This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Physics
MOHAMMAD IMRAN AZIZ
Assistant Professor
PHYSICS DEPARTMENT
SHIBLI NATIONAL COLLEGE,
AZAMGARH (India).
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
The total number of protons in the nucleus of an atom is called the atomic
number of the atom and is given the symbol Z. The number of electrons in
an electricallyneutral atom is the same as the number of protons in the
nucleus. The number of neutrons in a nucleus is known as the neutron
number and is given the symbol N. The mass number of the nucleus is the
total number of nucleons, that is, protons and neutrons in the nucleus. The
mass number is given the symbol A and can be found by the equation Z + N
= A.
.
Nuclides
Nuclear constituents and their
properties
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
why electrons cannot exist inside a nucleus:
This can be explained mathematically also using Heisenberg's
uncertainty principle as follows
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Confinement Calculation
Electtron is not found in the nucleus, it means we are talking about free electron. That is free
electron does not exist.n ....> p + e, here this is beta deacy and electron that becomes free is
emitted out of the nucleus as free electron as can not exist due to Heisenberg uncertainty.
Nuclear Spin
The nuclear spins for individual protons and neutrons
parallels the treatment of electron spin, with spin 1/2
and an associated magnetic moment. The magnetic
moment is much smaller than that of the electron. For
the combination neutrons and protons into nuclei, the
situation is more complicated.
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
It is common practice to represent the total angular momentum of a
nucleus by the symbol I and to call it "nuclear spin". For electrons in
atoms we make a clear distinction between electron spin and electron
orbital angular momentum, and then combine them to give the
total angular momentum. But nuclei often act as if they are a single
entity with intrinsic angular momentum I. Associated with each nuclear
spin is a nuclear magnetic moment which produces magnetic
interactions with its environment.
•
A characteristic of the collection of protons and
neutrons (which are fermions) is that a nucleus of odd
mass number A will have a halfinteger spin and a
nucleus of even A will have integer spin. The
suggestion that the angular momenta of nucleons tend
to form pairs is supported by the fact that all nuclei
with even Z and even N have nuclear spin I=0. The
halfinteger spins of the oddA nuclides suggests that
this is the nuclear spin contributed by the odd neutron
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Nuclear Magnetic
Moments
• Associated with each nuclear spin is a
magnetic moment which is associated with the angular
momentum of the nucleus. It is common practice to
express these magnetic moments in terms of the
nuclear spin in a manner parallel to the treatment of
the magnetic moments of electron spin and electron
orbital angular momentum.
• For the electron spin and orbital cases, the magnetic
moments are expressed in terms of a unit called a
Bohr magneton which arises naturally in the treatment
of quantized angular momentum
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Electric Quadrupole
Moments of Nuclei
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
The nuclear electric quadrupole moment is a parameter which
describes the effective shape of the ellipsoid of nuclear charge
distribution. A nonzero quadrupole moment Q indicates that the
charge distribution is not spherically symmetric. By convention, the
value of Q is taken to be positive if the ellipsoid is prolate and
negative if it is oblate.
The quantity Q
0
is the classical form of the calculation
represents the departure from spherical symmetry in the rest
frame of the nucleus.
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Generally, the measured quantity is proportional to the zcomponent of the
magnetic moment (the component along the experimentally determined
direction such as the direction of an applied magnetic field, etc. ). In this
treatment, the use of a "gyromagnetic ratio" or "gfactor" is introduced. The g
factor for orbital is just g
L
= 1, but the electron spin gfactor is approximately
g
S
= 2
For free protons and neutrons with spin I =1/2, the
magnetic moments are of the form
The proton gfactor is far from the g
S
= 2 for the electron, and even
the uncharged neutron has a sizable magnetic moment! For the
neutron, this suggests that there is internal structure involving the
movement of charged particles, even though the net charge of the
neutron is zero. If g=2 were an expected value for the proton and
g=0 were expected for the neutron, then it was noted by early
researchers that the the proton gfactor is 3.6 units above its
expected value and the neutron value is 3.8 units below its expected
value. This approximate symmetry was used in trial models of the
magnetic moment, and in retrospect is taken as an indication of the
internal structure of quarks in the standard model of the proton and
neutron
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
where
Proton: g = 5.5856912 +/ 0.0000022
Neutron: g = 3.8260837 +/ 0.0000018
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Nuclide Nuclear
spin I
Magnetic moment
µ in µ
N
n 1/2 1.9130418
p 1/2 +2.7928456
2
H(D) 1 +0.8574376
17
O 5/2 1.89279
57
Fe 1/2 +0.09062293
57
Co 7/2 +4.733
93
Nb 9/2 +6.1705
Note that the maximum effective magnetic moment of
a nucleus in nuclear magnetons will be the gfactor
multiplied by the nuclear spin. For a proton with g =
5.5857 the quoted magnetic moment is µ = 2.7928
nuclear magnetons.
Nuclei
• Parameters of nuclei
• Strong Interaction
• Binding Energy
• Stable and Unstable Nuclei
• LiquidDrop Model
Numerous Applications:
• nuclear power
• applications in medicine, biology and
chemistry
• evolution of stars and the Universe
• nuclear weapons
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Size of Nuclei and Rutherford Scattering
1/3
0
R R A ≈
15
0
1.2 10 1.2 R m fm
−
≈ × ·
R – the
fitting
parameter
Calculations were strictly classical. However, because of
the Coulomb interaction between alphaparticles and
nucleus, the result miraculously coincides with the exact
quantummechanical one (recall the success of the Bohr
model for atoms).
( )
( )
1/3
238
92
1.2 238 7.4 R U fm fm ≈ ⋅ ·
Geiger, Marsden,
Rutherford,1910
 depends weakly on
A (number of
nucleons in the
nucleus)
α particles: bare He
nuclei
Scattering pattern was consistent with that
expected for scattering of α particles by
pointlike objects having a charge of +79e (the
charge of the gold nucleus). This allowed
Rutherford to put an upper limit on the size of
the nucleus (<3× 10
14
m for gold).
To measure the size of a
nucleus, one has to use more
energetic α particles (or
electrons, which are more
commonly used these days)
that get close enough to get
inside the nucleus.
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Nuclear Mass
A
Z
X
6 protons + 6 neutrons
12
6
C
Atomic Mass (the mass of a neutral atom):
2 2
. .
/ /
p n nucleus e el nucl
M Z m N m U c Z m U c
−
· ⋅ + ⋅ + + ⋅ +
. .
, 0
nucleus el nucl
U U
−
<
 attraction between nucleons in the nucleus
and between electrons and the nucleus
Mass Unit
12
6
27 2
1 1.66054 10 931.49 /
12
C
M
u kg MeV c
−
≡ · × ·
chemical
symbol for the
element
number of protons in the
nucleus
(atomic number of the element)
number of nucleons in the
nucleus
(mass number of the nucleus)
The neutron number:N A Z · −
2
. . el nucl nucleus p
U U m c
−
<< <<
 we can neglect U
el.nucl
. and
introduce a convenient mass unit:
proton mass 1.007277
p
m u · ·
neutron mass 1.008665
n
m u · ·
electron mass 0.000549
e
m u · ·
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Nuclear Density
( )
( )
3 3 3
0 0
27
17 3
3
15
1
1
3 3 3
4 4 4
1.66 10
2.4 10 /
3
1.2 10
4
A au
M au
R R A R
kg
kg m
m
ρ
π π π
π
−
−
⋅
· ≈ ·
×
· · ×
×
The density of neutron stars is comparable
with that of nuclei.
(Unstable) isotopes of tin
and zinc.
!
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
The Need for a “Strong Force”
Which interaction controls the size of nucleons? This cannot be electromagnetic
interaction: protons have the same electric charge (they would repel each
other) and also there are attractive forces between protons and electrically
neutral neutrons.
Strong Interaction:
binds protons to protons, neutrons to neutrons, and protons to neutrons with
roughly the same force
does not affect certain other kinds of particles (specifically electrons)
is shortranged (the range ~ 2 fm). Nucleons separated by a larger distance
exert no strong forces on each other.
These observations are explained by the quark model of
nucleons. Nucleons are the combination of quarks that
are stronginteractionneutral (like an electricallyneutral
atom). Two nucleons interact only if they are close
enough that the distances between various pairs of
quarks are significantly different.
g
u
d
u
quark
s and
gluon
s
~ 10
15
m
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Structure of Matter
Atom is almost an
empty space (the
nuclear volume is
~10
15
of the
atomic volume)
g
u
d
u
quarks
and
gluons
~ 10
10
 10
9
m
~ 10
15
 10
14
m
Protons & Neutrons
(nucleons)
are almost an empty
space (the quark size is
<10
18
m)
El.mag.
interaction
determines the
size of atoms
~ 10
15
m
Strong interaction
determines the
size of nuclei and
nucleons
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Binding Energy
Binding energy:
( ) ( )
1
1
2
2
mass of all particles consituting the at om mass of the atom
A
Z
B
n
H X
E c
Z m N m M c
· − × ]
]
]
· ⋅ + ⋅ − ×
]
2
B
E M c · ∆ ⋅
mass deficit
sys B parts B parts sys
E E E E E E + · · −
the binding energy is
positive for a bound system
Recall a H atom: the binding energy is 13.6 eV (the ground state energy with
sign “minus”).
We can compute the binding energy if we know masses of a system and its
constituents:
add E
B
p
n
p
p
n
n
n
sys
E
2
parts i
E m c · ×
∑
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Binding Energy curve
Because of the shortrange character of strong interaction (basically, between
nearest and nexttonearest neighbors), the interaction energy per nucleon with
increasing Z saturates at the level ~ (Z/2)(# of neighbors).
The binding energy ~ 10MeV/nucleon is ~1% of the nucleon’s
rest energy: we can consider the nucleus as a system of
individual nucleons
The decrease of the binding energy with
increasing Z is caused by the longrange
Coulomb repulsion of protons:
2
B Z ∆ ∝ −
B
i
n
d
i
n
g
e
n
e
r
g
y
p
e
r
n
u
c
l
e
o
n
(
E
B
/
A
)
,
M
e
V
Mass number, A
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
LiquidDrop Model
A “semiclassical” model of
the nucleus: describes
reasonably well the
dependence E
B
(A):
( )
2
2
2/3
1/3
2
B V s c a
A Z
Z
E a A a A a a
A A
−
· − − −
( )
( )
0
3 2
0
0 0
4
4
3
4
R
r r dr
U R
r
ρ π ρ π
πε
 `
⋅
. ,
·
∫
( )
q r
( )
dq r
( )
q r
( )
dq r
ρ  charge density
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
LiquidDrop Model (cont’d)
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Limitations of LiquidDrop Model
Maria GoeppertMayer, J.H.D.Jensen
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Stable Nuclei
Isotopes: all nuclei that have the same
number of protons (Z) but different
number of neutrons (N). Since the
chemical properties of an atom are
determined by the number of its
electrons, isotopes of the same element
have almost identical chemical
properties.
Example: naturally occurring isotopes of
oxygen
16
8
0
17
8
0
19
8
0
Related questions:
 What makes unstable nuclei unstable?
 What are the mechanisms by which
they transform themselves into stable
nuclei?
Why do light stable nuclei tend to have
N ≈ Z?
 Why do heavier nuclei tend to have
more neutrons than protons?
 Why are there no stable nuclei with
Z>83?
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
What makes unstable nuclei
unstable?

