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# Welding

Distortion
Control
What is distortion ?
Before distortion
Undesirable change in
original shape is called
DISTORTION
After distortion
 Distortion occurs due to heat input
and mechanical forces.
Experiment No 1:
DURING HEATED CONDITION

X + 9X

## • Uniform heating of a steel bar through out of its entire volume -

considerable expansion take place in all direction.
• Now, if cooling of the bar is allowed evenly - retain its original
shape and size without distortion.
So, we can say that,
“ Uniform heating and cooling of a
component that can expand and
contract does not cause any
appreciable distortion ”
Experiment No 2 :

CLAMPING CLAMPING
JAWS JAWS

## STEEL BAR BEFORE STEEL BAR AFTER HEATING

HEATING & COOLING DOWN

## • Repeat experiment no:1 but heat the steel bar in

clamp condition and see the changes in shape and size
after cooling.
So, we can conclude that,
• Restraint hinders free expansion
and contraction and causes

Distortion
Heat input

## Gas cutting/heating welding

Distortion in case of spot heating?

HEAT SOURCE

HEATING
 Heated area expands
 Expansion restrained by surrounding solid area
 Compressive stresses are developed
 Further compressive stress leads to plastic
deformation
 Material bulges at the spot towards heat source side
Distortion in case of spot heating?
COOLING

##  Material goes back to original position with plastic

deformation.

 Resulting distortion
Longitudinal distortion
ORIGINAL POSITION

WELD

LONGITUDINAL
AFTER WELDING
DISTORTION
LONGITUDINAL SHRINKAGE
• (A) BUTT WELDS IN CS/LAS

LS = 3. I .L / 100,000 t

## LS = longitudinal shrinkage (mm)

I = welding current(amp)
L = length of weld (mm)
t = plate thickness (mm)
Distortion in Butt welds
Longitudinal Distortion

## In C/S of shell it lead to reduction in diameter at the

weld
EXAMPLE (LS IN BUTT WELDS)
• Calculate LS for 6mm thick CS plate
welded by SMAW using 200 A current.

## • Solution : LS = 3. 200. L / 100,000 x 6

= L/1000 mm
LONGITUDINAL SHRINKAGE
• (B) FILLET WELD

LS = 25 Aw/ Ap
Aw = Weld X-sectional area
Ap = Resisting X-sectional area

Ap
Aw
EXAMPLE OF LS IN FILLET
WELD

All dimensions in mm
75
8x8

6
100

LS = 1.52 mm
Distortion in Butt welds
Transverse Distortion

##  It leads to the development of high residual stress and

also cracking in case of highly restrained joint.

##  It is lesser at that end of plate where bead is started.

Transverse distortion
ORIGINAL POSITION

AFTER WELDING
DISTORTION
TRANSVERSE SHRINKAGE IN
SINGLE PASS BUTT JOINTS
S = 0.2 Aw / t + 0.05 d

Where
S = Transverse Shrinkage (mm)
Aw = Cross sectional Area of Weld (mm2)
t = Thickness of Plates (mm)
d = Root Opening (mm)
TRANSVERSE SHRINKAGE
DURING MULTIPASS WELDING
TS = TS0 + b (log w - log w0)

Where
TS = Total Transverse Shrinkage
TS0 = Transverse Shrinkage after first
pass
w = Total weight of weld metal
w0 = weight of first pass weld metal
Effect of Various Procedures on
Transverse Shrinkage of Butt
Welds
Procedures Effect on TS
Root Gap TS increases with increase in RG
Joint design Single Vee produces more TS than
double V
TS decreases with increase in electrode
Electrode dia.
dia.
TS decreases with Degree of constraint
Degree of constraint
Peening TS decreases by peening
Gouging & repairs TS increases by these operations.
TRANSVERSE SHRINKAGE IN
FILLET JOINTS
1. For T joints with two continuous
fillets.
TS = Leg of fillet Weld (l) x 1.02

## Bottom Plate thickness (tb)

lxl
All dimensions in mm.
tb
TRANSVERSE SHRINKAGE IN
FILLET JOINTS
2. For intermittent fillet welds , a correcting

to

## total length of joint should be used.

TRANSVERSE SHRINKAGE
IN FILLET JOINTS
l
t
t
l
(3) For fillet welds in a lap joints between
plates of equal thickness (two welds)

## Plate thickness (t)

Angular distortion

AFTER WELDING

ORIGINAL POSITION
Distortion in Butt welds
Angular Distortion

## Due to non-uniform heating and cooling along the

thickness of plate.

