Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Oracle PL/SQL Advanced Techniques
Oracle7 thru Oracle8i
Steven Feuerstein
www.StevenFeuerstein.com www.Quest.com www.OReilly.com
and contributions most excellent from Bill Pribyl and Dick Bolz 07/27/08 Copyright
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 1

Objective & Outline
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Objective
– Expand your knowledge and awareness of important and new features of the PL/SQL language.

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Outline
– – – – – – – – Building with Packages (Oracle7+) PL/SQL Collections (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Cursor Variables (Oracle7 and Oracle8+) Dynamic SQL: DBMS_SQL and Native Dynamic SQL (8i) Calling Java from PL/SQL (Oracle8i) and C (Oracle8) Oracle Advanced Queuing with DBMS_AQ (Oracle8) Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB (Oracle8) Other Oracle8i New Features

» Autonomous Transactions (Oracle8i) » Invoker Rights Model (Oracle8i) » Row 07/27/08 Copyright Level Security: DBMS_RLS

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 2

Software Used in Training
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PL/Vision: a library of packages installed on top of PL/SQL.
– PL/Vision Lite - use it, copy, change it for free -- unless you build software to be sold commercially. – Active PL/SQL Knowledge Base: contains PL/Vision Professional, the fully supported and enhanced version.

x

Demonstration scripts executed in the training can be found on the RevealNet PL/SQL Pipeline:
– http://www.revealnet.com/Pipelines/PLSQL/index.htm – Archives surfboard, Miscellaneous, PL/SQL Seminar Files – See filedesc.doc for a listing of many of the files.
plsql_ides.txt

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The PL/SQL IDE (Integrated Development Environment).
– You no longer have to use SQL*Plus and a crude editor! Choose from among the many listed in plsql_ides.txt.

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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Building with PL/SQL Packages
x x x

Overview Initialization section Overloading

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 4

What is a Package?
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A collection of code elements, from procedures and functions to TYPE, variable and cursor declarations.
– Single-most important structure within PL/SQL, and almost certainly one of the most under-utilized. – Conceptually very simple, it can take some time to fully grasp the implications and potential of the package.

x

The method of choice by Oracle and other software developers for extending the PL/SQL language.
– You will find packages in the database, in Oracle Developer/2000, in Oracle Application Server.

x

Let’s review some of the benefits of packages.
tmr.pkg dbparm.pkg

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 5

When to Build a Package
x

Join physically logically-related code.
– Can lead to performance improvements. – Puts more structure and organization in your body of code.

custrules.pkg insga.pkg

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Improve transaction integrity by hiding data structures behind the package interface.
– Instead of writing SQL directly in your programs, you call the packaged procedures and functions instead.
te_employee.pks te_employee.pkb

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Construct very flexible and usable utilities for developers.
– There's a big difference between a bunch of separate programs and a coherent, package-based "component".
watch.pkg

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 6

Package Initialization
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The initialization section is a block of code at the end of the package body that is executed once per session, the first time any package element is referenced.
– The PL/SQL runtime engine determines when and if this code should be run.

Program references package element the first time in each session.

Does the package have an init section?

yes

Run initialization code.

no

Complete request for packaged element.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 7

Package Initialization Structure
x

The initialization section:
– Is defined after and outside of any programs in the package. – Is not required. In fact, most packages you build won't have one. – Can have its own exception handling section.
PACKAGE BODY pkg IS PROCEDURE proc IS BEGIN END; FUNCTION func RETURN BEGIN END; BEGIN END pkg;

x

Useful for:
– Performing complex setting of default or initial values. – Setting up package data which does not change for the duration of a session. – Confirming that package is properly instantiated.
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BEGIN after/outside of any program defined in the pkg.

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Configure Session with Init. Section
x

An unusual package!
– Specification contains only variables. – Body contains only initialization section.

PACKAGE BODY sessinit IS /* No declared package elements at all! */ BEGIN /* Get user preferences for this user. */ SELECT lov_flag, tb_flag, defprinter INTO show_lov, show_toolbar, printer FROM user_config WHERE user_id = USER; EXCEPTION WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN /* No record for show_lov := show_toolbar := printer :=

PACKAGE sessinit IS show_lov CHAR(1); show_toolbar CHAR(1); printer VARCHAR2(60); END sessinit;

x

Also a package with many design flaws...
init.pkg init.tst

this user. */ 'Y'; 'Y'; 'lpt1';

WHEN OTHERS THEN RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR (-20000, 'No profile for ' || USER); END sessinit;
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Populate Collections
x

The PL/Vision Date package, PLVdate, employs several PL/SQL tables to convert strings and to perform date arithmetic.
– This increases the flexibility of the date conversion process. – The datemgr.pkg file demonstrates the basic technique (and the reliance on an initialization section) used to achieve this flexibility.
BEGIN fmts(1) := 'DD-MON-RR'; fmts(2) := 'DD-MON-YYYY'; fmts(3) := 'DD-MON'; fmts(4) := 'MM/DD'; ... fmts(9) := 'MM/DD/YYYY'; fmts(10) := 'MMDDYYYY'; fmts(11) := 'YYYYMMDD'; fmts(12) := 'RRMMDD'; fmt_count := 12; END dt;

Initialization section populates a PL/SQL table.

datemgr.pkg dates.sql

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 10

Program Overloading
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When you overload programs, you give two or more programs the same name.
– You can overload modules in any declaration section and in packages.

myproc myproc myproc

x

Overloading is a critical feature when building comprehensive programmatic interfaces (APIs) or components using packages.
– If you want others to use your code, you need to make that code as smart and as easy to use as possible. – Overloading transfers the "need to know" from the user to the overloaded program.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 11

Overloading in PL/SQL Built-ins
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PL/SQL uses overloading in many common functions.
– You just probably never gave it a thought, and took functions like TO_CHAR and TO_DATE totally for granted. – But Oracle couldn't offer that level of convenience without overloading.
date_string := TO_CHAR (SYSDATE, 'MMDDYY'); number_string := TO_CHAR (10000);

Without overloading, you would have to deal with something like this:
date_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_DATE (SYSDATE, 'MMDDYY'); number_string := TO_CHAR_FROM_NUMBER (10000);
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How Overloading Works
x

For two or more modules to be overloaded, the compiler must be able to distinguish between the two calls at compile-time. There are two different "compile times":
– 1. When you compile the package or block containing the overloaded code. – 2. When you compile programs that use the overloaded code.