If a nucleus is allowed to decrease its energy by
transforming “excessive” protons (neutrons) into neutrons
(protons), it will do it!
The potential experienced by nucleons is a 3D potential
well. The groundstate configuration of the carbon16
nucleus :
12
6
C
protons neutrons
energy
Both protons and neutrons
are fermions (they obey the
exclusion principle). Nuclei
are twocomponent Fermi
systems. Each nuclear
energy level can contain
four particles: two protons
(s=t ½) and two neutrons
(s=t ½).
The processes responsible for these transformations are driven by weak
interaction (the fourth fundamental interaction):
The weak interaction (unlike the strong interaction) affects both quarks and
leptons, (unlike the el.mag. interaction) can affect electrically neutral particles,
and (unlike gravity) does not affect photons.
The effective range of the weak interaction is ~ 10
18
m.
Some important transformation processes driven by weak interaction:
n e p ν
− +
→ + + p n e ν
+ +
→ + + p e n ν
+ −
+ → +
0
r
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Why N ≈ Z for light nuclei
If the electrostatic
repulsion of protons
can be neglected (this
is the case of light
nuclei: recall that the
positive electrostatic
energy ∝Z
2
), the
nucleus tends to keep
approximately equal
numbers of protons
and neutrons.
protons neutrons
energy
13
8
O
1/ 2
8.9 t ms ·
protons neutrons
energy
13
7
N
1/ 2
5730 t y ·
protons neutrons
energy
14
7
N
protons neutrons
energy
14
6
C
Even in this case, the
nucleus can still lower
its total energy: the
rest energy of neutron
is slightly more than
the rest energy of a
proton and an electron.
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Why N > Z for heavy nuclei
In the heavy nuclei, the
electrostatic energy cannot
be neglected. As a result, the
protons’ energy levels are
“pushed up” with respect to
the neutrons’ levels. In the
“otherwise stable”
44
Ti, two
protons undergo the
transformation into neutrons,
the end product is stable
44
Ca.
protons neutrons
energy
44
22
Ti
.
.
.
.
.
protons neutrons
energy
44
20
Ca
.
.
.
.
.
The protonneutron disbalance becomes more
pronounced with increasing Z.
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Nuclear Masses and
Sizes
•
Masses and binding energies
–
Absolute values measured with mass
spectrometers.
–
Relative values from reactions and decays.
•
Nuclear Sizes
–
Measured with scattering experiments
(leave discussion until after we have
looked at Rutherford scattering).
–
Isotope shifts
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Nuclear Mass
Measurements
•
Measure relative masses by energy
released in decays or reactions.
– X ¬ Y +Z + ∆ E
– Mass difference between X and Y+Z is
∆ E/c
2
.
•
Absolute mass by mass spectrometers
(next transparency).
•
Mass and Binding energy:
•
B = [Z M
H
+ N M
n
– M(A,Z)]/c
2
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Mass Spectrometer
•
Ion Source
•
Velocity selector ¬
electric and magnetic
forces equal and
opposite
–
qE=qvB ¬ v=E/B
•
Momentum selector,
circular orbit satisfies:
–
Mv=qBr
–
Measurement r
gives M.
Ion
Source
Velocity
selector
Detect
or
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Binding Energy vs A
•
B increases with A up to
56
Fe and
then slowly decreases. Why?
•
Lower values and not smooth at
small A.
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Nuclear Sizes & Isotope
Shift
•
Coulomb field modified by finite size of nucleus.
•
Assume a uniform charge distribution in the
nucleus. Gauss’s law ¬
integrate and apply boundary conditions
•
Difference between actual potential and Coulomb
•
Use 1
st
order perturbation theory
3
2
0
) (
4
R
r
r
Ze
E
π ε
− ·
R
Ze
R
Zer
r V
0
3
0
2
8
3
8
) (
π ε π ε
+ − ·
) R r (
r 4
Ze
R 8
Ze 3
R 8
Zer
) r ( V
0 0
3
0
2
< − + − · ∆
π ε π ε
π ε
dr r r V e r r E
R
) ( )] ( )[ ( 4
*
0
2
ψ ψ π ∆ − · ∆
∫
2 / 3
0
0
2 / 3
0
) ( 2 ) / exp( ) ( 2 ) (
a
Z
a Zr
a
Z
r ≈ − · ψ
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Isotope Shifts
2 2
3
0
0
2
( / )
5
Ze R
E Z a
ε
∆ ·
dr ]
r 4
Ze
R 8
Ze 3
R 8
Zer
)[ e ( ) a / Z ( 4 r 4 E
0 0
3
0
2
3
R
0
2
π ε π ε
π ε
π − + − −
∫
· ∆
5
R 4
dr r r 4
5
2 2
R
0
π
π ·
∫
3
R 4
dr r 4
3
2
R
0
π
π ·
∫
2 2
R
0
R 2 dr
r
1
r 4 π π ·
∫
] 2
2
3
3
4
10
4
[ R
4
Ze
) a / Z )( e 4 ( E
2
0
3
−
,
`
.

,
`
.

+ − − · ∆ π
π ε
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Isotope Shifts
• Isotope shift for optical spectra
• Isotope shift for Xray spectra (bigger
effect because electrons closer to
nucleus)
• Isotope shift for Xray spectra for
muonic atoms. Effect greatly enhanced
because m
µ
~ 207 m
e
and a
0
~1/m.
•
All data consistent with R=R
0
A
1/3
with
R
0
=1.25fm.
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Liquid Drop Model
Nucleus
•
Phenomenological model to understand
binding energies.
•
Consider a liquid drop
–
Ignore gravity and assume no rotation
– Intermolecular force repulsive at short distances,
attractive at intermediate distances and
negligible at large distances ¬ constant density.
E=α n + 4π R
2
T ¬B=α nβ n
2/3
•
Analogy with nucleus
–
Nucleus has constant density
–
From nucleon nucleon scattering experiments:
Nuclear force has short range repulsion and
attractive at intermediate distances.
– Assume charge independence of nuclear force,
neutrons and protons have same strong
interactions ¬check with experiment!
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Mirror Nuclei
•
Compare binding energies of mirror nuclei (nuclei n +¬p).
Eg
7
3
Li and
7
4
Be.
•
Mass difference due to n/p mass and Coulomb energy.
dQ
r
r Q
E
R
∫
·
0 0
4
) (
π ε
3 2 3
/ 3 ) / ( ) ( R Zer dQ R r Ze r Q · ·
R
Ze
dr
R
r
r
Ze
E
R
0
2
6
5
0 0
2
4
) (
) 5 / 3 (
4
) ( 3
π ε π ε
· ·
∫
3 / 1
0
2
; 2 / ~ ; )] 2 )( 1 ( ) 1 ( [
4 5
3
) 1 , ( A R A Z Z Z Z Z
R
e
Z Z E
c
∝ − − − − · − ∆
π ε
3 / 2
) 1 , ( A Z Z E
C
∝ − ∆
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
surface area ~ n
2/3
Liquid Drop Model Nucleus
• Phenomenological model to understand binding energies.
• Consider a liquid drop
– Ignore gravity and assume no rotation
– Intermolecular force repulsive at short distances, attractive at
intermediate distances and negligible at large distances ¬ constant
density.
– n=number of molecules, T=surface tension, B=binding energy
E=total energy of the drop, α ,β =free constants
E=α n + 4π R
2
T ¬ B=α nβ n
2/3
Þ
Analogy with nucleus
Þ
Nucleus has constant density
Þ
From nucleonnucleon scattering experiments we know:
Þ
Nuclear force has short range repulsion and is attractive at
intermediate distances.
Þ
Assume charge independence of nuclear force, neutrons and
protons have same strong interactions ¬check with
experiment (Mirror Nuclei!) aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Coulomb Term
• The nucleus is electrically charged with total charge Ze
• Assume that the charge distribution is spherical and compute the
reduction in binding energy due to the Coulomb interaction
0 0
( )
4
Ze
Coulomb
Q r
E dQ
r πε
·
∫
3 2 3
( ) ( / ) 3 / Q r Ze r R dQ Zer R dr · ·
2 5 2
6
0 0 0
3( ) ( )
(3/ 5)
4 4
R
Coulomb
Ze r Ze
E dr
r R R πε πε
· ·
∫
to change the integral to dr ; R=outer radius of
nucleus
includes self interaction of last
proton with itself. To correct this
replace Z
2
with Z*(Z1)
1/ 3
*( 1)
( , )
Coulomb
Z Z
B Z A d
A
−
· −
in principle you could take d from this
calculation but it is more accurate to
take it from the overall fit of the SEMF
to data (nuclei not totally spherical or
homogeneous)
… and remember R=R
0
A