## dimensional inaccuracy in large welded

structures
Angular Distortion in Butt
Joints
1. Use Both Side Welding Technique in
place of Single Side Welding
t1
g = 3 mm
t t3
t2 t3 = 2 mm

t1 + 1/2 t3
= 0.6
t
Angular Distortion in Fillet Welds

W W
t
t
l

AD = 0.0076 . W . l1.3
t2
Where
W=flange width, mm
l = weld leg length, mm
t = flange thickness, mm RKS,HZW
Example of Angular
Distortion in Fillet Welds
Find the angular distortion in a double fillet
weld of a T-joint between a flange 1000 mm
wide and a vertical member when the
thickness of both the members is 6 mm and
the weld leg length = 8 mm
Solution.
0.0076 x 1000 x
(8)1.3
(6)2
Multiple Restrained Fillet Welds

L
= Ø
L 4 L 2

x = distance from weld to
mm.
the point where distortion is
L = span length, mm.
to be determined, mm.
Ø = angular change, radians RKS,HZW
Restrained Fillet Welds

## In multiple restrained fillet welds the

span length is 1 m and the angular
change is 90 at a distance of 400 mm
from the span end, find the distortion.

Solution.
By putting L = 1000 mm, Ø = 90 = 0.1571
x = L/2 - 400 = 100 mm in the Formula,
Distortion in ‘T’-joints
Angular distortion

## Before welding After welding

Distortion in ‘T’-joints
Longitudinal distortion
(a) pulling effect towards neutral axis

Section A - A A
Distortion in ‘T’-Stiffener
Longitudinal distortion
(b) pulling effect of welds above neutral axis.

Section A - A A
To prevent distortion :-
(A)
Reduce the effective
shrinkage force.
Reduce effective shrinkage force
(A-1) Keep the angle of weld joint to the
barest minimum.
50 deg. +/- 5 deg.

##  MINIMUM ANGLE, LESS WELDING , LESS HEAT INPUT

Hence less distortion
7 mm +3/-1 keep fillet size 18 mm/6 mm

19 mm +3/-1

## keep the angle of weld joint 45 deg.

Reduce effective shrinkage force
(A-4) Minimize no of passes larger size of
electrodes

## MORE NO OF PASSES LESS NO OF PASSES

Reduce effective shrinkage force

## (A-5) Place welds near the neutral axis

N. A.
To prevent distortion :-

(B)
Make shrinkage work
for us
Make shrinkage work for us

WEDGE

## CLAMPS ALONG EDGE

Make shrinkage work for us
(B-2) Keep over dimensions OR over
bend before welding
To prevent distortion :-

(C)
Balance shrinkage
force with other
forces
Balance shrinkage forces
with other forces.

6
2 5
5

(C-1) 4

4 3
Do Sequence welding 3

6 1 1

4
1
2
3
 Balance shrinkage forces
with other forces
(C-2) Back step welding

1 2 3 4

Welding progresion
 Balance shrinkage forces
with other forces

## (C-3) Back to back clamping for welding

PART -I
END PLATES
TACKED

PART -II
Two identical parts should be tacked back to back
together before welding as shown
Back to back welding of saddles

I

Good working
methods for
welding distortion
in our routine work
Bulging of tube sheet of heat
exchanger
TUBE SHEET

## SHELL TUBE SHEET BULGES DURING SHELL

TO TUBE SHEET WELDING
• Welding of shell to tube sheet
• Improper seating of gasket and
leakage
• Non uniform projection of tube
ends from tube sheet face
CONTROLLED BY
• Back to back
• Weld optimum fillet size
Distortion of shell long seams
Typical weld sequence and distortion observed
58T MIN LAS.
1184 mm DIA

