have no direct information about the spatial
location but can be linked to spatial objects they
describe.
± Usually organized in tables
± Example: the owner of a parcel of land
|  
         

|  
         

Data Input: Kinds of Data GIS Handles

‡ Identify if spatial(graphical) or non-spatial(textual)


± This building
± The color of this building
± The people within this building
± The name of this building
± Rizal Park
± Botswana Road
± Gaborone
± Population of Botswana

|  
         

Data Input: Identifiers

‡ Enable both spatial and attribute data to be


stored separately but accessed together.
‡ Identifiers are
± Unique values - usually integers
± Stored as part of the spatial data structure - as a
numeric value (i.e., system-generated ID)
± Stored as part of the attribute data structure - as
a field in a table

|  
         

|  
         

Data Input: Data Model

Conversion of real world geographical variation into


discrete objects is done through data models. It
represents the linkage between the real world
domain of geographic data and computer
representation of these features.
‡ Two major categories of spatial data representation
in GIS: raster and vector.
± Raster approach: cells
± Vector approach: points, lines, and polygons

|  
         



1


 


|  
         

Raster Data
‡ Divides the entire study area into a regular
grid of cells
‡ Each cell contains a single value
‡ Is space-filling since every location in the
study area corresponds to a cell in the raster.
‡ Raster data can be imagined as collection of
cells organized like a matrix.

|  
         

|  
         

#   
ncols 15
nrows 16 . 
xllcenter .5
yllcenter .5
cellsize 1
111111222223333
111111222233333
1  
   
111111222333333
111112222333333
111112222233333
111122222333333
111222223333333
111111222233333
116666244433355
666666444444555
666666444445555
666666444445555
666664444445555
666666444455555
666664444455555
666644444455555

|  
         

Vector Data Model
‡ Represented by lines, points, and polygons.
‡ Fundamental primitive is a point
‡ Points are stored as x,y coordinates and
represent features as having no dimension.
‡ Objects are created by connecting points
with straight lines (or arcs)
‡ Areas are defined by sets of lines

|  
         

|  
         

1  

#   
1
 
2


1 2.4 2.8
2 2.7 2.9   
. . .
. . .
. . .

0

1 (2.4 2.8),(3.1,2.7),(3.5, 1.3),.......


2 (2.7,2.9),...................
. . .
. . .
. . .

2



1 (2.4 2.8),(3.1,2.7),(3.5, 1.3),.......(2.4 2.8)


..........
......
....

|  
         

Format Issues
‡ Most GIS applications can utilize both
vector and raster formats, and/or they can
convert between the two
‡ Converting from vector to raster is easy;
‡ Converting from raster to vector is difficult

|  
         

|  
         

Industry-Standard Formats
‡ Standard vector GIS formats include:
± DLG, shape files, TIGER files (preserve
topology)
‡ Standard raster GIS formats include:
± .JPG, .TIF, GeoTIFF (georeferenced TIF
image), other digital image formats, and DEMs
(which are georeferenced)

|  
         

!


  1
  
"

.  .0 1.!  .0
& 3 & :

1.It is a simple data structure. 1.It provides a more compact data structure than the raster
model.
2.Overlay operations are easily and efficiently 2.It provides efficient encoding of topology, and as a result,
implemented. more efficient implementation of operations that require
topological information, such as network analysis
3.High spatial variability is efficiently represented 3.The vector model is better suited to supporting graphics.
in a raster format. that closely approximate hand-drawn maps.
4.The raster format is more or less required for efficient
manipulation and enhancement of digital images.

& 3 & 3


1.The raster data structure is less compact. 1.It is a more complex data structure than a simple raster.
2.Topological relationships are more difficult to represent. 2.Overlay operations are more difficult to implement.
3.The output of graphics is less aesthetically pleasing 3.The representation of high spatial variability is inefficient.
because boundaries tend to have a blocky appearance 4.Manipulation and enhancement of digital images cannot
rather than the smooth lines of hand-drawn maps. This be effectively done in the vector domain.
can be overcome by using a very large number of cells,
but may result in unacceptably large files.