1/3
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Mirror Nuclei
• Does the assumption of the drop model of constant binding
energy for every constituent of the drop acatually hold for nuclei?
• Compare binding energies of mirror nuclei (nuclei with n+¬p). Eg
7
3
Li and
7
4
Be.
• If the assumption holds the mass difference should be due to n/p
mass difference and Coulomb energy alone.
• Let’s compute the Coulomb energy correction from results on
previous page
2 2
0 0
3 3
( , 1) [ ( 1) ( 1)( 2)] 2( 1)
5 4 5 4
coulomb
e e
E Z Z Z Z Z Z Z
R R πε πε
∆ − · − − − − · −
2/ 3
( , 1)
C
E Z Z A ∆ − ∝
1/ 3
0
~ / 2 ; Z A R R A ·
to find that
Þ
Now lets measure mirror nuclei masse, assume that the
model holds and derive ∆ E
Coulomb
from the measurement.
Þ
This should show an A
2/3
dependence
Þ
And the scaling factor should yield the correct R
0
of 1.2 fm
Þ
if the assumptions were right
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
nn and pp
interaction same
(apart from
Coulomb)
“Charge
symmetry”
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
More charge symmetry
•
Energy Levels of two mirror nuclei for a number of excited states
•
Corrected for n/p mass difference and Coulomb Energy
∆ E
corrected
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
From Charge Symmetry to Charge
Independence
• Mirror nuclei showed that strong interaction is the same
for nn and pp.
• What about np ?
• Compare energy levels in “triplets” with same A,
different number of n and p. e.g.
• If we find the same energy levels for the same spin
states ¬ Strong interaction is the same for np as nn and
pp.
Mg Na Ne
22
12
22
11
22
10
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Charge Independence
22
12
Mg
22
11
Na
22
10
Ne
∆ E
corrected
• Same spin/parity states
should have the same
energy.
• Yes: np=nn=pp
• Note: Far more states in
22
11
Na. Why?
• Because it has more np
pairs then the others
• np pairs can be in any
SpinSpace configuration
• pp or nn pairs are
excluded from the totally
symmetric ones by Herr
Pauli
•
Note also that
22
11
Na has
the lowest (most bound)
state, remember for the
deuteron on next page
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Charge Independence
• We have shown by measurement that:
– If we correct for n/p mass difference and Coulomb interaction, then
energy levels in nuclei are unchanged under n +¬ p
– and we must change nothing else! I.e. spin and space wavefunctions
must remain the same!
• Conclusion: strong twobody interaction same for pp, pn
and nn if nucleons are in the same quantum state.
• Beware of the Pauli exclusion principle! eg why do we have
bound state of pn but not pp or nn?
– because the strong force is spin dependent and the most strongly
bound spinspace configurations (deuteron) are not available to nn
or pp. It’s Herr Pauli again!
–
Just like
22
11
Na on the previous triplet level schema
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Volume and Surface Term
• We now have all we need to trust that we can
apply the liquid drop model to a nucleus
– constant density
– same binding energy for all constituents
• Volume term:
• Surface term:
• Since we are building a phenomenological model
in which the coefficients a and b will be
determined by a fit to measured nuclear binding
energies we must inlcude any further terms we
may find with the same A dependence together
with the above
( )
Volume
B A aA ·+
2/ 3
( )
Surface
B A bA ·−
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Asymmetry Term
•
Neutrons and protons are spin ½ fermions ¬ obey
Pauli exclusion principle.
•
If all other factors were equal nuclear ground state
would have equal numbers of n & p.
neutrons protons
Illustration
Þ
n and p states with same spacing ∆ .
Þ
Crosses represent initially occupied
states in ground state.
Þ
If three protons were turned into
neutrons
Þ
the extra energy required would be 3×3
∆ .
Þ
In general if there are ZN excess protons
over neutrons the extra energy is ((Z
N)/2)2 ∆ . relative to Z=N.
Þ
But how big is ∆ ?
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Asymmetry Term
•
Assume:
– p and n form two independent, noninteracting
gases occupying their own square Fermi wells
– kT << ∆
– so we can neglect kT and assume T=0
– This ought to be obvious as nuclei don’t
suddenly change state on a warm summers day!
– Nucleons move nonrelativistically (check later if
this makes sense)
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Asymmetry Term
• From stat. mech. density of states in 6d phase space = 1/h
3
• Integrate up to p
f
to get total number of protons Z (or
Neutrons N), & Fermi Energy (all states filled up to this energy
level).
• Change variables p ¬ E to find avg. E
2
3
4
particle
p dpV
dN
h
π
·
3 3 3
0
4
(4 / 3 ) and
3
F
Z V h p V R A π π · ·
3/ 2
1/ 2
0
1/ 2
0
/
/ (3/ 5)
/
F
F
E
F
E
E dE
dN dp
dN dE const E E E
dp dE
E dE
· · ⋅ < >· ·
∫
∫
1/ 3
2
2/ 3
0
(3/ 4 ) and
2
F
h Z
p
P E
m
R A
π
 `
· · ⇒
. ,
2/ 3
2
4/ 3
2
0
(3/ 4 )
2
F
h Z
E
mR A
π
 `
·
. ,
here N
particle
could be the number of protons or neutrons
These are all standard stat. mech. results!
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
comes from a fit of the
SEMF to measurements
analytical ≈ 24 MeV
This terms is only proportional to volume
(A). It has already been captured by the
Volume term of the liquid drop model
call this K
Asymmetry Term
•
Binomial expansion keep lowest term in y/A
1 3 2
2 3
2 5 ( )
2
9
Total
N Z
E KA K
A
−
−
· +
2/ 3
2
4/ 3
2
0
3
(3/ 4 )
5 2
P P
Total
h Z
E Z E Z
mR A
π
 `
· ·
. ,
5/ 3 5/ 3
2/ 3
Total
K
E Z N
A
] · +
]
5/ 3
5/ 3 5/ 3
2/ 3 5 3
(1 / ) (1 / )
2
Total
KA
E y A y A
A
] · − + +
]
Þ
Compute total energy of all protons by Z*<E>
Þ
Use the above to compute total energy of Z protons and N
neutrons
change variables from (Z,N,A)
to (y,A) with y=NZ
where y/A is a small number (ε )
note! linear terms cancel
5/ 3 5/ 3
5 3
(1 ) (1 )
2
Total
KA
E ε ε ] · − + +
]
2
( )
( ) *
Total
N Z
E Fermi Gas const
A
−
∆ − ·
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Asymmetry term
•
From the Fermi Gas model we learn
that
–
due to the fermionic nature of p and n
we loose in binding energy if the
nucleus deviates from N=Z
•
The Asymmetry term:
2
( )
( , )
Asymmetry
N Z
B N Z c
A
−
·−
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Note: this only holds for nn and pp, not for
np. ¬ We don’t have a preference for even A
Pairing Term
• Observations:
• Nuclei with even number of n
or even number of p more
tightly bound then with odd
numbers. See figure
• Only 4 stable oo nuclei but
153 stable ee nuclei.
• p energy levels are Coulomb
shifted wrt n ¬ small overlap
of wave functions between n
and p.
• Two p or two n in same energy
level with opposite values of j
z
have AS spin state
¬forced into sym spatial w.f.
¬maximum overlap
¬maximum binding energy
because of short range
attraction.
Neutron number
Neutron separation energy
[MeV] in Ba isotopes
56+N
56
Ba
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Pairing Term
•
Measure that the Pairing effect smaller for larger A
•
Phenomenological*
)
fit to A dependence gives A
1/2
δ
ee +ive
eo 0
oo ive
1/ 2
( )
Pairing
B A
A
δ
·−
*
)
For an even more insightful
explanation of the A
dependence read the book by
Jelley
Note: If you want to plot binding
energies versus A it is often best
to use odd A only as for these the
pairing term does not appear
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Semi Empirical Mass Formula
•
Put everything together:
2 2
2/ 3
1/ 3 1/ 2
( )
( , )
N Z Z
B N Z aA bA c d
A A A
δ −
· − − − −
Volume
Term
Surface
Term
Asymmetry
Term
Coulomb
Term
Pairing
Term
Þ
Lets see how all of these assumptions fit reality
Þ
And find out what the constants are
Þ
Note: we went back to the simpler Z
2
instead of
Z*(Z1)
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Semi Empirical Mass Formula
Binding Energy vs. A for betastable oddA nuclei
Iron
Not smooth because Z
not smooth function of A
Fit parameters
in MeV
a 15.56
b 17.23
c 23.285
d 0.697
δ
+12 (oo)
δ
0 (oe)
δ
12 (ee)
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Semi Empirical Mass Formula
•
Conclusions
–
Only makes sense for A≥20
–
Good fit for large A (good to <1%) in most
places.
–
Deviations are interesting ¬ shell effects.
–
Coulomb term constant agrees with calculation.
–
Explains the valley of stability (see next lecture).
–
Explains energetics of radioactive decays, fission
and fusion.
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Nuclear Shell Model
• Potential between nucleons can be studied by
studying bound states (pn, ppn, pnn, ppnn) or by
scattering cross sections: np > np pp
> pp nD > nD pD > pD
• If had potential could solve Schrod. Eq. Don’t
know precise form but can make general
approximation
• 3d Finite Well with little rdependence (except at
edge of well)
• Almost spherically symmetric (fusion can be
modeled as deformations but we’ll skip)
• NN interactions are limited (at high A) due to
Pauli exclusion. p + n > p’ + n’ only if state is
available
Infinite Radial Well
•
Radial part of Scrod Eq
•
Easy to solve if l=0
•
For L>0, angular momentum term goes to infinity at r=0.
Reduces effective wavelength, giving higher energy
•
Go to finite well. Wave function extends a bit outside well giving
longer effective wavelength and lower energy (ala 1D square
wells)
•
In nuceli, potential goes to infinity at r=0 (even with L=0) as that
would be equivalent to nucleon “inside” other nucleon
− + +
+
]
]
]
·
≡ ·
2 2
2
2
2
2
2 2
1
4
m
d u
d r
V r
m
l l
r
u E u
u r r R r P r u
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) π
u k r k
n
a
E
p
m
k
m
h n
m a
· · · · · s i n
( ) ( ) 2
2 2 2 8
2 2 2
2
π
Angular part
• If V(r) then can separate variables ψ (r,θ ,φ ) = R(r)Y( θ ,φ ) have
spherical harmonics for angular wave function
• Angular momentum then quantized like in Hydrogen (except
that L>0 for n=1, etc)
• Energy doesn’t depend on m
• Energy increases with increasing n (same l)
• Energy increases with increasing l (same n)
• If both n,l vary then use experimental observation to determine
lower energy
• Energy will also depend on strong magnetic coupling between
nucleons
• Fill up states separately for p,n
L l l L m
l m l l n r q u a n t u m
Z
2 2
1
0 1 2
ψ ψ ψ ψ · + ·
· · − · −
( )
, , #
. .
L,S,J Coupling: Atoms vs Nuclei
•
ATOMS: If 2 or more electrons, Hund’s rules:
•
Maximise total S for lowest E (S=1 if two)
•
Maximise total L for lowest E (L=2 if 2 P)
•
Energy split by total J (J=3,2,1 for S=1,L=2)
•
NUCLEI: large selfcoupling. Plus if 2 p (or 2 n) then will antialign
giving a state with J=0, S=0, L=0
leftover “odd” p (or n) will have two possible
J = L + ½ or J = L – ½
higher J has lower energy
if there are both an odd P and an odd n (which is very rare in stable)
then add up Jn + Jp
•
Atom called LS coupling nuclei called jj
•
Note that magnetic moments add differently as different gfactor for
p,n
Spin Coupling in Nuclei
• All nucleons in valence shell have same J
• Strong pairing causes Jz antiparallel (3 and 3)
spin wavefunction = antisymmetric space
wavefunction = symmetric
• This causes the NN to be closer together and increases
the attractive force between them
• ee in atoms opposite as repulsive force
• Can also see in scattering of polarized particles
• Even N, even Z nuclei. Total J=S=L=0 as all n,p paired off
• Even N, odd Z or odd N, even Z. nuclear spin and parity
determined by unpaired nucleon
• Odd N, odd Z. add together unpaired n,p
• Explains ad hoc pairing term in mass formula
Energy Levels in Nuclei
•
Levels in ascending order (both p,n)
State n L degeneracy(2j+1) sum
1S
1/2
1 0 2 2***
1P
3/2
1 1 4 6
1P
1/2
1 1 2 8***
1D
5/2
1 2 6 14
2S
1/2
2 0 2 16
1D
3/2
1 2 4 20***
1F
7/2
1 3 8 28***
2P
3/2
2 1 4 32
1F
5/2
1 3 6 38
2P
1/2
2 1 2 40
1G
9/2
1 4 10 50***
*** “magic” number is where there is a large energy gap between a
filled shell and the next level. More tightly bound nuclei. (all filled
subshells are slightly “magic”)
Magic Numbers
•
Large energy gaps between some filled shells and next (unfilled)
shell give larger dE/A and more made during nucleosnthesis in
stars
# protons #neutrons
2 He 2 He4
6 C 6 C12
8 O 8 O16
20 Ca 20
28 Ni 28 Cr52(24,28)
50 Sn 50 Ni78
82 Pb 82
126
136
•
Ni78 (2005) doubly magic. While it is unstable, it is the much
neutron rich.
•
Usually more isotopes if p or n are magic. Sn has 20 isotopes, 10 of
which are stable
Nuclear Magnetic Moments
•
Protons and neutrons are made from quarks and gluons. Their
magnetic moment is due to their spin and orbital angular
momentum
•
The gfactors are different than electrons. orbital, p=1 and n=0 as
the neutron doesn’t have charge
•
spin, g for proton is 5.6 and for neutron is 3.8 (compared to 2 for
the electron; sometimes just 2).
•
A proton is made from 2 up and 1 down quark which have charge 2/3
and 1/3
•
A neutron is made from 1 up and 2 down and has “more” negative
charge/moments
•
No theory which explains hadronic magnetic moments
•
orbital and spin magnetic moments aren’t aligned, need to repeat
the exercise in atoms (Zeeman effect) to get values for the z
component of the moment
¯ ¯ ¯
¯ ¯
µ µ µ
µ
µ · + · + ·
L S
N
l S N
p
g L g S
e
m
( )
2
Nuclear Cross Sections
•
Definition of Cross Section
–
Why its useful.
•
BreitWigner Resonances
•
Rutherford Scattering
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
CrossSections
•
Why concept is important
–
Learn about dynamics of interaction
and/or constituents (cf Feynman’s
watches).
–
Needed for practical calculations.
•
Experimental Definition
•
How to calculate σ
–
Fermi Golden Rule
–
BreitWigner Resonances
–
QM calculation of Rutherford Scattering
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Definition of
•
a+b¬x
•
Effective area for reaction to
occur is σ
Beam a
dx
N
a
N
a
(0) particles type a/unit
time hit target b
N
b
atoms b/unit volume
Number /unit area= N
b
dx
Probability interaction = σ
N
b
dx
dN
a
=N
a
N
b
dx σ
N
a
(x)=N
a
(0) exp(x/λ ) ; λ =1/
(N
b
σ ) aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Reaction Rates
•
N
a
beam particles/unit volume, speed v
•
Flux F= N
a
v
•
Rate/target b atom R=Fσ
•
Thin target x<<λ : R=(N
b
T
) F σ
Total
•
This is total cross section. Can also define
differential cross sections, as a function of
reaction product, energy, transverse
momentum, angle etc.
•
dR(a+b¬c+d)/dE=(N
b
T
) F dσ (a+b¬c+d)
/dE
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
BreitWigner Line Shape
•
Start with NR Schrödinger equation:
n n
0 n
n
) / t iE exp( ) t ( a ) t ( ; H
dt
i ϕ ψ ψ
ψ
−
∑
· ·
∂
∞
·
n
m
m m n n n n n n n
) / t iE exp( H a ) / t iE exp( E a ) / t iE exp( a i ϕ ϕ ϕ
∑
− · − + − `
X by φ ∗
n
and integrate
r d H H r d
n m mn nm n m
3
*
3
*
; · · φ φ δ φ φ
− · − + −
m
m mn m n n n n n
t iE H a t iE E a t iE a i ) / exp( ) / exp( ) / exp(
`
Start in state m ¬ exponential decay
) 2 / t exp( ) t ( a
m
Γ − ·
) / t exp( ) t ( a
2
m
Γ − ·
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
BreitWigner Line Shape
 2
} / t ] 2 / ) E E ( i exp{[ H a i
m n mn n
` Γ − − − ·
/ t ] 2 / ) E E ( i exp[ H dt ) t ( a i
m n mn
t
0
n
Γ − − −
∫
·
t
0
m n
m n mn
n
2 / ) E E ( i
/ t ] 2 / ) E E ( i exp[ H
) t ( a
]
]
]
Γ − − −
Γ − − −
·
For
2 / ) E E ( i
H
) t ( a
m n
mn
n
Γ + −
·
Γ >> / t
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
BreitWigner Line Shape
3
) E E ( P H
2
) t ( a
4 / ) E E (
H
) t ( a
n m
2
mn
2
n
2 2
n m
2
mn
2
n
−
Γ
·
Γ + −
·
π
4
) E E (
1
2
) E E ( P
2
2
n m
n m
Γ
+ −
Γ
· −
π
Normalised BreitWigner line
shape
Q: where have you seen this shape
before?
We will see this many times in NP
and PP.
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
BreitWigner Resonance
•
Important in atomic,
nuclear and particle
physics.
•
Uncertainty relationship
•
Determine lifetimes of
states from width.
•
, Γ =F
WHM;
~ t E ∆ ∆
~ t E ∆ ∆
~ t E ∆ ∆
/ ~
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Fermi Golden Rule
•
Want to be able to calculate
reaction rates in terms of matrix
elements of H.
•
Warning: We will use this many
times to calculate σ but
derivation not required for
exams, given here for
completeness.
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Discrete Continuum
•
Decays to a channel i (range of states
n). Density of states n
i
(E). Assume
narrow resonance
dE ) E E ( P ) E ( n H
2
P
0 i
2
0 i i
−
∫
Γ
·
π
) E ( n H
2
P
0 i
2
0 i i
Γ
·
π
Total i i Total
i
i
R P R ; R ; P ·
Γ
·
Γ
Γ
·
) E ( n H
2
R
0 i
2
0 i
i
i
π
·
Γ
·
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Cross Section
•
Breit Wigner cross section.
•
Definition of σ and flux F:
) r . k i exp( V
2 / 1
¯
¯
−
· ψ
F R
v V F
1 −
·
2
3
k 4
) 2 (
V
) k ( n π
π
·
v
dk
dE
;
m 2
) k (
E
2
· ·
v
k 4
) 2 (
V
) E ( n
2
3
π
π
·
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
BreitWigner Cross
Section
•
Combine rate, flux & density states ¬
( )
4 / ) E E (
E
2
1
k 4 V
v ) 2 (
v
V
2 2
0 1
f 1 i
2
3
Γ + −
Γ Γ
,
`
.

,
`
.

·
π
π
π
σ
f
2 2
0 1
2
01
f
2
o
4 / ) E E (
H
) t ( a R
Γ
Γ + −
·
Γ
·
) E ( n H 2 ) E (
2
10 i
π · Γ
( )
4 / ) E E (
E
) E ( n
1
2
1
R
2 2
0 1
f 1 i
Γ + −
Γ Γ
·
π
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
BreitWigner Cross
Section
4 / ) E E ( k
2 2
0 1
f i
2
n +
16
O¬
17
O
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Low Energy Resonances
•
n + Cd total
cross section.
•
Cross section
scales σ ~ 1/E
1/2
at low E.
•
BW: 1/k
2
and
Γ ~n(E)~k
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Rutherford Scattering 1
1 c ;
c 4
e
;
r
Z Z
) r ( V
0
2
2 1
· · · ·
π ε
α
α
) r . k i exp( V ; ) r . k i exp( V
f
2 / 1
f i
2 / 1
i
¯
¯
¯
¯
− −
· · ψ ψ
r d ) r . k i exp(
r
Z Z
) r . k i exp( V H
3
f
2 1
i
1
fi
¯
¯
¯
¯
−
,
`
.