D/4

3200
JOINT DETAIL WELD SEQUENCE
600
OUTSIDE 2
SAW
2/
3T T 1 SMAW
3 BACK
1/ GOUGING SAW
3T 3
INSIDE
600 0.2mm GAP
Distortion of shell long seams

LOCATION
STAGE
1 2 3
1 SET-UP STAGE 4+ 2+ 2+
2 AFTER SEAL RUN 6+ 4+ 5+
3 AFTE R O/S WELDING 8+ 6+ 8+
4 AFTER BACK GOUGING 6+ 5+ 5+
5 AFTER I/S WELDING 4+ 2.5 + 4+
Distortion of circumferential seams in shell

## • Caused by longitudinal shrinkage

of weld
• Reduction in diameter around
circumferential seam
• Reduction in shell length
C/S
SUGARCANE
CIRCSEAM EFFECT
JIINT
SHELL
Controlled by

## • Provide compression spiders on

both sides of C/S
• Design weld joint to have minimum
weld metal deposit
• Use restricted heat input
( minimum no. of passes )
Gauge for checking long seam
distortion in plate stage welding
GAUGE

FOR CHECKING

D C B A

## (MAXIMUM DIFFERENCE TO BE CONSIDERED)

Gauge for checking distortion of
‘T’- joint welding

## GAUGE FOR CHECKING

A

PRE-TILT OF T-STIFFENER = A - C
C

SAGGING OF T-STIFFENER = A - B
Distortion in flange to pipe welding
FLANGE WARPS
TEMP. SUPPORTS FLANGE

FLANGE FLANGE

PIPE
AFTER BEFORE
WELDING WELDING
PIPE PIPE

## • Heavy fillet weld on flange to pipe joint leads to warping

of flange
• Causing no machining allowance on flange face thickness
CONTROL : back to back welding
• Temporary set up two flanges back to back as shown
Sinking in of nozzle on shell
Controlling sinking
• Provide rigid internal jacks
/supports with moon plates
/compression spider
• Maintain optimum weld
preparation and fit up to avoid
extra weld deposit
• Keep excess nozzle projection
at set up stage to compensate
for sinking
Distortion During Oxy-acetylene
Cutting
PLATE

STRIP

## STRIP CUTTING FROM PLATE

 The strip tends to bow outwards as shown
 Distortion ( bow ) results due to unequal heating of
the metal
 During cutting when hot, the bow is more on cooling
& the bow diminishes slightly
 Finally the strip never returns to it’s intended shape
Controlling distortion during oxy-
acetylene cutting
PLATE

TORCH I
STRIP

DIRECTION OF MOVEMENT
FOR TORCHES

SCRAP 10 mm TORCH II

METHOD I
Two Torches Technique
• Mark strip of required width leaving 10 mm distance
• Move two torches simultaneously carrying out cutting operation
Controlling distortion during
oxy - acetylene cutting
PLATE
STRIPS

KERF HOLE

Method II
• Mark the strips with kerf allowance on the plate
• Drill small hole in kerf allowance at distance 20 mm away from
the edge
• Start cut from drilled hole in kerf to the end such that the strip
is attached to main plate
• Cut the balance strip attached to the plate
Controlling distortion during
oxy - acetylene cutting
30 mm

12 mm THK
PLATE

R250 mm

30 mm 50 mm
PIERCE
START
Aim : To get undistorted segment from the plate of size as
shown
Specific Steps
• Mark leaving 30mm Dist. from edge
edge
• Follow the path as shown
Reduction in distortion
• Less weld edge preparation.
• Less welding current as per WPS.
• Higher base metal thickness.
• Lesser welding passes
• Do not over weld
• More distortion in stainless steel then
carbon steel.
• Less offset-Lesser welding-Lower
distortion
Reduction in distortion
• Provide intermittent welding
• Place weld near the neutral axis
• Balancing weld around neutral axis
• Back-step welding
• Sequence welding
• Pre bending OR Pre cambering
• Back to back clamping
• Double operator welding technique