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Distinguishing characteristics:
– The formal parameters of overloaded modules must differ in number, order or datatype family (CHAR vs. VARCHAR2 is not different enough). – The programs are of different types: procedure and function.

x

Undistinguishing characteristics:
– Functions differ only in their RETURN datatype. – Arguments differ only in their mode (IN, OUT, IN OUT). – Their formal parameters differ only in datatype and the datatypes are in the same family.
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Examples of Invalid Overloadings
PACKAGE too_similar IS PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN CHAR); PROCEDURE calc (reg_in IN VARCHAR2); END too_many_cals;

Parameter data types cause conflict.

which one?

too_similar.calc ('123');

PACKAGE only_returns IS FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN DATE; FUNCTION func1 (val IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2; END only_returns;

Only difference is function RETURN type.

which one?

DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (only_returns.func1 (v_value));

PACKAGE param_modes IS PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN VARCHAR2); PROCEDURE proc1 (val IN OUT VARCHAR2); END param_modes;

Only difference is parameter mode.

which one?
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param_modes.proc1 (v_value);
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Overload Wherever Possible
x

Supporting Many Data Combinations
– Apply the same action to different kinds or combinations of data. In

this case, the overloading does not provide a single name for different activities, so much as providing different ways of requesting the same activity.
– The DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE procedure illustrates this technique -and the PL/Vision p.l substitute does an even better job.
x

Fitting the Program to the User
– To make your code as useful as possible, you may construct different versions of the “same” program which correspond to different patterns of use.

x

Overloading by Type, not Value
– A less common application of overloading. You use the type of data and not its value to determine which of the overloaded programs should be executed.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 15

A "Classic" Overloaded Package
x

Many different datatype combinations, allowing the user to pass data to the "display engine" without writing "pre-processing" code.
PACKAGE p IS PROCEDURE l (date_in IN DATE, mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := ‘Month DD, YYYY - HH:MI:SS PM'); PROCEDURE l (number_in IN NUMBER); PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2); PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2, number_in IN NUMBER); PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2, date_in IN DATE, mask_in IN VARCHAR2 := 'Month DD, YYYY - HH:MI:SS PM');
p.sps p.spb

PROCEDURE l (boolean_in IN BOOLEAN); PROCEDURE l (char_in IN VARCHAR2, boolean_in IN BOOLEAN); END p;
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Advantage of Extended Overloading
• Minimal overloading means lots of extra coding...
DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('So what is different?'); DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (SYSDATE, 'MM/DD/YY HH:MI:SS')); DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM || ': ' || TO_CHAR (SQLCODE)); IF print_report_fl THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('TRUE'); ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('FALSE'); END IF;
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•Extended overloadings are more likely to meet user needs.
p.l ('So what is different?'); p.l (SYSDATE);

p.l (SQLERRM, SQLCODE);

p.l (print_report_fl);

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Fitting the Program to the User
Writing "unnecessary" code? Time to overload!
x

A single piece of functionality, such as "display data" or "create a file", can be applied or needed under very different circumstances. If you take these different circumstances into account when you design your package specification, the user of your package can benefit from writing less code. – Your code is a a more natural "fit" under a variety of requirements. In my experience, few developers are considerate enough of their users to try to anticipate their needs. – If you want to write software that is admired, appreciated...and taken completely for granted, think about the way it will be used.
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x

x

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Creating a File for a Quick Touch
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Suppose a developer needs to create a file to be used as a "flag" in the operating system. – She doesn't care what's in it. It just needs to be present. – Here is the code required by UTL_FILE:
DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE; BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('tmp/flags', 'exists.flg', 'W'); UTL_FILE.PUT_LINE (fid, 'blah'); UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid); END;

x

In other words, you have to declare the record to hold the file handle, even though you are simply going to close the file immediately after opening it. Of course, sometimes you will want to create a file and then perform additional operations, so this is just the way it has to be, right? WRONG!

x

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 19

Procedure and Function Overloaded
x

Why not overload a "create file" program so that you can pick the one that most closely fits your situation? Consider the PLVfile package of PL/Vision.

x

Overloading of FCreate
PACKAGE PLVfile IS /* Procedure */ PROCEDURE fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2, line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL); /* Function */ FUNCTION fcreate (file_in IN VARCHAR2, line_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE; END PLVfile;
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Use as Function
DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE; BEGIN fid := PLVfile.fcreate ('temp.ini', v_user); PLVfile.put_line (fid, TO_CHAR (SYSDATE));

Use as Procedure
BEGIN PLVfile.fcreate ('exists.flg'); END;
custrules.pkg

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"By-Type" Overloading
x

In some situations, the user does not need to pass data, but the type of data.
– For example, when you use DBMS_SQL to set up a dynamic query, you must call the DEFINE_COLUMN procedure to define the datatype of the Nth column in the cursor.

x

There are three ways to accomplish this:
– Don't overload. Define a different program name for each datatype. – Pass a string “name” of the datatype. – Pass a piece of data of the right type.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 21

Options for Specifying Column Type
x

Don't even bother overloading...

BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_INTEGER_COLUMN (cur, 1); DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_VARCHAR2_COLUMN (cur, 2, 30);
x

So many program names to remember!

Pass a literal value...

BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur, 1, 'NUMBER'); DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur, 2, 'STRING', 30);
x

Nasty hard-coding...

Pass a named constant...

Lotsa typing, lotsa names...

BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur, 1, DBMS_SQL.NUMBER_TYPE); DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur, 2, DBMS_SQL.VARCHAR2_TYPE, 30);
x

Now let's look at two examples of overloading by datatype...
– DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN – PLVgen.func

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 22

Defining Dynamic SQL Columns
x

The DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN procedure defines the datatype of a column.
– To make it easier to accomplish this task, you only need to pass a value -- any value -- of the correct type. – The three code blocks below are equivalent, from the perspective of DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN.

BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur, 1, 1); DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur, 2, 'a', 30); BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur, 1, DBMS_UTILITY.GET_TIME); DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur, 2, USER, 30); BEGIN DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur, 1, v_empno); DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur, 2, v_ename, 30);
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Generating Functions by Value
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In PLVgen, the user indicates the type of function to be generated by providing a value. – The particular value itself is of no importance. Any number, any date, any string, any Boolean will do.
PACKAGE PLVgen IS PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2, type_in IN VARCHAR2); PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2, type_in IN NUMBER); PROCEDURE func (name_in IN VARCHAR2, type_in IN DATE); SQL> exec plvgen.func ('last_date', SYSDATE) SQL> exec plvgen.func ('total_salary', 1) A date function, please!

A number function, please!

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 24

The Frustrations of Overloading
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Watch out! An overloading can compile successfully, but you might later found out that you cannot actually call any of the overloaded programs.
PACKAGE profits IS PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN NUMBER); PROCEDURE calc (comp_id_IN IN company.comp_id%TYPE); END;

x

In the above example, I rely on an anchored type (%TYPE) to establish the datatype of the second calc’s parameter.
– When I compile profits, PL/SQL does not sense a conflict with above overloading even though comp_id is a numeric column.

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Quiz! Nuances of Overloading
PACKAGE sales IS PROCEDURE calc_total (zone_in IN VARCHAR2); PROCEDURE calc_total (reg_in IN VARCHAR2); END sales;

x

Can I overload two programs which have parameters that differ only by name, like calc_totals shown above?
– If not, why not? – If so, how would you do it? (Don't peek at the next page!)
BEGIN sales.calc_total ('NORTHWEST'); sales.calc_total ('ZONE2'); END;

sales.pkg

?

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 26

Using Named Notation
<formal parameter name> => <expression>

x

Explicit association between the formal parameter (the "name") with the actual parameter (the "value"). Advantages of named notation include:
– Code is more "self-documenting". This is especially useful when working with infrequently used built-in programs. – You can skip over (not specify values for) any IN parameters that have default values. That way you don't have to know and pass default values.
DBMS_JOB.submit ( job => v_jobno, what => 'DBMS_DDL.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE'',''LOAD1'',''TENK''' || ',''ESTIMATE'',null,estimate_percent=>50);', next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1), interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)');
namednot.sql

x

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 27

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

PL/SQL Collections
x x

Collections are single-dimensioned lists of information. Three types of collections:
– Index-by tables (Oracle7 only, originally called PL/SQL tables) – Nested tables (Oracle8 and above) – Variable arrays (VARRAYs, Oracle8 and above)

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 28

When to Use Collections
x

Maintain any kind of list of related information for use in your programs.

x

Emulate bi-directional cursors, which are otherwise not supported in PL/SQL Cache data in session-level memory for faster access. Build hash tables (custom indexing structures). Improve query performance by avoiding joins. Avoid mutating table errors in database triggers.
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x x x x

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Index-By Tables
TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER;
DECLARE TYPE inmem_emp_t IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER; emp_copy inmem_emp_t;

x

Characteristics of an index-by table:
– Unbounded
» Practically speaking. Valid row numbers range: -2,147,483,647 to 2,147,483,647 » You will not actually create tables this large. Instead, this broad range allows you to employ the row number as an intelligent key.

– Sparse
» Data does not have to be stored in consecutive rows of information.

– Homogeneous
» Data in each row has the same structure.
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– Available only in PL/SQL
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Index_by Tables
TYPE declaration

PACKAGE BODY family IS TYPE child_list_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30) INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER; children child_list_type;
children ‘Barbara Anne’ ‘Gary Richard’ ‘Adam Russell’ ‘Lisa Nadezhka’
datemgr.pkg

Variable declaration

children 6306 6412 6904 ‘Barbara Anne’ ‘Gary Richard’ ‘Lisa Marie’

children (6810) := ‘Adam Russell; children (6904) := 'Lisa Nadezhka'; 6306 6412 6810 6904

Component Selection
kid := children (4);

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Error: NO_DATA_FOUND

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Nested Tables
[CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS TABLE OF <datatype> [NOT NULL];
DECLARE TYPE when_t IS TABLE OF DATE; birthdays when_t;

x

Nested table characteristics
– Homogeneous
» Each row contains the same structure of data.

– Unbounded, but only with explicit EXTEND requests
» Practically speaking. Valid row numbers range: 1 to 2,147,483,647

– Initially dense, but can become sparse if you DELETE inner rows – Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table) – The order of elements is not preserved in the database
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Nested Tables
CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_table_type IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (30); CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30), kids child_table_type) NESTED TABLE kids STORE AS kids_ntab;

For ORACLE's use only
db_family surname kids BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

ntdemo.sql

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 33

Variable Arrays
[CREATE OR REPLACE] TYPE <table_type> IS VARRAY (N) OF <datatype> [NOT NULL];
DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER; salaries numbers_t;

x

Characteristics of variable arrays:
– Homogeneous
» Each row contains the same structure of data.