∫
·
−
α
f i
k k q
¯ ¯
¯
− ·
r d
r
) r . q i exp(
Z Z V H
3
2 1
1
fi
∫
·
−
¯ ¯
α
ϑ
θ
π α cos d dr r
r
) cos iqr exp(
2 Z Z V H
2
2 1
1
fi
∫
·
−
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Rutherford Scattering 2
dr r
iqr
) iqr exp( ) iqr exp(
2 Z Z V H
2
2
2 1
1
fi
∫
− −
·
−
π α
a ) a / r exp( ); r ( xV
dr r iq a r iq a
iq
Z Z
V H
fi
− − − + − ·
−
) / 1 exp( ) / 1 exp(
2
2 1
1
π α
]
]
]
− −
−
+ −
·
−
iq a / 1
1
iq a / 1
1
iq
2 Z Z
V H
2 1
1
fi
π α
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Rutherford Scattering 3
•
Fermi Golden Rule:
f
2
fi
dE
dn
H
2
R
π
·
v / 1
dE
dp
;
dE
dp
dp
dn
dE
dn
;
4
d
h
V
p 4
dp
dn
3
2
· ·
Ω
·
π
π
) 2 2 ( ;
) 2 (
) (
3
2
π π
π
· · Ω · h d
v
V p
E n
v V F ; F / R
1 −
· · σ
v
V
) 2 ( v
V p
Vq
4 Z Z 2
d
d
3
2
2
2
2 1
π
π α π σ
·
Ω
4 2
2
2 1
2
) ( 4
q v
Z Z p
d
d α σ
·
Ω
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Rutherford Scattering 4
) 2 / ( sin p 4 ) cos 1 ( p 2 ) p p ( q
2 2 2 2
f i
2
ϑ θ · − · − ·
¯ ¯
) 2 / ( sin 4
) (
4 2 2
2
2 1
ϑ
α σ
v p
Z Z
d
d
·
Ω
Compare with experimental data
at low energy
Q: what changes at high energy ?
ϑ
p
i
p
f
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Low Energy Experiment
•
Scattering of α on Au & Ag ¬ agree with
calculation assuming point nucleus
Sin
4
(θ /2)
d
N
/
d
c
o
s
θ
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Higher Energy
• Deviation from
Rutherford
scattering at
higher energy ¬
determine charge
distribution in the
nucleus.
• Form factors is F.T.
of charge
distribution.
Electron  Gold
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Induced Fission
(required energy)
Neutron
s
∆ E
f
=Energy
needed to
penetrate fission
barrier
immediately ≈6
8MeV
A=
238
N
e
u
t
r
o
n
Nucleus Potential Energy
during fission [MeV]
∆ E
sep
≈6MeV per nucleon for heavy nuclei
Very slow n
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Induced Fission
(required energy)
• Spontaneous fission rates low due to high coulomb
barrier (68 MeV @ A≈240)
•
Slow neutron releases ∆ E
sep
as excitation into nucleus
• Excited nucleus has enough energy for immediate
fission if E
f
 ∆ E
sep
>0
• We call this “thermal fission” (slow, thermal neutron
needed)
• But due to pairing term …
•
even N nuclei have low ∆ E
sep
for additional n
•
odd N nuclei have high ∆ E
sep
for additional n
• ¬ Fission yield in n absorption varies dramatically
between odd and even N
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Induced Fission
(fissile nuclei)
•
∆ E
sep
(n,
238
92
U) = 4.78 MeV only ¬
•
Fission of
238
U needs additional kinetic energy from
neutron E
n,kin
>E
f
∆ E
sep
≈1.4 MeV
•
We call this “fast fission” (fast neutrons needed)
•
Thermally fissile nuclei, E
n,kin
thermal
=0.1eV @ 1160K
–
233
92
U,
235
92
U,
239
94
Pu,
241
94
Pu
•
Fast fissile nuclei E
n,kin
=O(MeV)
–
232
90
Th,
238
92
U,
240
94
Pu,
242
94
Pu
•
Note: all Pu isotopes on earth are man made
•
Note: only 0.72% of natural U is
235
U
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Induced Fission
(Reminder: stages of the process up to a few seconds after fission event)
t=0
t≈10
14
s
t>10
10
s
<# prompt n>
ν
prompt
=2.5
<ndelay>
τ
d
=few s
<# delayed n>
ν
d
=0.006
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Induced Fission
(the fission process)
Energy balance of
235
92
U induced thermal fission MeV:
– Prompt (t<10
10
s):
•
E
kin
( fragments) 167
•
E
kin
(prompt n) 5 ¬ 312 from X+n¬Y+γ
• E(prompt γ ) 6
• Subtotal: 178 (good for power production)
– Delayed (10
10
<t<):
•
E
kin
(e from β decays) 8
• E(γ following β decay) 7
• Subtotal: 15 (bad, spent fuel heats up)
– Neutrinos: 12 (invisible)
– Grand total: 205
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Induced Fission
(n induced fission crossections (n,f) )
•
238
92
U does nearly no n induced fission below E
n,kin
≈1.4 MeV
•
235
92
U does O(85%) fission starting at very low E
n,kin
• Consistent with SEMFpairing term of 12MeV/√A≈0.8 MeV
between
–
oddeven=
235
92
U and eveneven=
238
92
U
u
n
r
e
s
o
l
v
e
d
,
n
a
r
r
o
w
r
e
s
o
n
a
n
c
e
s
u
n
r
e
s
o
l
v
e
d
,
n
a
r
r
o
w
r
e
s
o
n
a
n
c
e
s
238
U
235
U
n Energy
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Induced Fission
((n,f) and (n,γ ) probabilities in natural Uranium)
235
92
U(n,f)
235
92
U(n,γ )
238
92
U(n,γ )
238
92
U(n,f)
235
92
U(n,f)
235
92
U(n,γ )
238
92
U(n,γ )
238
92
U(n,γ )
e
n
e
r
g
y
r
a
n
g
e
o
f
f
i
s
s
i
o
n
n
e
u
t
r
o
n
s
fast
thermal
n
e
u
t
r
o
n
a
b
s
o
r
b
t
i
o
n
p
r
o
b
a
b
i
l
i
t
p
e
r
1
µ
m
“bad238”
“good
238 ”
“bad235”
“good
235 ”
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Induced Fission
(a simple bomb)
–
mean free path for fission n:
235 238
(1 )
tot tot tot
c c σ σ σ · + +
λ ρ σ · ≈ 1 ( ) 3 cm
nucl tot
Þ
Simplify to c=1 (the bomb mixture)
Þ
prob(
235
U(n
prompt
,f)) @ 2MeV ≈ 18% (see slide 8)
Þ
rest of n scatter, loosing E
kin
¬ prob(
235
U(n,f)) grows
Þ
most probable #collisions before
235
U(n,f) = 6 (work
it out!)
Þ
6 random steps of λ =3cm ¬ l
mp
=√6*3cm≈7cm in
t
mp
=10
8
s
Þ
Uranium mix
Þ
235
U:
238
U =c:(1c)
Þ
ρ
nucl
(U)=4.8*10
28
nuclei
m
3
Þ
average n crossection:
Þ
mean time between collisions =1.5*10
9
s @
E
kin
(n)=2MeV
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Induced Fission
(a simple bomb)
•
After 10
8
s 1n is replaced with ν =2.5 n, ν =average prompt
neutron yield of this fission process
• Let probability of new n inducing fission before it is lost = q
• (others escape or give radiative capture)
•
Each n produces on average (ν q1) new such n in t
p
=10
8
s
(ignoring delayed n as bombs don’t last for seconds!)
δ
ν
δ ν δ
ν
→
−
+ · + − ⋅ ⋅
−
⇒ ·
·
0
( 1)
( ) ( ) ( 1) ( ) ( )
( ) 1
lim ( )
solved by: ( ) (0)
mp
mp
t
mp
t
q
t
n t t n t q n t t t
dn t q
n t
dt t
n t n e
Þ
if ν q>1 ¬ exponential growths of neutron number
Þ
For
235
U, ν =2.5 ¬ if q>0.4 you get a bomb
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Induced Fission
(a simple bomb)
•
If object dimensions << l
mp
=7 cm
¬ most n escape through surface
¬ ν q << 1
•
If R
sphere
(
235
U)≥8.7cm ⇔ M(
235
U)≥52 kg
¬ ν q = 1
¬ explosion in < t
p
=10
8
s
¬ little time for sphere to blow apart
¬ significant fraction of
235
U will do
fission
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Fission Reactors
(not so simple)
• Q: What happens to a 2 MeV fission neutron in a block of
natural Uranium (c=0.72%)?
• A: In order of probability
– Inelastic
238
U scatter (slide 8)
– Fission of
238
U (5%)
– rest is negligible
•
as E
neutron
decreases via inelastic scattering
–
σ (
238
92
U(n,γ )) increases and becomes resonant
–
σ (
238
92
U(n,f)) decreases rapidly and vanishes below 1.4 MeV
–
only remaining chance for fission is σ (
235
92
U(n,f)) which is much smaller then
σ (
238
92
U(n,γ ))
• Conclusion: piling up natural U won’t make a reactor because
n get “eaten” by (n,γ ) resonances. I said it is not SO simple
235
92
U(n,f)
235
92
U(n,γ )
238
92
U(n,γ )
238
92
U(n,f)
235
92
U(n,f)
235
92
U(n,γ )
238
92
U(n,γ )
238
92
U(n,γ )
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Fission Reactors
(two ways out)
•
Way 1: Thermal Reactors
–
bring neutrons to thermal energies without
absorbing them = moderate them
–
use low mass nuclei with low ncapture crossection
as moderator. (Why low mass?)
–
sandwich fuel rods with moderator and coolant
layers
–
when n returns from moderator its energy is so low
that it will predominantly cause fission in
235
U
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Fission Reactors
(two ways out)
•
Way 2: Fast Reactors
–
Use fast neutrons for fission
–
Use higher fraction of fissile material,
typically 20% of
239
Pu + 80%
238
U
–
This is self refuelling (fast breeding) via:
•
238
92
U+n ¬
239
92
U + γ
• ¬
239
93
Np + e

+ ν
e
• ¬
239
94
Pu + e
¯
+ ν
e
–
Details about fast reactors later
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Fission Reactors
(Pu fuel)
•
239
Pu fission crossection slightly “better” then
235
U
•
Chemically separable from
238
U (no centrifuges)
•
More prompt neutrons ν (
239
Pu)=2.96
•
Fewer delayed n & higher nabsorbtion, more later
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Fission Reactors
(Reactor control)
•
For bomb we found:
–
“boom” if: ν q > 1 where ν was number of prompt n
–
we don’t want “boom” ¬ need to get rid of most prompt n
•
Reactors use control rods with large ncapture
crossection σ
nc
like B or Cd to regulate q
•
Lifetime of prompt n:
–
O(10
8
s) in pure
235
U
–
O(10
3
s) in thermal reactor (“long” time in moderator)
•
not “long” enough ¬Far too fast to control
•
… but there are also delayed neutrons
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Fission Reactors
(Reactor control)
• Fission products all n rich ¬ all β