Source: Aronoff, S., 1989. Geographical Information Systems: A Management Perspective, ïDL Publications, Ottawa.

|  
         

Vector Representation of Real ïorld
Objects
‡ The representation of real world objects on
a map as points, lines and polygons is
known as abstraction.
‡ In abstraction, the data are structured to be
amenable to computer storage/retrieval and
manipulation.
‡ Abstraction is done based on the
requirements of a specific application.

|  
         

Vector Representation of Real ïorld Objects
‡ Building
± Represented by polygon in 1:500 cadastral map
± Represented by point in 1:50,000 topographic
map
‡ Road
± Represented by polygon in 1:500 cadastral map
± Represented by line in 1:50,000 topographic
map

|  
         

0 

& 

|  
         

Political Boundaries
Water Features
Roads
Orthorectified Image
Digital Elevation Model
Geodetic Control Network

|  
         

|  
         

Data Management
‡ A collection of non-redundant data which can be
shared by different application systems is known
as a database.
‡ Several layers of geographic data covering the
same location are considered a database.
‡ ïhen data volumes become large, it is often
best to use a database management system
(DBMS) to help store, organize, and manage
data

|  
         

Data Management
‡ A DBMS is nothing more than computer
software for managing a database.
‡ There are many different designs of
DBMSs, but in GIS the relational design
has been the most useful.
‡ In the relational design, data are stored
conceptually as a collection of tables.

|  
         

A DBMS contains
‡ Data definition language
‡ Data dictionary
‡ Data-entry module
‡ Data update module
‡ Report generator
‡ Query language

|  
         

Data structure
‡ Flat file (tabular) - data in a single table (no link
between tables).
‡ Hierarchical - keys for data retrieval are clearly
defined (one-to-many relationship).
‡ Network - constructed based on pointers and links
between data records (many-to-many
relationship).
‡ Relational - normalized tables with common
redundant fields for relational link (many-to-many
relationship).

|  
         

Database Structure

-    


    ')
 

|  
         

Relational Model
‡ ïidely used in GIS
‡ Commonly used relational DBMS are as follows:
± INFO - used in ARC/INFO
± EMPRESS - used in System/9
± ORACLE - used in ARC/INFO, GeoVision, etc.
± SQL & ACCESS ± used in PC-based GIS - Arcview
± dBASE - used in pcARC/INFO and other PC-based
GIS ARCVIEï.

|  
         

Relational Model
‡ Each record has a set of attributes (fields or
items).
‡ The range of possible values (domain) is
defined for each attribute.
‡ Records of each type form a table or
relation.
‡ In a table, each row is a record or tuple and
each column is an attribute or field.
|  
         

Relational Model

|  
         

Relation
‡ The degree of a relation is the number of
attributes in the table.
‡ A one-attribute table is a unary relation.
‡ A two-attribute table is a binary relation.
‡ A n-attribute table is an n-ary relation.

|  
         

The degree of a relation.

|  
         

Key
‡ A key of a relation is a subset of attributes with
the following properties:
± unique identification: the value of a key is unique for
each tuple.
± non-redundancy: no attribute in the key can be
discarded without destroying the key's uniqueness
± A primary key is a combination of attributes (fields)
whose values uniquely address each record in a
relation.
± A foreign key is an attribute in one relation (table)
which can serve as a primary key into another table.

|  
         



|  
         

°
   2 

|  
         

Normalization

‡ It is a step-by-step process for converting data


structures into a standard form (relational tables)
‡ This standard form satisfies the ff. constraints:
± Each entry in a table represents one data item (no repeating
groups).
± All items within each column are of the same kind.
± Each column has a unique name.
± All rows are unique (no duplicates).
± The order of viewing the rows and columns does not affect
the semantics of any function using the table.

|  
         

Normalization
‡ Elimination of anomalies in data structure
± Update anomalies
± Deletion anomalies
± Insertion anomalies

|  
         





  

 
 
$4(444
Non-normalized relation. 
,

|  
         

Update Anomaly

!  