– Bounded
» Upper limit established when the TYPE is defined. Maximum value: 2,147,483,647

– Dense
» Never any gaps between defined rows, can be EXTENDed or TRIMmed.

– Available both in PL/SQL and SQL (as a column in a table)
» And the order of elements are preserved in the database.
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– Variable arrays are actually stored in the DB table
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Variable Arrays
CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE child_va_type IS VARRAY (8) OF VARCHAR2 (30); CREATE TABLE db_family (surname VARCHAR2 (30), kids child_va_type);

db_family
surname kids BOLZ BOND 1 Barbara Anne 2 Gary Richard 3 Lisa Marie 1 Eric Thomas 2 Max Richard
vademo.sql

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 35

Defining Collections
x

First, you define the TYPE of the collection.
– For index-by tables, this can only occur in a PL/SQL declaration section. Best option: package specification. – For nested tables and VARRAYs, you can define the TYPE in the database with a CREATE statement, or in a PL/SQL declaration section.

x

Then you declare an instance of that type, a collection, from the TYPE.
– You can declare multiple collections from that TYPE.
CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE tabtypes IS TYPE integer_ibt IS TABLE OF INTEGER INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER; TYPE integer_nt IS TABLE OF INTEGER; TYPE integer_vat IS VARRAY(10) OF INTEGER; ... END tabtypes;

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Obtaining Collection Information
SELECT FROM WHERE AND AND AND A.attr_name || ' - ' || A.attr_type_name Attributes all_coll_types T, all_type_attrs A T.owner = USER T.owner = A.owner T.type_name IN ('NAMES_VT', 'TMRS_VT') T.elem_type_name = A.type_name;

x

ALL_COLL_TYPES
– The types you have created (or have access to) in the database

x

ALL_TYPE_ATTRS
– Attributes of the data type used in the TYPE definition. – The code used to define the collection TYPE

x

There is no information in the data dictionary available for index-by tables.

colldd.sql

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 37

Initializing Collections
x

Before you can use a collection, it must be initialized.
– Index-by tables are initialized automatically, empty when declared. – Nested tables and VARRAYs are atomically null. You must initialize them explicitly with a constructor.
DECLARE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER; salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100, 200, 300); BEGIN CREATE TYPE numbers_t IS VARRAY (10) OF NUMBER; / DECLARE -- Initialize the collection. salaries numbers_t := numbers_t (100, 200, 300); BEGIN CREATE TABLE employee_denorm ( employee_id INTEGER, salary_history numbers_t);

TYPE defined in PL/SQL

TYPE defined in the database

Collection used in a table
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Collections of Composites
x

Starting with Oracle 7.3, the “homogeneous” contents of an index-by table's row can be a record .
– Can easily create an index-by table with the same structure as a database table by declaring a record with %ROWTYPE.

x

Starting with Oracle8, the datatype for any of the collection types can also be an object.
– But you cannot have nested composite datatypes.
DECLARE TYPE comp_rectype IS RECORD (comp_id company.company_id%TYPE, total_rev NUMBER); TYPE comp_tabtype IS TABLE OF comp_rectype INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER; comp_tab comp_tabtype; BEGIN comp_tab(1).comp_id := 1005;

Here we have a three step process. Again, consider putting TYPEs in database or packages.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 39

Sparse is Nice
x

The sparse characteristic of index-by tables and nested tables can be put to good use.
– In an index-by table, a row exists in the table only when a value is assigned to that row. In this way, it is very similar to a database table.

x

Rows do not have to be defined sequentially.
– You should not fill sequentially, unless the order in which items are selected is of importance. – Instead, consider using the row value as "smart data" for your application (primary key, order by date, etc.).

x

Especially handy when caching data from relational tables in user memory.
– In almost every case, your collections will contain a row's worth of information.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 40

Transferring DB Table to Collection
CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE psemp IS TYPE emp_tabtype IS TABLE OF emp%ROWTYPE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER; emp_tab emp_tabtype; END; CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY psemp IS BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM emp) LOOP emp_tab (rec.empno) := rec; END LOOP; END; Initialization section of package
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x

This package moves the entire contents of the emp table into its corresponding collection. Some questions:
– Why would I put this collection table in a package? – When is the collection loaded with the data? – What rows in that collection are utilized?
psemp.pkg psemp.tst

x

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Collection Gotchas
CREATE TYPE names_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(30); / DECLARE greedy_ceos names_t := names_t (); BEGIN greedy_ceos(1) := 'Hamilton, Jordan'; END; / Error -6533! You've got to EXTEND first!

x

EXTEND before assigning a value to a row.
– Not necessary for index-by tables, but you must do it for VARRAYs and nested tables.

x

For index-by tables, you must reference existing rows or a NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised.
– Use the EXISTS method to determine if a row existed. – For VARRAYs and nested tables, once extended, the row exists, even if you haven't assigned a value explicitly.
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Handling Collection Gotchas
BEGIN -- Extend by 10 since I know I will need that many. -- Set the value of each new row to the contents of the first row. salaries.EXTEND (10, salaries(salaries.FIRST));

x

You can EXTEND one or more rows.
– Assign a default value with a second, optional argument. – Pre-extending a large number of rows in advance can improve performance.

preextend.tst

x

Include a handler for NO_DATA_FOUND or use the EXISTS method to avoid these exceptions.
BEGIN IF salaries.EXISTS (v_employee_id) THEN -- We are OK. ELSE DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('Data for employee not available.'); END IF;

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 43

Collection Methods
x

Obtain information about the collection
– – – – COUNT returns number of rows currently defined in the table. EXISTS returns TRUE if the specified row is defined. FIRST/LAST return lowest/highest numbers of defined rows. NEXT/PRIOR return the closest defined row after/before the specified row. – LIMIT tells you the max. number of elements allowed in a VARRAY.