active
• Some β

decays have excited states as daughters
• These can directly emit n (see table of nuclides, green at bottom of
curve)
Group
HalfLife
(sec)
Delayed
Neutron
Fraction
Average
Energy
(MeV)
1 55.7 0.00021 0.25
2 22.7 0.00142 0.46
3 6.2 0.00127 0.41
4 2.3 0.0026 0.45
5 0.61 0.00075 0.41
6 0.23 0.00027 
Total  0.0065 
Delayed Neutron Precursor Groups
for Thermal Fission in 235U
Þ
several sources of delayed n
Þ
typical lifetimes τ ≈O(1 sec)
Þ
Fraction ν
d
≈ 0.6%
E
n
e
r
g
y
o
f
f
s
y
l
l
a
b
u
s
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Fission Reactors
(Reactor control)
•
Since fuel rods “hopefully” remain in reactor
longer then 10
2
s ¬ must include delayed n
fraction ν
d
into our calculations
•
New control problem:
–
keep (ν +ν
d
)q = 1
–
to accuracy of < 0.6%
–
at time scale of a few seconds
•
Doable with mechanical systems but not easy
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Fission Reactors
(Reactor cooling)
• As q rises during control, power produced in reactor
rises ¬
– we cool reactor and drive “heat engine” with coolant
– coolant will often also act as moderator
• Coolant/Moderator choices:
Material State σ
nabs
reduce E
n
chemistry other coolant
H
2
O liquid small best reactive cheap good
D
2
O liquid none 2
nd
best reactive rare good
C solid mild medium reactive cheap medium
CO
2
press.
gas mild medium passive cheap ok
He gas mild 3
rd
best very passi. leaks ok
Na liquid small medium very react.difficult excellent
o
f
f
s
y
l
l
a
b
u
s
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Fission Reactors
(Thermal Stability)
•
Want dq/dT < 0
–
Many mechanical influences via thermal expansion
–
Change in nenergy spectrum
–
Doppler broadening of
238
U(n,γ ) resonances ¬ large
negative contribution to dq/dT due to increased n
absorbtion in broadened spectrum
–
Doppler broadening of
239
Pu(n,f) in fast reactors gives
positive contribution to dq/dt
–
Chernobyl No 4. had dq/dT >0 at low power
–
… which proved that you really want dq/dT < 0
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Fission Bombs
(fission fuel properties)
•
ideal bomb fuel = pure
239
Pu
Isotope Halflife
a
Bare critical
mass
Spontaneous
fission
neutrons
Decay heat
years kg, Alpha
phase
(gmsec)
1
watts kg
1
Pu238 87.7 10 2.6x10
3
560
Pu239 24,100 10 22x10
3
1.9
Pu240 6,560 40 0.91x10
3
6.8
Pu241 14.4 10 49x10
3
4.2
Pu242 376,000 100 1.7x10
3
0.1
Am241 430 100 1.2 114
a. By Alphadecay, except Pu241, which is by Betadecay to Am241.
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Fission Bombs
(where to get Pu from? Sainsbury’s?)
Grade Isotope
Pu238 Pu239 Pu240 Pu241
a
Pu242
Supergrade  .98 .02  
Weaponsgrade
b
.00012 .938 .058 .0035 .00022
Reactorgrade
c
.013 .603 .243 .091 .050
MOXgrade
d
.019 .404 .321 .178 .078
FBR blanket
e
 .96 .04  
c. Plutonium recovered from lowenriched
uranium pressurizedwater reactor fuel that
has released 33 megawattdays/kg fission
energy and has been stored for ten years
prior to reprocessing (Plutonium Fuel: An
Assessment (Paris:OECD/NEA, 1989) Table
12A).
a. Pu241 plus Am241.
d. Plutonium recovered from 3.64% fissile
plutonium MOX fuel produced from reactor
grade plutonium and which has released 33
MWd/kg fission energy and has been stored for
ten years prior to reprocessing (Plutonium Fuel:
An Assessment(Paris:OECD/NEA, 1989) Table
12A).
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Fission Bombs
(drawbacks of various Pu isotopes)
•
241
Pu : decays to
241
Am which gives very high energy
γ rays ¬ shielding problem
•
240
Pu : lots of n from spontaneous fission
•
238
Pu : α decays quickly (τ
1/2
= 88 years) ¬ lots of
heat ¬conventional ignition explosives don’t like that!
• in pure
239
Pu bomb, the nuclear ignition is timed
optimally during compression using a burst of external
n ¬ maximum explosion yield
• … but using reactor grade Pu, n from
240
Pu decays can
ignite bomb prematurely ¬ lower explosion yield but
still very bad if you are holding it in your hand
• Reactor grade Pu mix has “drawbacks” but can
“readily” be made into a bomb.
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Plutonium isotope
composition as a function of
fuel exposure in a
pressurizedwater reactor,
upon discharge.
Fission Bombs
(suspicious behaviour)
• Early removal of fission fuel
rods ¬ need control of reactor
fuel changing cycle!
• Building fast breaders if you
have no fuel recycling plants
• Large highE γ sources from
241
Am outside a reactor
• large n fluxes from
240
Pu
outside reactors ¬very
penetrating ¬ easy to spot
over long range
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Fission Reactors
(Thermal vs. Fast)
• Fast reactors
– need very high
239
Pu concentration ¬ C Bombs
– very compact core ¬ C hard to cool ¬ C need high
C
p
coolant like
liq.Na or liq. NaKmix ¬ C don’t like
water & air & C must keep coolant circuit molten & C
high activation of Na
– High coolant temperature (550C)¬ © good thermal
efficiency
– Low pressure in vessel ¬ © better safety
– can utilise all
238
U via breeding ¬ © 141 times more
fuel
– High fuel concentration + breading ¬ © Can operate
for long time without rod changes
– Designs for 4
th
generation molten Pb or gas cooled
fast reactors exist. Could overcome the Na problems
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Fission Reactors
(Thermal vs. Fast)
•
Thermal Reactors
–
Many different types exist
•
BWR = Boiling Water Reactor
•
PWR = Pressure Water Reactor
•
BWP/PWR exist as
– LWR = Light Water Reactors (H
2
O)
– HWR = Heavy Water Reactors (D
2
O)
•
(HT)GCR = (High Temperature) Gas Cooled
Reactor exist as
–
PBR = Pebble Bed Reactor
– other more conventional geometries
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Fission Reactors
(Thermal vs. Fast)
•
Thermal Reactors (general features)
– If moderated with D
2
O (low ncapture) ¬
© can burn natural U ¬ © now need for
enrichment (saves lots of energy!)
–
Larger reactor cores needed ¬ C more
activation
–
If natural U used ¬ small burnup time
¬ C often need continuous fuel
exchange ¬ C hard to control
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Fission Reactors
(Light vs. Heavy water thermal reactors)
• Light Water
– © it is cheap
– © very well understood chemistry
– © compatible with steam part of plant
– can not use natural uranium (too much n
capture) ¬ C must have enrichment plant
¬ C bombs
– need larger moderator volume ¬ C larger
core with more activation
– enriched U has bigger nmargin ¬ © easier
to control
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Fission Reactors
(Light vs. Heavy water thermal reactors)
• Heavy Water
– C it is expensive
– © allows use of natural U
– natural U has smaller nmargin ¬ C harder to
control
– smaller moderator volume ¬ © less activation
– CANDU PWR designs (pressure tube reactors)
allow D
2
O moderation with different coolants
to save D
2
O
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Fission Reactors
(PWR = most common power reactor)
•
Avoid boiling ¬ © better control of moderation
•
Higher coolant temperature ¬ © higher thermal efficiency
•
If pressure fails (140 bar) ¬ C risk of cooling failure via boiling
Þ
Steam raised in
secondary circuit ¬
© no activity in turbine
and generator
Þ
Usually used with H
2
O ¬
C need enriched U
Þ
C Difficult fuel access ¬
long fuel cycle (1yr)
¬ C need highly
enriched U
Þ
Large fuel reactivity
variation over life cycle
¬ C need variale “n
poison” dose in coolant
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Fission Reactors
(BWR = second most common power reactor)
• lower pressure then PWR (70 bar) ¬ © safer pressure vessel
• © simpler design of vessel and heat steam circuit
• primary water enters turbine ¬ C activation of tubine ¬ C no
access during operation (τ
½
(
16
N)=7s, main contaminant)
Þ
lower temperature ¬ C lower
efficiency
Þ
if steam fraction too large (norm.
18%) ¬ C Boiling crisis =
loss of cooling
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Fission Reactors
(“cool” reactors)
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Fission Reactors
(“cool” reactors)
• no boiling crisis
• no steam handling
• high efficiency 44%
• compact core
• low coolant mass
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Fission Reactors
(enrichment)
•
Two main techniques to separate
235
U from
238
U
in gas form UF
6
@ T>56C, P=1bar
–
centrifugal separation
• high separation power per centrifugal step
•
low volume capacity per centrifuge
•
total 1020 stages to get to O(4%) enrichment
•
energy requirement: 5GWh to supply a 1GW reactor with 1
year of fuel
–
diffusive separation
• low separation power per diffusion step
• high volume capacity per diffusion element
• total 1400 stages to get O(4%) enrichment
• energy requirement: 240GWh = 10 GWdays to supply a
1GW reactor with 1 year of fuel
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
1520 cm
1

2
m
O(70,000) rpm ¬ V
max
≈1,800 km/h = supersonic! & g
max
=10
6
g ¬ difficult to build!
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Fission Reactors
(enrichment)
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Nuclear Fusion,as a source of stellar energy
In stars
12
C formation sets the stage for the entire nucleosynthesis of heavy
elements:
T ~ 6*10
8
K and ρ ~ 2*10
5
gcm
3
4
He +
4
He ↔
8
Be
8
Be unstable
(τ ~ 10
16
s)
α
α
α
8
Be +
4
He ↔
12
C
Large density helps to overcome the bottleneck caused by the absence of
stable nuclei with 8 nucleons.
Example: show that the nucleus
8
be has a positive binding energy but is unstable
against the decay into two alpha particles.
The binding energy of
8
Be:
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1 8
1 4
8 2
4
4 4
4 1.008665 4 1.007825 8.005304 931.5 / 56.5
B n
H Be
E Be m m m c
u u u MeV u MeV
]
· + −
]
· + − · ]
]
/ 7.06
B
E A MeV ·
The energy of the decay
8
Be ⇒ two alpha particles:
( ) ( ) ( )
8 4
4 2
8 2
4
2 8.005304 2 4.002602 931.5 / 0.093
B
Be He
E Be m m c u u MeV u MeV
]
· − · − · ]
]
]
Because the energy of the decay
8
Be ⇒ two alpha particles is positive,
8
Be is
unstable (an important factor for the nucleosynthesis in the Universe).
Stellar Nucleosynthesis
A massive star near the end
of its lifetime has “onion
ring” structure.
C burning
T ~ 6*10
8
K ρ ~ 2*10
5
gcm
3
Ne
burning
T ~ 1.2*10
9
K ρ ~ 4*10
6
gcm
3
O burning T ~ 1.5*10
9
K ρ ~ 10
7
gcm
3
Si burning T ~ 3*10
9
K ρ ~ 10
8
gcm
3
major ash: Fe
 the end of
exothermic
processes
Multistep processes of the formation of heavier elements
up to Fe.
Two key parameters: temperature (thermal energy is
sufficiently large to overcome Coulomb repulsion ) and
density (controls the frequency of collisions).
With increasing Z, the temperatures should also increase
to facilitate the reactions.
Stability Issues (Stable Stars vs. Unstable Bombs)
Why are the stars stable (in contrast to the hydrogen bomb)?
In stars, the increase of temperature results in the increase of the pressure and
the subsequent increase of its size (think the ideal gas law).
The density becomes smaller, and the rate of thermonuclear reactions
decreases. This is the buildin negative feedback.
Sun
red
dwar
f
Sirius A
proto
n
cycle
carbon
nitroge
n cycle
T, K
10
7
10
9
10
5
l
u
m
i
n
o
s
i
t
y
The negative feedback works well for young
stars. For more dense and old stars, the
pressure increase is not sufficient to produce
a significant increase of volume (the matter
in such stars is not described by gas laws) –
and the thermonuclear explosion occurs!
This is the star explosion (supernova:
“carbonnitrogen” bomb).
12 13 7
6 7
10 C p N y γ + → +
The carbonnitrogen cycle:
13 13
7 6
7 min N C e ν
+
→ + +
13 14 6
6 7
10 C p N y γ + → +
14 13 15 8
7 6 8
10 N p O y γ + → +
15 15
8 7
82 O N e s ν
+
→ + +
15 12 4 5
7 6 2
10 N p C He y + → +
a “catalyst”
Explosive Nucleosynthesis (Elements Heavier than
Iron)
Elements heavier than iron are created (mostly) by
neutron capture.
Explosive nucleosynthesis ⇒ Endothermic fusion
sprocess
(slow
neutron
capture):
n
56
26
Fe
57
26
Fe
57
27
Co
e

n
56
26
Fe
60
26
Fe
61
27
Co
n
n
rprocess
(a succession
of rapid
neutron
captures on
iron seed
nuclei):
The neutron is added to the nucleus and (later) converted into a proton by β decay;
this increases the atomic number by 1. Repetition of this process – progress up the
valley of stability.
e