#

0
 

 4"$4 

4"$5"
  
 $4(444

 )
0
 ,

Non-normalized relation.

|  
         

Deletion Anomaly

 

 )
0
 "

 



 
0 
# 

,

Non-normalized relation.

|  
         

Insertion Anomaly

 

 
!"
  
 $4(444

 &
 
 ,

Non-normalized relation.

|  
         

60

Normalized relations.

60 7  6  0  

|  
         

Normalization
‡ Major Steps
± remove repeating groups of information and
move each group out into its own table
± look at the information in terms of
dependencies (separating out information that is
not dependent on the table's Primary Key)

|  
         


 8

   6  0  
 60

|  
         

Degree of Relationship
‡ One-to-one relationship
± A division has   chief and that a chief
is a head of   one division
‡ One-to-many relationship
± A division has many staff and a staff belongs to
at most one division
‡ Many-to-many relationship
± An employee may be assigned to many projects
and a project may have many employees
assigned to it
|  
         

One-to-one Relationship

|  
         

One-to-many Relationship

'

|  
         

  

) #  
/
 
 "
" -9° -°9!
( - ° '( !
-°9!
 - ° ' !
043425H0001 Marinduque Provincial HOSPITAL
Hospital
043412H0001 Sta. Cruz Provincial HOSPITAL
Hospital
043412R0001 Brgy. Morales Brgy. Clinic RHU

" -9° -°9!


( - ° '( .+ 9!
( .+ 
-°9!
 - ° ' .6:2.'9! . .6:2.'
043425H0001 Marinduque Provincial Hospital E1 X-Ray Machine

043412H0001 Sta. Cruz Provincial Hospital E2 Computer

043425H0001 Marinduque Provincial Hospital E2 Computer


043412R0001 Brgy. Morales Brgy. Clinic E3 Air Conditioner
|  
         

  

) #  
/
 
 "
!" -9° -°9!
( - ° '( ! 2
 


-°9!
 - ° ' ! 2
 

043425H0001 Marinduque Provincial Hospital 13,980

043412H0001 Sta. Cruz Provincial Hospital 17,490

043412R0001 Brgy. Morales Brgy. Clinic 3,459

" &#9- -°9!


( - ° '( -
9 ( 9
9-
-°9!
 - ° ' -9 9
9-
043425H0001 Marinduque Provincial Hospital 1200459 Doctor

043412H0001 Sta. Cruz Provincial Hospital 1200460 Nurse

043412R0001 Brgy. Morales Brgy. Clinic 1200461 Medical Technologist

|  
         

Topology
‡ The mathematical procedure for explicitly
defining relationships between spatial objects.
‡ Topology expresses different types of spatial
relationships: (3 major topological concepts)
± arcs connect to each other at nodes (connectivity)
± arcs that connect to surround an area define a polygon
(area definition)
± arcs have direction and left and right sides (contiguity)

|  
         

An arc in vector GIS.

|  
         

Example of "built" topology (ARC/INFO)

|  
         

Data Manipulation
‡ GIS data need to undergo transformation
before they can be integrated, displayed or
analyzed.
± same scale, coordinate system, format, etc.
‡ A temporary transformation for display
purposes or a permanent one required for
analysis

|  
         

GIS Data Quality

As a result of increased mapping capabilities using


GIS, two new and very significant mapping issues
arose .
‡ Map Scale
‡ Accuracy/Error

|  
         

Map scale
‡ The major concern in collecting/using spatial data any mapping
purpose is scale
‡ The ratio of distance on a map over the corresponding distance
on the ground.
‡ Scale is represented as 1: M or 1/M, where M is called the scale
denominator. The Larger the scale, the more the detail
described by the map and with higher accuracy.
‡ Most of the available GIS data are collected at the common
scale such as 1:50000 or 1:24000.
‡ It is possible to change the scale in GIS but not advised
(important detail are missing)
‡ Use of multi scale/multi resolution data
‡ US geological survey provides two dataset at two
resolution(NIMA-100 m and USGS-30 m).Using above two
sources result in different maps.
|  
         

Map Scale

|  
         

 6 3  .