x

Modify the contents of the collection
– DELETE deletes one or more rows from the index-by table. – EXTEND adds rows to a nested table or VARRAY. – TRIM removes rows from a VARRAY.

x

The built-in package plitblm (PL/sql Index-TaBLe Methods) defines these methods.
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The DELETE Method
x

You can delete one or more rows from a collection using DELETE:
BEGIN -- Delete all rows myCollection.DELETE; -- Delete one (the last) row myCollection.DELETE (myCollection.LAST); -- Delete a range of rows myCollection.DELETE (1400, 17255); END;

DELETE releases memory, but you may also want to call DBMS_SESSION.FREE_UNUSED_USER_MEMORY.
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 45

Navigating Through Collections
x x

Use FIRST and NEXT to move from beginning to end. Use LAST and PRIOR to move from end to beginning.
rowind PLS_INTEGER := birthdays.FIRST; -- birthdays.LAST BEGIN LOOP EXIT WHEN rowind IS NULL; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (birthdays(rowind).best_present); rowind := birthdays.NEXT (rowind); -- birthdays.PRIOR END LOOP; END;

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 46

Using Collections Inside SQL
x

Nested tables and VARRAYs can be defined as columns of a table and referenced directly within SQL. You can also apply SQL operations to the contents of nested tables and VARRAYs with these operators:
– THE - Maps a single column value in a single row to a virtual database table – CAST - Maps a collection of one type to a collection of another type – MULTISET - Maps a database table to a collection – TABLE - Maps a collection to a database table

x

x

Index-by tables are programmatic constructs only.
– You cannot make a direct reference to an index-by table in SQL. – Instead, so do indirectly with a PL/SQL function.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 47

Using Collections inside SQL
SELECT column_value FROM TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE surname = 'BOLZ'); db_family surname children BOLZ BOND Eric Thomas Max Richard UPDATE TABLE (SELECT children FROM db_family WHERE SURNAME = 'BOLZ) SET column_value = 'Lisa Nadezhka' WHERE column_value = 'Lisa Marie'); db_family surname children BOLZ
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Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

column_value Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Marie

Barbara Anne Gary Richard Lisa Nadezhka
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 48

...

Using the THE Operator
x

Use THE to manipulate (retrieve, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) contents of a nested table in a database table.
– Can only use with nested tables, not VARRAYs or index-by tables. – Only accessible from within SQL statements in PL/SQL.
CREATE TYPE action_list_t IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2(100); / CREATE TABLE inflation_beater ( focus_area VARCHAR2(100), activities action_list_t) NESTED TABLE activities STORE AS activities_tab; SELECT VALUE (act) FROM THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') act; UPDATE THE (SELECT activities FROM inflation_beater WHERE focus_area = 'FORTUNE 100') SET COLUMN_VALUE = 'DISBAND OSHA' WHERE COLUMN_VALUE = 'SIDESTEP OSHA';

the.sql

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 49

Using the TABLE and CAST Operators
x

Use CAST to convert a collection from one type to another, TABLE to convert a TYPE into a database table.
– Cannot use with index-by tables. – Useful when you would like to apply SQL operations against a PL/SQL collection (ie, one not stored in a database table).
DECLARE nyc_devolution cutbacks_for_taxcuts := cutbacks_for_taxcuts ('Stop rat extermination programs', 'Fire building inspectors', 'Close public hospitals'); BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'How to Make the NYC Rich Much, Much Richer:'); FOR rec IN (SELECT COLUMN_VALUE ohmy FROM TABLE (CAST (nyc_devolution AS cutbacks_for_taxcuts))) LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (rec.ohmy); END LOOP; cast.sql END;

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 50

Using the MULTISET Operator
x

MULTISET is the inverse of TABLE, converting a set of data (table, view, query) into a VARRAY or nested table.
– Cannot use with index-by tables. – You can use MULTISET to emulate or transform relational joins into collections, with potential client-server performance impact.
DECLARE CURSOR bird_curs IS SELECT b.genus, b.species, CAST(MULTISET(SELECT bh.country FROM bird_habitats bh WHERE bh.genus = b.genus AND bh.species = b.species) AS country_tab_t) FROM birds b; Retrieves all detail bird_row bird_curs%ROWTYPE; information for the BEGIN master in one trip. OPEN bird_curs; FETCH bird_curs into bird_row; END; multiset.sql

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 51

Referencing IB Tables inside SQL
x

You can't directly reference an index-by table's contents inside SQL. Instead, call functions that retrieve the table's data, but hide the index-by table structure.
Make accessible in SQL for Oracle8 and below.

x

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE ibtab IS FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE; PRAGMA RESTRICT_REFERENCES (rowval, WNPS, WNDS); END; CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY ibtab IS TYPE date_tab IS TABLE OF DATE INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER; hiredates date_tab; FUNCTION rowval (indx IN PLS_INTEGER) RETURN DATE IS BEGIN RETURN hiredates (indx); END; END;
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ibtab_in_sql.sql

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 52

Examples of Collections in Action
x

Emulation of bi-directional cursor operations Avoid mutating table problems in database triggers.

x

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 53

Bi-Directional Cursor Emulation
x

Oracle does not yet support the ability to move back and forth (and at random) through a cursor's result set.
– A talked-about feature for Oracle9i -- nope, didn't make it!

x

Instead, deposit your data in a collection and then provide programs to access that data in the necessary fashion. This is particularly useful (read: efficient) when you need to perform multiple passes against the data.
CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE bidir IS /* Iterate through rows in the result set */ PROCEDURE setRow (nth IN PLS_INTEGER); FUNCTION getRow RETURN employee_plus%ROWTYPE; PROCEDURE nextRow; PROCEDURE prevRow; END; Notice that the collection itself is hidden.