These processes require energy, occur only at high densities &
temperatures (e.g., rprocesses occur in corecollapse supernovae).
High n flux: fast neutron capture until the nuclear force is unable to bind an
extra neutron. Then, a beta decay occurs, and in the new chain the neutron
capture continues. This process is responsible for the creation of about half of
neutronrich nuclei heavier than Fe.
Summary
chargedparticle
induced reaction
mainly neutron
capture reaction
Both occur during quiescent and explosive stages
of stellar evolution
involve mainly STABLE NUCLEI involve mainly UNSTABLE NUCLEI
10
1
A
b
u
n
d
a
n
c
e
r
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
t
o
S
i
l
i
c
o
n
(
=
1
0
6
)
α Decay Theory
• Consider
232
Th, Z=90, with radius of R=7.6 fm
•
It alpha decays with E
a
=4.08 MeV at r=
• But at R=7.6 fm the potential energy of the alpha would
be E
α ,pot
=34 MeV if we believe:
• Question: How does the α escape from the Th
nucleus?
• Answer: by QM tunnelling
2
1 2
0
4
e c
E Z Z
c R πε
·
h
h
which we really should!
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
r
nucleus inside barrier (negative
KE)
small flux of real α
α Decay Theory
I II III
potential energy of
α
total energy of α
Exponential
decay of ψ
radial wave function in alpha
decay in 3 regions oscillatory ψ
oscillatory ψ
r=t
r=R
•see also Williams, p.85 to 89
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
QM Tunnelling through a square well
(the easy bit)
•
Boundary condition for Ψ and dΨ/dx at r=0 and r=t give 4 equations
•
for times such that Kt>>1 and approximating k≈K we get transmission probability:
T=D
2
~exp(2Kt) [Williams, p.85]
exp( ) exp( )
exp( ) exp( )
exp( )
I
II
III
ikr A ikr
B Kr C Kr
D ikr
ψ
ψ
ψ
· + −
· + −
·
0
2
2 ( )
kin
kin
k mE
K m V E
·
· −
h
h
in regions I and III
in region II
unit incoming oscillatory wave
reflected wave of amplitude A
two exponential decaying waves
of amplitude B and C
transmitted oscillatory
wave of amplitude D
Wave vector Ansatz:
Stationary Wavefunction Ansatz:
E
tot
Potential :
V
r=0 r=t
V=V
0
I II III
r
V=0
4 unknowns !
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
α decay
Neutron
s
Proton
s
Alphas
∆ E
bind
(
4
2
α )=28.3 MeV > 4*6MeV
∆ E
sep
≈6MeV per nucleon for heavy nuclei
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Tunnelling in α decay
• Assume there is no recoil in the remnant nucleus
• Assume we can approximate the Coulomb potential by sequence
of many square wells of thickness ∆ r with variable height V
i
• Transmission probability is then product of many T factors where
the K inside T is a function of the potential:
•
The region between R and R
exit
is defined via: V(r)>E
kin
• Inserting K into the above gives:
• We call G the Gamov factor
2
2 ( )
2
0
0
lim
R
exit
i
R
k r dr
N
K r
trans
r
i
P T e e
−
− ∆
∆ →
·
∫
· ·
∏
h
h
:
2 2
exp 2 ( ( ) ) exp( )
exit
R
kin
R
T m V r E dr G
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
· − − ≡ −
' '
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
∫
h
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
2 2
1 2 1 2
0 0
( )
4 4
kin
exit
Z Z e Z Z e
V r E
r R πε πε
· ·
( )
1/ 2 1/ 2
2
2
0
2
0
2
1/ 1/
2
cos 2 cos sin
0
exit
R
exit
R
exit exit
exit
mZ e
G r R dr
r R dr R d
r R r R
πε
ϑ ϑ ϑ ϑ
ϑ ϑ ϑ
 `
· −
. ,
· · −
· ⇒ · · ⇒ ·
∫
h
substituting
and and
[ ]
0 0
1/ 2
2
1/ 2 2 2
2
0 0 0
0 0 0
4
sin sin (1/ 2) sin cos
2
exit
mZ e
G R d d
ϑ ϑ
ϑ ϑ ϑ ϑ ϑ ϑ ϑ
πε
 `
· · −
. ,
∫ ∫
h
where
Tunnelling in α decay
• Use the Coulomb potential for an a particle of charge Z
1
and a nucleus of
charge Z
2
for V(r)
the latter defines the relation between
the exit radius and the alpha particles
kinetic energy
2
exp( ) exp 2 ( ( ) )
exit
R
kin
R
G m V r E dr
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
− · − −
' '
¹ ¹
¹ ¹
∫
h
inserted into: and Z
1
=2 gives
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Tunnelling in α decay
•
How can we simplify this ?
– for nuclei that actually do adecay we know typical decay
energies and sizes
– R
typ
≈10 fm, E
typ
≈ 5 MeV, Z
typ
≈ 80
– ¬R
exit,typ
≈ 60 fm >>R
typ
–
since
•
Inserting all this into G gives:
• And further expressing R
exit
via E
kin
gives:
1/ 2
2
0
4
exit
mZe R
G
π
πε
 `
≈
. ,
h
0 0 0
cos / cos 0 / 2
exit
R R ϑ ϑ ϑ π · ⇒ ≅ ⇒ ≅
1/ 2
2 2 2
0 0
2
4 4 2
exit
kin
Ze e mZ
R G
E E
α
πε ε
 `
· ⇒ ≈
. ,
h
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
α decay Rates
• How can we turn the tunnelling probability into a decay rate?
• We need to estimate the “number of hits” that an α makes
onto the inside surface of a nucleus.
• Assume:
– the a already exists in the nucleus
–
it has a velocity v
0
=(2E
kin
/m)
1/2
– it will cross the nucleus in ∆ t=2R/v
0
–
¬ it will hit the surface with a rate of ω
0
=v
0
/2R
• Decay rate ω is then “rate of hits” x tunnelling probability
•
Note: ω
0
is a very rough plausibility estimate! Williams tells you
how to do it better but he can’t do it either!
1/ 2
2 2
0
(2 / ) (2 / )
exp( ) exp
2 2 4 2
kin kin
kin
E m E m
e mZ
G
R R E
ω
ε
 `
 `
−
· − ·
. ,
. ,
h
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
α decay experimental
tests
•
Predict exponential decay rate proportional to (E
kin
)
1/2
•
Agrees approximately with data for eveneven nuclei.
•
But angular momentum effects complicate the picture:
–
Additional angular momentum barrier (as in atomic physics)
–
E
l
is small compared to E
Coulomb
–
E.g. l=1, R=15 fm ¬ E
l
~0.05 MeV compared to
–
Z=90 ¬ E
coulomb
~17 MeV.
–
but still generates noticeable extra exponential suppression.
•
Spin (∆ J) and parity (∆ P) change from parent to daughter
∆ J=L
α
∆ P=(1)
L
2
2 2
( 1)( )
2
l
l l c
E
mc r
+
·
h
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
α decay
experimental
tests
• We expect:
l
n
(
d
e
c
a
y
r
a
t
e
)
.,
,
,
/ /
red daughter
daughter daughter kin
tot kin
m
Z Z E
E m
α
α
α
−
≈
1/ 2
2 2
0
(2 / )
exp
2 4 2
kin
kin
E m
e mZ
R E
ω
ε
 `
 `
−
·
. ,
. ,
h
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Fermi β Decay Theory
•
Consider simplest case:
of β decay, i.e. n decay
•
At quark level: d¬u+W
followed by decay of
virtual W to electron +
antineutrino
•
this section is close to
Cottingham &
Greenwood p.166  ff
•
but also check that you
understand Williams p.
292  ff
(782 )
e
e
n pe Q keV
d ue
ν
ν
−
−
→ +
→
or at quark level
W

e

( )
ν
e
d
u
u
d
u
d
n
p
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Fermi Theory
• 4 point interaction
–
Energy of virtual W << m
W
¬ life time is negligible
– assume interaction is described by only a single number
–
we call this number the Fermi constant of beta decay G
β
– also assume that p is heavy and does not recoil (it is often
bound into an even heavier nucleus for other β decays)
– We ignore parity nonconservation
* * * 3
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
fi e p n
H r r r G r d r
ν β
ψ ψ ψ ψ ·
∫
1/ 2 1/ 2
( ) exp( . ) ; ( ) exp( . ) ;
e e e
r V ik r r V ik r q k k
ν ν ν
ψ ψ
− −
· · · +
r r r r
r r r
* 3
~1 / ~ 5 ~1/ 40
exp( . ) 1
0
( ) ( )
n p
fi p n f
q MeV c R fm q r
iq r
L R L L L
H G r r d r G H
β β
ψ ψ
⇒ ⋅
⇒ ≈
∆ · ∆ · −
· ·
∫
From nuclear observations we know :
which is only applicable for as otherwi se can be larger
which is just a numbe
r r
r r
n p r since and are at rest
e

( )
ν
e
d
u
u
d
u
d
n
p
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Fermi Theory
2 3 2 3
4 / 4 /
e e e e
dn p dp h dn p dp h n n n
ν ν ν ν
π π · · · ; ;
( ) ( )
2 2 3 2 3
4 / 4 /
e e
d n p dp h p dp h
ν ν
π π ·
0
/ ( ) / ; / 1/
f
f e
f e f
E
E
E E E
p E c E E c p E c
ν
ν ν ν
⇒ · −
· · − ∂ ∂ ·
= total energy released in the decay =
= total energy of the final state
= mass deficit
= total kinetic energy + rest masses of the final state
Þ
as we neglect nuclear recoil energy
Þ
electron energy distribution is determined by density
of states
Þ
but p
e
and p
ν
or E
e
and E
ν
are correlated to conserve
energy ¬ we can not leave them both variable
2 2
2 2
6 3
16
( )
e f e
f e
d n
p E E
dE dp h c
π
· −
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Fermi Theory ¬ Kurie Plot
2 2
2
2
( ) ( )
( )
( )
e e f e
e
e
f e
e
dR
I p Ap E E
dp
I p
A E E
p
· · −
⇒ · −
Þ
FGR to get a decay rate and insert previous results:
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
6 3
4
2 2
7 3
2
2
2 16
( )
64
( )
fi
f
fi
e f e
fi e f e
f e f e
dn
R H
dE
dR d n
H
dP dE dP
H p E E
h c
G H p E E
h c
β
π
π
π π
π
· ⇒
·
· −
· −
h
h
h
* 3
( ) ( )
fi p n f
H G r r d r G H
β β
ψ ψ · ·
∫
2 2
2 2
6 3
16
( )
e f e
f e
d n
p E E
dE dp h c
π
· −
A
let’s plot that from real data
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Electron Spectrum
• Observe electron kinetic energy
spectrum in tritium decay
• Implant tritium directly into a biased
silicon detector
• Observe internal ionisation (electron
hole pairs) generated from the emerging
electron as current pulse in the detector
•
number of pairs proportional to electron
energy
•
Observe continuous spectrum ¬
neutrino has to carrie the rest of the
energy
• End point of this spectrum is function of
neutrino mass
• But this form of spectrum is bad for
determining the endpoint accurately
E
kin,e
(keV)
R
e
l
a
t
i
v
e
I
n
t
e
n
s
i
t
y
Simple Spectrum
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Kurie Plot
• A plot of: should be linear
• …but it does not! Why?
• …because that’s off syllabus!
• But if you really must know …
• Electron notices Coulomb field of nucleus ¬
• Ψ
e
gets enhanced near to proton (nucleus)
• The lower E
e
the bigger this effect
• We compensate with a “Fudge Factor”
scientifically aka “Fermi Function” K(Z,p
e
)
• Can be calculated but we don’t have means
to do so ¬
• We can’t integrate I(p
e
) to give a total rate
2
( )
e
e
e
I p
E
p
vs.
(
I
(
p
)
/
p
2
K
(
Z
,
p
)
)
1
/
2
E
kin,e
(keV)
KuriePlot
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Selection Rules
•
Fermi Transitions:
–
eν couple to give spin S
eν
=0
–
“Allowed transitions” L
eν
=0 ¬ ∆ J
n¬p
=0.
•
GamowTeller transitions:
–
eν couple to give spin S
eν
=1
–
“Allowed transitions” L
eν
=0 ¬ ∆ J
n¬p
=0 or ±1
•
“Forbidden” transitions
–
See arguments on slide 15
–
Higher order terms correspond to nonzero ∆ L. Therefore suppressed
depending on (q.r)
2L
–
Usual QM rules give: ∆ J
n¬p
=L
eν
+S
eν
... ) . ( ) . ( 1 ) . exp(
2
+ + + · r q O r q i r q i
¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯ ¯
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Electron Capture
• capture atomic electron
• Can compete with β
+
decay.
• Use FGR again and first look at matrix element
* * 3
0
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
R
fi e p n
H G r r r r d r
β ν
ψ ψ ψ ψ ·
∫
* 3
0
(0) (0) ( ) ( )
R
fi e p n
H G r r d r
β ν
ψ ψ ψ ψ ·
∫
3/ 2
2
1/ 2
2
0
exp( . ) 1
(0) ; ( ) (0)
4
e
e
Zm e ik r
r
V V
ν ν
ψ π ψ ψ
πε
−
 `
· · ⇒ ·
. ,
r
r
h
3
2
2
2 2
2
0
4
e
fi f
G
Zm e
H H
V
β
π πε
 `
·
. ,
h
* 3
0
( ) ( )
R
F n p
H r r d r ψ ψ ·
∫
e
e p n ν
−
+ → +
Þ
For “allowed” transitions we consider Ψ
e
and Ψ
ν
const.
Þ
Only l
e
=0 has non vanishing Ψ
e
(r=0) and for n
e
=1 this is
largest.
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Electron Capture
• Density of states easier now
– only a 2body final state (n,ν )
– n is assumed approximately stationary ¬ only ν matters
–
¬ final state energy = E
ν
2
3
2
3
4
; ;
4
dN dN dN dq q
V E q c
dq h dE dq dE
dN q
V
dE h c
ν ν ν ν
ν ν
ν ν ν ν
ν ν
ν
π
π
· · ·
·
2
3
2 2 2
2 2
4 3 2
0
2
16
4
f
fi
f
e
F
dN
H
dE
E Zm e
G M
h c
ν
β
π
ω
π
ω
πε
·
 `
·
. ,
h
h
Þ
apply Fermi’s Golden Rule AGAIN:
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Antineutrino Discovery
• Inverse Beta Decay
• Assume again no recoil on n
• But have to treat positron fully relativistic
• Same matrix elements as β decay because
all wave functions assume to be plane waves
• Fermi’s Golden Rule (only positron moves in
final state!)
2
2
2
2 2
e e
fi F
e e
dN dN
H G H
dE dE
β
π π
ω
+ +
+ +
· ·
h h
;
e e
n pe p ne β ν β ν
− +
→ →  decay : inverse  decay :
2
2
2 2
fi F
H G H V
β
−
·
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Antineutrino Discovery
•
Phase space factor:
•
Neglect neutron recoil:
•
Combine with FGR
2
2
3 2
4 2
e e
F
p E
G H
h c V
β
π π
ω ·
h
2
3
4
e e
e e
dN dp
p V
dE h dE
π + +
+ +
·
2 2 2 2 4 2
; /
e
e e e e
e
dp
E p c m c E pc
dE
+
+ + + +
+
· + ·
/ ; F c V R Fσ · ·
3
2
2
4 3
16
e e
F
p E
G H
h c
β
π
σ ·
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
The Cowan & Reines Experiment
• for inverse β decay @ E
ν
~ 1MeV ¬ σ ~10
47
cm
2
• Pauli’s prediction verified by Cowan and Reines.
1 GW
Nuclear
Reactor
PMT
H
2
0+CdCl
2
Liquid Scint.
2
e
p ne
e e
n Cd several
ν
γ
γ
+
+ −
→
→
+ →
(on protons from the water)
(prompt : shortly after inverse beta decay)
(9MeV,delayed coincidence)
Shielding
original proposal
wanted to use a
bomb instead!
Liquid Scint. PMT
ν beam
all this well under ground
to reduce cosmic rays!
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Parity Definitions
• Parity transforms from a left to a right handed coordinate system
and vice versa
• Eigenvalues of parity are +/ 1.
• If parity is conserved: [H,P]=0 ¬ eigenstates of H are eigenstates
of parity ¬ all observables have a defined parity
• If Parity is conserved all result of an experiment should be
unchanged by parity operation
• If parity is violated we can measure observables with mixed parity,
i.e. not eigenstates of parity
• best read Bowler, Nuclear Physics, chapter 2.3 on parity!
µ
µ
µ
µ
µ
2
1 2
1
; [ ( )] ( )
[ ( )] ( ) 1
( ) ;
( )
. ( )
.
i
r r P r r
P r r P Eignevalues
v P v v
L r x p P L L
s v v P s s
O v L
ψ ψ
ψ ψ
→ − · −
· ⇒ · · t
· −
· ·
· ·
·
let be a true vector:
let be an axial vector:
let be a true scalar:
let be a pseudo scal
r r r r
r r
r r r
r r r
r r
r r
ur
r
µ
( ) P O O · − ar:
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Parity Conservation
• If parity is conserved for reaction a + b ¬ c + d.
• Absolute parity of states that can be singly produced from
vacuum (e.g. photons η
γ
= 1) can be defined wrt. vacuum
• For other particles we can define relative parity. e.g.
arbitrarily define η
p
=+1, η
n
=+1 then we can determine
parity of other nuclei wrt. this definition
• parity of antiparticle is opposite particle’s parity
• Parity is a hermitian operator as it has real eigenvalues!
• If parity is conserved <pseudoscalar>=0 (see next
transparency).
• Nuclei are Eigenstates of parity
( 1) ( 1)
final
initial
L
L
a b c d
x
x
η η η η
η
− · −
where are intrinsic parities of particle
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
* 3 * 2 3
p p p
O O d r P O d r ψ ψ ψ ψ < > · ·
∫ ∫
* 3
p p
O PO P d r ψ ψ < > · −
∫
2 * 3
( )
p p p
O O d r η ψ ψ < > · −
∫
* 3
p p
O O d r ψ ψ < > · −
∫
Parity Conservation
Þ
Let O
p
be an observable pseudo scalar operator, i.e. [H,
O
p
]=0
Þ
Let parity be conserved [H, P]=0 ¬ [P, O
p
]=0
Þ
Let Ψ be Eigenfunctions of P and H with intrinsic parity η
p
Þ
<O
p
> =  <O
p
> = 0 QED
Þ
it is often useful to think of parity violation as a non
vanishing expectation value of a pseudo scalar operator
insert Unity
as PO
p
=O
p
P since [P, O
p
]=0
use E.V. of Ψ under
parity
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Q: Is Parity Conserved In
Nature?
• A1: Yes for all electromagnetic and strong
interactions.
• Feynman lost his 100$ bet that parity was conserved
everywhere. In 1956 that was a lot of money!
• A2: Big surprise was that parity is violated in weak
interactions.
• How was this found out?
– can’t find this by just looking at nuclei. They are parity
eigenstates (defined via their nuclear and EM interactions)
– must look at properties of leptons in beta decay which are
born in the weak interaction
– see Bowler, Nuclear Physics, chapter 3.13
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Mme. Wu’s “Cool”
Experiment
•
Adiabatic demagnetisation to get T ~ 10 mK
•
Align spins of
60
Co with magnetic field.
•
Measure angular distribution of electrons and
photons relative to B field.
•
Clear forwardbackward asymmetry of the electron
direction (forward=direction of B) ¬ Parity
violation.
•
Note:
–
Spin S= axial vector
– Magnetic field B = axial vector
– Momentum p = real vector
– ¬ Parity will only flip p not B and S
60 60 * 60 * 60
( 5) ( 4) ;
e
Co J Ni J e Ni Ni ν γ
−
· → · → +
5
+
0
+
4
+
2
+
β