‡ The closeness of measurements or estimates by computation to true
values.
‡ Accuracy is generally represented by standard deviation of errors, that
is difference between measurements and the true value.
xi: error in measurements
: number of measurements

‡ In GIS, errors result from the map itself, map digitizing and coordinate
transformation, which will sum up to about 0.5 mm on the map.
‡ Error associated with spatial information can be user errors,
measurement error and processing error.

|  
         

.
3 : 

‡ Age of data - Reliability decreases with age.
‡ Map scale - Non-availability of data on a proper
scale or Use of data at different scales
‡ Density of observation - Sparsely distributed data set is less
reliable
‡ Relevance of data - results from indirect or derived data
layers as input into GIS
‡ Data inaccuracy - Positional, elevation, minimum,
mapable unit etc.
‡ Inaccuracy of contents - Attributes are erroneously attached
Accessibility Military restrictions, inter-agency rivalry, privacy
laws, and economic factors may restrict data availability or the
level of accuracy in the data

|  
         

Error: Measurement Error

‡ Error associated with variations in data set.


‡ Error due to limitations and/or quality of
instrument.
‡ Error due to limitation in collecting data in
the field.(human skill)
‡ Error due to natural conditions

|  
         

Error: Processing Error
‡ Processing error includes factors such as
precision, interpolation,generalization, data
conversion, digitization and other
methodical operations.
‡ Error due to combining data layers
‡ Error due to registration

|  
         

Data Analysis
‡ Perform queries:
± 

)  

  
,
± -
)    #) )
,
±      #
 #  ) 
,
± -
) #    & #  
,
‡ GIS provides both simple point-and-click query
capabilities and sophisticated analysis tools

|  
         

Data Analysis
‡ Perform analysis and modeling to look for patterns
and trends and to undertake "what if" scenarios.
± If a new factory is built here, how will the residents¶
health be affected?
± Given a series of environmental data, where will malaria
most likely break out?
± If all the factories near a wetland accidentally release
chemicals into the river at the same time, how long
would it take for a damaging amount of pollutant to enter
the wetland reserve?

|  
         

GIS Queries
‡ Attribute Query
‡ Spatial Query
‡ Combination of Attribute Query and Spatial
Query

|  
         

Spatial Overlay
‡ An operation that merges the features of two
coverage layers into a new layer and relationally
joins their feature attribute table.
‡ ïhen overlay occurs, spatial relationships
between objects are updated for the new,
combined map.
‡ In some circumstances, the result may be
information about relationships (new attributes)
for the old maps rather than the creation of new
objects.

|  
         

Spatial Analysis
GIS operational procedure and analytical tasks that
are particularly useful for spatial analysis include:
‡ Single layer operations
‡ Multi layer operations/ Topological overlay
‡ Geometric modeling
± Calculating the distance between geographic features
± Calculating area, length and perimeter
± Geometric buffers.
‡ Network analysis
‡ Surface analysis
‡ Raster/Grid analysis
|  
         

GIS Applications in Natural
Resource Management
‡ Agricultural development
‡ Land evaluation analysis
‡ Change detection of vegetated areas
‡ Analysis of deforestation and associated
environmental hazards
‡ Monitoring vegetation health
‡ Mapping percentage vegetation cover for the
management of land
‡ Crop acreage and production estimation
‡ ïasteland mapping
|  
         

‡ References:
± Fundamentals of GIS by P.L.N. Raju(
G      
  

± !""    #  $
 

|  
         

-' ;:

|