x

bidir.pkg bidir.tst

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 54

The Mutating Table Problem
x

Database triggers can be attached to the SQL statement and/or the individual row operations on a table.
Statement Level

UPDATE emp SET sal = 1000
UPDATE row 1

Row Level x

UPDATE row N

Row level triggers cannot query from or change the contents of the table to which it is attached; it is "mutating". So what are you supposed to do when a row-level operation needs to "touch" that table? mutating.sql

x

Note: in Oracle8i, you can use autonomous transactions to relax restrictions associated with queries.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 55

A Solution Based on Index-by Tables
x

Since you cannot perform the processing desired in the row-level trigger, you need to defer the action until you get to the statement level. If you are going to defer the work, you have to remember what you needed to do.
– an index-by table is an ideal repository for this reminder list.
1st row trigger fires Nth row trigger fires
Writes to list Writes to list Work List (PL/SQL Table)

x

Process data in the list.

Statement Trigger
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 56

An Example: Ranking Salespeople
x

A table holds the rankings based on the amount of annual sales of salespeople within a department.
– As the sales amount is updated in this table, the rankings must also change to show the new standings for that department only.
Department ID Salesperson ID Sales Amount Rank

1055 1055 1055 1047 x

64333 65709 65706 70904

74055.88 144533.91 109000.25 65011.25

3 1 2 6

"Deferred work" is not only necessary, but preferable.
– By storing the salesperson’s department ids as they change, we then know which departments to re-rank. – We might update more than one department within a statement so we must be able to retain multiple department numbers.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 57

Trigger Logic Required
Row Level Trigger
CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Rtrg AFTER insert OR update OF sales_amt ON rank_sales FOR EACH ROW WHEN (OLD.sales_amt != NEW.sales_amt) BEGIN rank.add_dept (:new.dept_id); END; Doesn't fire unless the sales_amt is actually changed.

Statement Level Trigger
CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER Rank_Sales_Strg AFTER INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON rank_sales BEGIN rank.rank_depts; END;
ranking.pkg

All details of the ranking are hidden in the package body.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 58

The Ranking Package
PACKAGE rank IS PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER); PROCEDURE rank_depts; END rank; PACKAGE BODY rank IS in_process BOOLEAN := FALSE; Table holds indicator that department needs re-ranking.

TYPE dept_tabtype IS TABLE OF BOOLEAN INDEX BY BINARY_INTEGER; dept_tab dept_tabtype; PROCEDURE add_dept (dept_id_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN dept_tab (dept_id_in) := TRUE; END IF; END add_dept
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Create row to indicate department to be ranked.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 59

The Ranking Package, Continued
PROCEDURE rank_depts IS v_deptid PLS_INTEGER := dept_tab.FIRST; BEGIN IF NOT in_process THEN in_process := TRUE; LOOP EXIT WHEN v_deptid IS NULL; perform_ranking (v_deptid); v_deptid := dept_tab.NEXT (v_deptid); END LOOP; END IF; in_process := FALSE; dept_tab.DELETE; END rank_dept; END rank;
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Avoid recursive execution of logic

Row number is department number.

Clean up for next time.
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 60

Which Collection Type Should I Use?
x

Index-by tables
– Need to use in both Oracle7 and Oracle8 applications – Want to take advantage of sparse nature for "intelligent keys".

x

Nested tables
– You want to store large amounts of persistent data in a column. – You want to use inside SQL.

x

VARRAYs
– – – – You want to preserve the order in which elements are stored. Set of data is relatively small (avoid row chaining). You want to use inside SQL. You don't want to have to worry about sparseness.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 61

Tips for Using Collections
x

Wrap access to your collections.
– In many cases, you will want to avoid direct access to (assigning and retrieving) rows in your collections. – This will give you the flexibility to change your implementation. – You can also hide complex rules for setting the row number.

x

Get creative!
– Don't always fill and use the index-by table sequentially. – If you can somehow translate your application data to an integer, it can be used as a row number, and therefore offers indexed access. – Julian date formats and DBMS_UTILITY.GET_HASH_VALUE offer two different methods.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 62

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Cursor Variables

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 63

Architecture of Cursor Variables
With Hard-Coded Cursors
Hard-Coded Cursor

With Cursor Variables
Cursor Variable

PGA

Cursor Variable

Result Set

Shared Global Area

Cursor Object

Result Set

x

A cursor variable points to an underlying cursor object in the database.
– The cursor object in turns points to (and keeps its place in) a result set.

x

The cursor variable can be passed between programs (even between, say, a Java servlet and a PL/SQL stored procedure).
– Static SQL only -- until Oracle8i.
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 64

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Benefits of Cursor Variables
x

Share cursor management between programs, even across the client-server divide.
– You don't have to pass the result sets of a cursor in order to allow the client-side program to have direct access to the data in the result set. – Oracle Developer 2.1 utilizes cursor variables when you choose to construct a "base table block" around stored procedures instead of a database table.

x

Share the same code across multiple, different queries.
– Since the cursor name is no longer hard-coded, you can use a single block of code (say, a reporting program) against different queries. – We will try out this technique at the end of the section.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 65

Cursor Variable Example
DECLARE TYPE company_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE; company_curvar company_curtype; company_rec company_curvar%ROWTYPE; BEGIN OPEN company_curvar FOR SELECT * FROM company;
Declare a variable cursor TYPE.

Declare cursor variable based on that type. Declare a record from cursor variable. OPEN cursor variable, specifying the query. FETCH from the cursor variable. Close the cursor variable.