allowed
Gamov Teller
decay ∆ J=1
2.51 MeV
1.33 MeV
0 MeV
Excitation
Energy
60
Ni
60
Co
~100%
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
The Wu Experiment
γ ’s from late cascade
decays of Ni* measure
degree of polarisation
of Ni* and thus of Co
gamma det. signals
summed over both
B orientations!
scintillator signal
electron signal shows
asymmetry of the
electron distribution
see also Burcham & Jobes, P.370
sample warms up ¬ asymmetry disappears
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Interpreting the Wu
Experiment
• Let’s make an observable pseudo scalar
O
p
:
–
O
p
=J
Co
* p
e
= Polarisation (axial vector dot real
vector)
• If parity were conserved this would have
a vanishing expectation value
•
But we see that p
e
prefers to be anti
parallel to B and thus to J
Co
• Thus: parity is violated
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Improved WuExperiment
• Polar diagram of angular
dependence of electron
intensity
• θ is angle of electron
momentum wrt spin of 60Co
or B
• using many detectors at
many angles
• points indicate
measurements
• if P conserved this would
have been a circle centred
on the origin
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
γ decays
• When do they occur?
– Nuclei have excited states similar to atoms. Don’t worry about
details E,J
P
(need a proper shell model to understand).
– EM interaction less strong then the strong (nuclear) interaction
– Low energy excited states E<6 MeV above ground state can’t
usually decay by nuclear interaction ¬ γ decays
• γ decays important in cascade decays following α and
β decays.
• Practical consequences
– Fission. Significant energy released in γ decays (see later lectures)
– Radiotherapy: γ from Co60 decays
– Medical imaging eg Tc (see next slide)
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Energy Levels for Mo and Tc
• Make Mo99 in an accelerator
• attach it to a biocompatible molecule
• inject that into a patient and observe where the patient emits γ rays
• don’t need to “eat” the detector as γ ’s penetrate the body
• call this substance a tracer
both β decay
leaves Tc in
excited state.
MeV
M
e
V
interesting meta
stable state
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Introduction
• Particle Ranges
a) If smooth energy loss via many
steps (i.e. ionisation from light ions)
¬ sharply defined range, useful for
rough energy measurement
a)
b)
c)
c) Sometimes several types of
processes happen (i.e. high
energy electrons)
¬ mixed curves, extrapolated
maximum range
b) If a few or a single event can
stop the particle (i.e. photo
effect)
¬ exponential decay of particle
beam intensity,
¬ decay constant can have useful
energy dependence
¬ No range but mean free path
defined
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Introduction(classification of
interactions)
Þ
Particles we are interested in
Þ
photons
Þ
exponential attenuation at low E, often get absorbed in single
events
Þ
detect secondary electrons and ions liberated in absorption
process.
Þ
charged particles
Þ
sharper range (continuously loose energy via ionisation)
Þ
leave tracks of ionisation in matter ¬ measure momentum in
B
Þ
sometimes radiate photons ¬ can be used to identify particle
type
Þ
neutrons
Þ
electrically neutral ¬ no firstorder eminteraction ¬ devils to
detect
Þ
react only via strong force (at nuclear energies!)
Þ
long exponential range (lots of nuclear scattering events
followed by absorption or decay)
Þ
need specific nuclear reactions to convert them into photons
and/or charged particles when captured by a target nucleus
Þ
if stopped, measure decay products, e

+ p + ν
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Charged particles in matter
(non radiating interactions, what to collide with)
•
What could a charged particle collide with
–
Atomic electrons (“free”)
¬ large energy loss ∆ E≈q
2
/2m
e
(small m
e
, q=momentum transfer)
¬ small scattering angle
–
Nuclei
¬ small energy loss (∆ E=q
2
/2m
nucleus
)
¬ large scattering angle
–
Unresolved atoms (predominant at low energies)
¬ medium energy loss ∆ E<q
2
/2m
e
eff
because: m
e
eff
(bound)>m
e
(free)
¬ medium scattering angle
¬ atoms get excited and will later emit photons (scintillation)
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Charged particles in matter
(Ionisation and the BetheBloch Formula)
•
Deal with collisions with electrons first
since these give biggest energy loss.
•
Task: compute rate of energy loss per
path length, dE/dx due to scattering of a
charged particle from electrons in
matter.
•
Remember a similar problem?
•
Scatter alpha particles of nuclei =
Rutherford scattering
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Charged particles in matter
(Comparison between Rutherford Scattering and EMscattering of
free electrons)
• Rutherford Scattering
– any charged particle X
(original used α ’s) scatters of
nucleus
– Charge(X)=Ze
– Charge(nucleus)=Z’e
–
M
nucl
>> M
X
¬ no nuclear
recoil
– first order perturbation theory
(Z*Z’*α
em
<<1)
– point ↔ point scattering
¬ no formfactors
• BetheBloch situation
– any charged particle X
scatters of electron (in
matter)
– Charge(X)=Ze
– Charge(electron)=1e
–
M
X
>> M
e
¬ no Xrecoil (not
true for X=e)
– first order perturbation theory
(Z*1*α
em
<<1)
– point ↔ point scattering
¬ no formfactors
c
o
m
m
o
n
a
l
i
t
i
e
s
d
i
f
f
e
r
e
n
c
e
s
Þ
spin0 scatters of spin0
Þ
nonrelativistic
Þ
nucleus assumed
unbound
Þ
spin0 scatters of spin½
Þ
could be relativistic
Þ
electron is often bound
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Charged particles in matter
(Comparison between Rutherford Scattering and EMscattering of
free electrons)
• Will initially ignore the spin and
relativistic effects when deriving first
parts of Bethe Bloch formula
• Start with Rutherford like scattering
using electron as projectile
• Later introduce more realistic
scattering crossection (Mott) to get full
Bethe Bloch formula
• Add effects for bound electrons at the
end
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Charged particles in matter
(From Rutherford Scattering to the BetheBloch Formula)
•
Differential Rutherfordscattering crossection for electrons as projectiles
Þ
If we want to turn this process around to describe energy loss of
a particle X scattering of electrons in a solid we need to initially
assume:
Þ
X scatters of free electrons i.e. E
kin,projectile
>> E
bin,electron
or
V
projectile
>>V
bounde
(deal with bound electrons later)
Þ
M
X
>>me so that reduced M
reduced
(X) ≈ M
rest
(X) ¬ will need recoil
corrections to apply results to dE/dx of electrons passing through
matter
( )
α
σ θ
−
·
Ω
2
2 2
4
2 2
sin
4 2
Rutherford
z c
d
d P V
h
P,V = momentum and relative velocity of electron wrt. nucleus
Z = charge of nucleus
θ = scattering angle of the electron wrt. incoming electron
direction
Ω = stereo angle
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
2 2
2
2 2 2
1
2 sin
2 sin
d d d d dq d d p d
p
d d d d d dq dq dq
σ θ σ θ σ σ σ
θ
θ θ π θ π
· · · ·
Ω Ω Ω
2 2 2
2 cos q P P PP θ
′ ′
· + +
Charged particles in matter
(normal Rutherford Scattering: e on nucleus, change of
variables)
•
Change variables from Ω to q
2
(q = momentum
transfer to electron) to get to frame independent form
P
electron,in
P
’
e
le
ctro
n
,o
u
t
q
θ
θ
θ
′
· · ⇒
· − ·
2 2 2 2
in elastic scattering of heavy nucleus:
2 (1 cos ) 4 sin
2
P P p
q p p
2
2
2 sin
dq
p
d
θ
θ
·
1
if no dependence: 2 sin
2 sin
d
d d
d
θ
φ π θ θ
π θ
Ω · ⇔ ·
Ω
( )
2
1
sin 1 cos
2 2
θ
θ
 `
· −
. ,
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
( )
σ π σ
π α
σ
·
Ω
·
2 2
2
2 2
2 2 4
since:
4
d d
dq p d
z c
d
dq V q
h
Charged particles in matter
(normal Rutherford Scattering: e on nucleus, change of
variables)
( )
α
σ θ
−
·
Ω
2
2 2
4
2 2
sin
4 2
z c
d
d pV
h
( )
θ
α
σ
·
·
Ω
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2 4
since: sin
2 4
4
q
p
z c
d p
d V q
h
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Charged particles in matter
(Rutherford Scattering, change of frame to nucleus on e)
• Change frame to:
– electron stationary (in matter), nucleus moving
with V towards electron
– p in formula is still momentum of electron
moving with relative V ¬ p =m
e
γ V
– q
2
is frame independent
• nonrelativistic this is obvious (do it at home)
• Energy transfer to the electron is defined via:
•
∆ E=ν =q
2
/2m
e
¬ dν /dq
2
=1/2m
e
• relativistic need to define q as 4momentum transfer,
but we assume non relativistic for Rutherford anyway.
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
• Above is crossection for a non relativistic heavy particle of
charge z to loose energy between ν and ν +dν in collision with
a spinless electron it approaches with velocity V
• We want as a useful quantity:
– kinetic energy lost by projectile = dT
– per path length dx
– in material of atomic number density n
– with Z’ electrons per atom
Charged particles in matter
(From inverse Rutherford scattering to the BetheBloch
Formula)
( )
π α
σ
ν ν
ν ν
·
2
2 2
2 2
2
1
e
z c
d
d d
d mV
h
ν
σ
ν ν
ν
′
− ·
∫
max
min
v
d
dT nZdx d
d
number of collissions with
electrons in length dx per
unit crossection area
crossection weighted
avg. energy lost per
collision
( )
π α
σ ν σ σ
ν ν
· · ·
2
2 2
2 2 2 4
4
1
2
e
z c
d d d d
dq dq d m d V q
h
q
2