FETCH company_curvar INTO company_rec; CLOSE company_curvar; END;

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 66

Explicit Cursors and Cursor Variables
x

Both hard-coded cursors and cursor variables work with static SQL.
– The SQL is fixed at compile-time. – The difference is that with cursor variables, you get to decide which static query is opened.

x

Many cursor operations are the same:
– Close a variable cursor with the same syntax as that for static cursors. – Use cursor attributes (%ISOPEN, %FOUND, %NOTFOUND, %ROWCOUNT) with cursor variables (as of Release 2.3). – Fetch data from the cursor result set through a cursor variable with the same syntax as that of static cursors.

x

Let’s focus on the new and different capabilities of cursor variables.
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 67

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Declaring Cursor Types and Variables
x

Cursors are declared in two steps, just like programmerdefined records and PL/SQL tables.
– 1. Define a cursor TYPE -- either "weak" or "strong". – 2. Define a cursor variable.
DECLARE TYPE weak_curtype IS REF CURSOR; TYPE comp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN company%ROWTYPE; curcmp_new comp_curtype; cur_any weak_curtype; BEGIN
Declare cursor variables from the TYPEs. Declare a STRONG referenced cursor TYPE. Declare a WEAK referenced cursor TYPE.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 68

Strong vs. Weak Cursor Types
x

A strong (or constrained) cursor type has a defined return data specification.
– Can only reference cursor objects which return the same data specification, which can be any single SQL datatype or any previously defined record structure. – Datatype mismatches are identified at compile time.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR [ RETURN return_type ]; TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE; /* Strong */

x

The weak (or unconstrained) cursor type does not have a RETURN clause.
– It can reference any cursor object, be opened FOR any query. – Datatype mismatches can only be identified at runtime.

TYPE cur_typ_name IS REF CURSOR; /* Weak */
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 69

Opening with the Cursor Variable
OPEN cursor_name FOR select_statement;

x

When you open a cursor variable (whether of the weak or strong variety), you must provide the SQL query that identifies the result set.
– If the variable has not yet been assigned to cursor object, the OPEN FOR statement implicitly creates an object for the variable. – If the variable is already pointing to a cursor object, the OPEN FOR reuses the existing object and attaches the new query to that cursor object.

x

Remember, the cursor object is nothing more than a memory location.
– It is maintained independently of the query itself.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 70

Opening with Strong Cursor Types
DECLARE TYPE emp_curtype IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE; emp_curvar emp_curtype; Match Needed

BEGIN OPEN emp_curvar FOR SELECT * from emp; ... END;

x

STRONG cursor data specifications must match or be compatible with the structure of the SELECT statement.
– You can establish the return type based on a database table, a cursor or a programmer-defined record.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 71

Opening with Weak Cursor Types
PACKAGE pkg IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR; END; REF TYPE placed in package so that it is "globally" available.

FUNCTION open_emp_or_dept (get_type_in IN VARCHAR2) RETURN pkg.cv_type IS retval pkg.cv_type; BEGIN IF get_type_in = ‘EMP’ THEN Either query will "do". OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM emp; Verification will take ELSIF get_type_in = ‘DEPT’ place at the FETCH. THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT * FROM dept; END IF; RETURN retval; END;
x

A weak cursor TYPE doesn't define the RETURN structure; you can associate any SELECT statement with a weak cursor variable.
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 72

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Fetching from the Cursor Variable
FETCH cursor_var_name INTO record_name; FETCH cursor_var_name INTO var_name, var_name, ...;

x

Fetching with cursor variables follows the same rules as those with static cursors. The INTO structure must match in number and datatype to:
– FOR STRONG cursor types, it match the cursor type data specification. – FOR WEAK cursor types, it match the OPEN FOR statement structure.

x

x

Compatibility checks are performed prior to fetching row.
– The ROWTYPE_MISMATCH exception is raised on failure. – Fetching can continue with a different INTO clause.
mismatch.sql

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 73

When to Use Cursor Variables
x

Make it easier for calling programs (especially non-PL/SQL programs) to manipulate result sets.
– JDBC recognizes cursor variables.

x

Define a base table block in Forms Builder (formerly Oracle Forms) on stored procedures rather than a table directly. Use a single block of code to manipulate multiple queries.
– With explicit cursors, you have to repeat the code for each cursor, since cursor names are "hard coded". – You could use dynamic SQL to achieve this effect, but static cursors are more efficient than dynamic SQL and cursor variables are less complicated than DBMS_SQL.
hccursor.sql

x

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 74

Consolidating Different Cursors
x

The following package specification hides the SQL behind a single open function.
– It also creates the data structures you will need to call the function.

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE allcurs IS bydept CONSTANT INTEGER := 1; bysal CONSTANT INTEGER := 2; TYPE int_rt IS RECORD (key INTEGER); TYPE cv_t IS REF CURSOR RETURN int_rt; FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t; END; /
allcurrs.pkg allcurs.tst explcv.sql

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 75

Consolidating Different Cursors
x

The open function simply opens FOR a different SELECT based on the criteria passed to it.
CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY allcurs IS FUNCTION open (type_in IN INTEGER) RETURN cv_t IS retval cv_t; BEGIN IF type_in = bydept THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY deptno; ELSIF type_in = bysal THEN OPEN retval FOR SELECT empno FROM emp ORDER BY SAL; END IF; RETURN retval; END; END; /
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 76

Hiding SQL Variations in Resulting Code
x

The following block demonstrates that you can alter which SQL statement to query -- in this case, change the ORDER BY clause -without having to change the code you write.