=2ν m
e
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Charged particles in matter
(Ionisation and the BetheBloch Formula, simple integral)
ν
ν
ν π α π α
ν ν
ν ν
]
]  `
′ ′
− · ·
] ]
]
. , ]
]
∫
max
min
2 2 2 2 2 2
max
2 2 2
min
1 2 ( ) 2 ( )
ln
e e
dT Z c Z c
nZ d nZ
dx mV mV
h h
• Two of our assumptions justifying the use of
Rutherford scattering were:
– Electrons in matter have no spin
– Projectile travels at non relativistic speed
• None of these are met in practise
• We have to do all of the last 5 slides again
starting from a relativistic crossection for spin ½
electrons.
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Charged particles in matter
(Ionisation and the BetheBloch Formula, Mott)
•
Differential Mottscattering crossection for relativistic spin ½ electrons scattering off a
finite mass nucleus (finite mass ¬ e could be target)
( )
2
2 2
2
4 2
2 2 2
sin 1 sin
4 2 2
Mott
z c
d V
d P V c
α
σ θ θ
−
]
· ⋅ −
]
Ω
]
h
Þ
If we perform the same transformations (Ω ¬q
2
¬ν ) with this
crossection and then perform the integral:
Rutherford term Mott
term
ν
σ
ν ν
ν
′
− ·
∫
max
min
Mott
v
d
dT nZdx d
d
Þ
we get …
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Charged particles in matter
(Ionisation and the BetheBloch Formula, Mott integral)
Þ
Valid for all charged particles
(not limited to heavy
particles)
Þ
ν
max
can be computed via
kinematics of “free” electron
since E
bind
<<
E
kin
(see
Williams problem 11.1 on
p.246)
2 2 2
max 2
2
1 2
with: and
as properties of incoming
particle
e
e e
mc
m m
M M
E P
M E
β γ
ν
γ
γ β
·
 `
+ +
. ,
· ·
max 2
if incoming particle is not relaticistic ( 1)
and
4
( )
e
e
E T M T M
mMT
M m
β
ν
· +
≈
+
=
=
2 2
max 2
2
Note: c=1 from here downwards!
2( )
2
e
e
E M
M
m E
m
ν
−
·
+ +
ν ≈
2
max
if and and then
(ultra relativistic incoming particle)
e e
E M E M m E m
E
? ? ?
A list of limits for ν
max
follows:
2 2 2 2
max max min
2 2 2
min
2 ( )
ln 1
2
e e
dT Z c V
nZ
dx mV c mc
ν ν ν π α
ν
]
]  `  `  ` −
′
− · − −
] ]
]
. , . , ] . ,
]
h
Mott term
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Charged particles in matter
(Ionisation and the BetheBloch Formula, ν
min
)
•
But what about ν
min
?
– can not assume that e is free for small energy transfers
–
ν ≠q
2
/2m
e
because electron bound to atom
– can get excited atoms in final state (not just ions)
¬ our integral was wrong for the lower limit! (can’t get from
first to second line on slide 15 any more)
– For small ν need 2D integral dν dq depending on detailed
atomic structure
– We need to find some average description of the atomic
structure depending only on Z and A if we want to find a
universal formula
– This gives sizable fraction of integral but is very hard to do
– The result is the BetheBloch Formula
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Charged particles in matter
(Ionisation and the BetheBloch Formula = BBF)
•
Stopping power = mean energy lost by ionisation upon
perpendicularly traversing a layer of unit mass per area.
• Units: Mev g
1
cm
2
, Range: 4.1 in H to 1.1 in U
• I=mean excitation energy; depends on atom type, I≈11*Z [eV]
γ
ν β γ
β γ π α δ
β
ρ β
 ` ] ′
− · − −
]
. , ]
2 2 2
max
2 2 2 2 2 2
2
2
in the infinitely heavy projectile ("no recoil", 2 )
approximation =2 and this becomes:
2 1 4
ln
2
e
e
e A
e
M m
mc
mc N Z dT Z
dx A m I
?
h
β γ ρ δ
β
· · · ·
· · ·
2
1
with , , mass density, density correction
1
atomic number, Avogadro's number, mean excitation potential
A
V
c
A N I
1
is called Stopping Power.
dT
dx ρ
−
β γ ν π α δ
β
ρ β
 ` ] ′
− · − −
]
. , ]
2 2 2 2 2 2
2
max
2 2
2 1 4 1
ln
2 2
e A
e
mc N Z dT Z
dx A m I
h
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Charged particles in matter
(Ionisation and the BetheBloch Formula, BetheBloch
features)
• δ =density correction: dielectric properties of medium shield growing range of
Lorenzcompacted Efield that would reach more atoms laterally. Without this
the stopping power would logarithmically diverge at large projectile velocities.
Only relevant at very large β γ
•
BBF as a Function of β γ is nearly independent of M of projectile except for ν
max
and very weak log dependence in δ
¬ if you know p and measure β ¬ get M (particle ID via dE/dx): See slide 23
• Nearly independent of medium. Dominant dependence is Z’/A ≈½ for most
elements.
• Limitations:
– totally wrong for very low V (ln goes negative ¬ particle gains Energy = stupid)
– correct but not useful for very large V (particle starts radiating, see next chapter)
β γ ν π α δ
β
ρ β
 ` ] ′
− · − −
]
. , ]
2 2 2 2 2 2
2
max
2 2
2 1 4 1
ln
2 2
e A
e
mc N Z dT Z
dx A m I
h
1
ln ln and 28.816 (
2 2
p
p
Z A
I
ω
δ
βγ ω ρ
′
· + − ·
h
(off syllabus)
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Charged particles in matter
(Ionisation and the BetheBloch Formula, variation with β γ )
µ
+
can
capture e

E
µ c
= critical energy
defined via:
dE/dx
ion.
=dE/dx
Brem.
Bethe
Bloch
•
Broad minimum @ β γ ≈3.0(3.5) for Z=100(7)
•
At minimum, stopping power is nearly independent of
particle type and material
Þ
Stopping Power at minimum varies
from 1.1 to 1.8 MeV g1 cm2)
Þ
Particle is called minimum ionising
(MIP) when at minimum
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
in drift
chamber
gas
Charged particles in matter
(Ionisation and the BetheBloch Formula, variation with particle
type)
• P=mγ v=mγ β c
• variation in dE/dx is
useful for particle ID
• variation is most
pronounced in low
energy falling part of
curve
• if you measured P and
dE/dx you can
determine the particle
mass and thus its
“name”
e
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Charged particles in matter
(Radiating Interactions)
• Emission of scintillation light is secondary
process occurring later in time.
– Has no phase coherence with the incident charge and
is isotropic and thus SCINTILLATION NOT A
RADIATING INTERACTION in this sense.
• Primary radiation processes which are coherent
and not isotropic are:
– Cherenkov radiation is emitted by the medium due
to the passing charged particle.
– Bremsstrahlung and Synchrotron Radiation are
emitted by charged particle itself as result of its
environment.
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Charged particles in matter
(Cherenkov Radiation)
•
Source of Efield (Q) passing through medium at a v > v
phase
(light in medium)
creates conical shock wave. Like sonic boom or bow wave of a planing speed
boat.
• Not possible in vacuum since v<c. Possible in a medium when v>c/n.
– The Cerencov threshold at β = 1/n can be used to measure β and thus do particle
ID if you can measure the momentum as well.
• Huygens secondary wavelet construction gives angle of shockwave as cosθ =
1/β n, This can be used to measure particle direction and β .
Þ
In time that the particle goes from
O to P, light goes from O to A.
Þ
Cherenkov radiation first used
in discovery of antiproton (1954).
Þ
Now often used in large waterfilled
neutrino detectors and for other
particle physics detectors (see
Biller).
Þ
Total energy emitted as Cherenkov
Radiation is ~0.1% of other dE/dx.
θ
ct/n
β ct
O
P
A
particle trajectory
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Charged particles in matter
(Cherenkov Radiation)
•
Picture of
Cherenkov light
emitted by beta
decay electrons in
a working water
cooled nuclear
reactor.
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Charged particles in matter
(Bremsstrahlung = BS = Brakeing Radiation)
• Due to acceleration of incident charged particle in nuclear
Coulomb field
• Radiative correction to Rutherford Scattering.
• Continuum part of xray emission spectra.
• Electrons “Brem” most of all particles because
– radiation ~ (acceleration)
2
~ mass
2
.
• Lorentz transformation of dipole radiation from incident
particle frame to laboratory frame gives “narrow” (not
sharp) cone of blueshifted radiation centred around cone
angle of θ =1/γ .
• Radiation spectrum falls like 1/E (E=photon Energy)
because particles loose many lowE photons and few high
E photons. I.e. It is rare to hit nuclei with small impact
parameter because most of matter is “empty”
• Photon energy limits:
– low energy (large impact parameter) limited through shielding of
nuclear charge by atomic electrons.
– high energy limited by maximum incident particle energy.
Ze
e

e

γ
e
*
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Charged particles in matter
(Bremsstrahlung ¬ EMshowers, Radiation length)
•
dT/dx
Brem
~T (see Williams p.247, similar to our deriv. of BBF and plot on slide 22) ¬
dominates over dT/dx
ionise
~ln(T) at high T.
•
E
crit
= Energy at which BRlosses exceed ionisation losses (see slide 22)
• For electrons Bremsstrahlung dominates in nearly all materials above
few 10 MeV. E
crit
(e

) ≈ 600 MeV/Z
•
If dT/dx
Brem
~T ¬ T(x)=T
0
exp(x/X0)
• Radiation Length X0 of a medium is defined as:
– distance over which electron energy reduced to 1/e via many small BS
losses
– X0 ~Z
2
approximately as it is the charge that particles interact with
• Bremsstrahlung photon can produce e
+
e

pair (see later) and start an
emshower (also called cascade, next slide)
¬ The development of emshowers, whether started by primary e or γ is
measured in X0.
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Charged particles in matter
(simple EMshower model)
•
Simple shower model assumes:
– e≈2
–
E
0
>> E
crit
–
only single Bremγ or pair
production per X0
•
The model predicts:
–
after 1 X0, ½ of E
0
lost by primary
via Bremsstrahlung
– after next X0 both primary and
photon loose ½ E again
– until E of generation drops below
E
crit
–
At this stage remaining Energy lost
via ionisation (for e
+
) or compton
scattering, photoeffect (for γ )
etc.
Þ
Abrupt end of shower happens at t=t
max
= ln(E0/Ecrit)/ln2
Þ
Indeed observe logarithmic dependence of shower depth on E
0
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Charged particles in matter
(Synchroton Radiation)
•
Appears mainly in circular accelerators (mainly to electrons)
and limits max. energy achievable.
• Similar to Bremsstrahlung
• Replace microscopic force from Efield in Bremsstrahlung
with macroscopic force from vxB to keep electron on circular
orbit
• Electrons radiate only to the outside of circle because they
are accelerated inward
•
Angle of maximum intensity of synchrotron radiation with
tangent of ring θ =1/γ
• Synchrotron radiation = very bright source of broad range of
photon energies up to few 10 keV used in many areas of
science
• Many astrophysical objects emit synchrotron radiation from
relativistic electrons in strong magnetic fields
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Photons in matter
(OverviewI)
• Rayleigh scattering
– Coherent, elastic scattering on the entire atom (the blue sky)
– γ + atom ¬ γ + atom
–
dominant at λ
γ
>size of atoms
• Compton scattering
– Incoherent scattering on electron from atom
–
γ + e

bound
¬ γ + e

free
–
possible at all E
γ
> min(E
bind
)
–
to properly call it Compton requires E
γ
>>E
bind
(e

) to approximate free
e

• Photoelectric effect
– absorption of photon and ejection of single atomic electron
–
γ + atom ¬ γ + e

free
+ ion
–
possible for E
γ
< max(E
bind
) + δ E(E
atomicrecoil
, line width) (just above k
edge)
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Photons in matter
(OverviewII)
Þ
Pair production
Þ
absorption of γ in atom and emission of e
+
e

pair
Þ
Two varieties:
Þ
a) dominant: γ + nucleus ¬ e
+
+ e

+
nucleus
recoil
Þ
b) weak: γ + Z*atomic e

¬ e
+
+ e

+ Z *atomic
e

recoil
Þ
Both variants need: Eγ >2m
e
c
2
+ E
recoil
Þ
bigger M
recoil
gives lower threshold because E
recoil
=
P
recoil
2
/2M
recoil
Þ
type a) has lower threshold then type b) because
M
nucl
>>M
e
eff
Þ
Nucleus/atom has to recoil to conserve momentum
¬ coupling to nucleus/atom needed ¬ strongly
chargedependent crossection (i.e. growing with Z)
Þ
type a) has aproximately Z times larger coupling ¬
dominant
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Photons in matter (Crossections)
R ¬ Rayleigh PE ¬ Photoeffect C ¬ Compton PP ¬ Pair Production on nucleus
PPE ¬ Pair Production on atomic electrons PN ¬ Giant PhotoNuclear dipole resonance
Carbon
Lead
Þ
As Z increases
Þ
PE extends to higher E due to stronger atomic e

binding
Þ
PP & PPE extend to lower E due to stronger coupling of projectile to target
Þ
Threshold for PPE decreases as nucleus contributes more to recoil via stronger
atomic electronnucleus bond
Þ
As A increases E
recoil
(nucleus) decreases and threshold for PP gets closer
to minimum of 2*m
e
c
2
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
Photons in matter
(Comparison of Bremsstrahlung and Pair Production)
Þ
Very similar Feynman
Diagram
Þ
Just two arms swapped
Typical Lenth =
Radiation Length
X0
Typical Lenth =
Pair Production
Length L0
L0=9/7 X0
Ze
e

e
*
γ
Bremsstrahlung
e

Ze
e
*
e

γ
Pair production
e

X0 :
distance high E e
travels before it
reduces its energy
by 1/e or
E(e)=E
0
*exp(x/X0)
X0=attenuation
length
L0 :
distance high E γ
travels before
prob. for non
interaction
reduced to 1/e
P(γ )=1/L0*exp(
x/L0)
L0=mean free path
aziz_muhd33@yahoo.co.in
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.