DECLARE cv allcurs.cv_t; v_empno emp.empno%TYPE; BEGIN cv := allcurs.open (&1); LOOP FETCH cv INTO v_empno; EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND; p.l (v_empno); END LOOP; CLOSE cv; END; /
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 77

"Report processor" is independent of the particular SELECT

Cursor Variables
Let's summarize
x

Flexibility
– Choose which static SQL statement is executed at run-time.

x

Strong and Weak Types
– Create REF CURSORs for specific queries, or a more general, unconstrained type.

x

Hide Variations in Underlying SQL
– You no longer have to repeat the same code for different cursors.

x

Improve Client-Side Access to Data
– At least in Oracle Developer 2.1, you can build screens that access data using a cursor variable-based procedural API.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 78

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Dynamic SQL
x

Dynamic SQL and dynamic PL/SQL:
– The DBMS_SQL package – Native dynamic SQL in Oracle8i

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 79

Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL Execution
x

"Dynamic SQL" mean that you construct the SQL statement or PL/SQL block at runtime and then execute it.
– Available in PL/SQL since Release 2.1 and DBMS_SQL. – Also supported with "native dynamic SQL" in Oracle8i.

What can you do with Dynamic SQL?
x

Build ad-hoc query and update applications.
– Very common requirement on the Web.

x

Execute DDL inside PL/SQL programs.
– Construct powerful DBA utilities; you no longer have to write SQL to generate SQL to get your job done.

x

Execute dynamically-constructed PL/SQL programs.
– One example: implement indirect referencing in PL/SQL.
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 80

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Four Methods of Dynamic SQL
x x

Method 1: non-queries without host variables, executed a single time. Method 2: non-queries with a fixed number of host variables, execute one or more times. Method 3: queries with a fixed number of items in the SELECT list and a fixed number of host variables. Method 4: queries with a variable number of items in the SELECT list and/or non-queries with a variable number of host variables. These methods are in increasing order of complexity. If you can recognize the types, you can more quickly figure out how to code your solution.
– Different methods require the use of different programs in DBMS_SQL. – NDS does not support method 4.

x

x

x

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 81

Native Dynamic SQL
x

Prior to Oracle8i, you would use the DBMS_SQL built-in package to execute dynamic SQL.
– But this package is very complex, difficult to use, and relatively slow (performance did improve significantly as of Oracle8).

x

The new "native dynamic SQL" or NDS of Oracle8i offers two native statements in the PL/SQL language to implement most of your dynamic SQL requirements:
– EXECUTE IMMEDIATE <sql string>, used for DDL, DML and single row fetches. – OPEN FOR <sql string>, used for multi-row queries.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 82

EXECUTE IMMEDIATE
EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql-string [INTO {define_variable[, define_variables]... | record }] [USING {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument [, {IN | OUT | IN OUT] bind argument]...];

x

Use this statement to execute any dynamic SQL statement (including a PL/SQL block) except for multi-row queries. The INTO clause allows you to pass values from the select list of a single row query into local variables, including objects, collections and records. The USING clause allows you to specify bind arguments or variables to be passed into the SQL string before execution.
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 83

x

x

COUNT(*) For Any Table
x

Here's a handy and simple utility based on NDS:

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION tabCount ( tab IN VARCHAR2, whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL, sch IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) RETURN INTEGER IS Specify schema, table and retval INTEGER; WHERE clause... BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'SELECT COUNT(*) FROM ' || NVL (sch, USER) || '.' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr, '1=1') INTO retval; RETURN retval; END; IF tabCount ('citizens', 'insured = ''NO''') > 40,000,000 THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'Not the best health care system in the world... and not much of a democracy either!'); END IF;
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tabcount81.sf compare with: tabcount.sf

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 84

Other Execute Immediate Examples
x

Perform an update...
Pass in bind variables with USING clause.

CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( tab_in IN VARCHAR2, col_in IN VARCHAR2, start_in IN DATE, end_in IN DATE, val_in IN NUMBER) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'UPDATE ' || tab_in || ' SET ' || col_in || ' = :val WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate' USING val_in, start_in, end_in; END;

x

Execute a stored procedure...

PROCEDURE runprog (pkg_in IN VARCHAR2, name_in IN VARCHAR2) IS v_str VARCHAR2 (100); BEGIN v_str := 'BEGIN ' || pkg_in || '.' || name_in || '; END;'; EXECUTE IMMEDIATE v_str; EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN pl ('Compile Error "' || SQLERRM || '" on: ' || v_str); END; 07/27/08 Copyright
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 85

Using Objects and Collections in NDS
x

One of the key advantages to NDS over DBMS_SQL is that it works with Oracle8 datatypes, including objects and collections.
– No special syntax needed... – In the following example, the USING clause allows me to pass an object and nested table to an INSERT statement with a variable table name.

PROCEDURE add_profit_source ( hosp_name IN VARCHAR2, pers IN Person, cond IN preexisting_conditions) IS BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'INSERT INTO ' || tabname (hosp_name) || ' VALUES (:revenue_generator, :revenue_inhibitors)' USING pers, cond; END;
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health$.pkg

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 86

Multiple Row Queries and NDS
x

Oracle extends the cursor variable feature of Oracle7 to support multi-row dynamic queries.
– Here is a simple utility the displays the values of any date, number or string column in any table.

CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showcol ( tab IN VARCHAR2, col IN VARCHAR2, whr IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS TYPE cv_type IS REF CURSOR; cv cv_type; val VARCHAR2(32767); BEGIN OPEN cv FOR 'SELECT ' || col || ' FROM ' || tab || ' WHERE ' || NVL (whr, '1 = 1'); LOOP Familiar cursor FETCH cv INTO val; variable syntax! EXIT WHEN cv%NOTFOUND; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (val); END LOOP; CLOSE cv; showcol.sp END; ndsutil.pkg 07/27/08 Copyright

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 87

Some Fine Print for NDS
x

You cannot pass schema elements (table names, column names, etc.) through the USING clause. You cannot pass the NULL literal directly in the USING clause. Instead, pass a variable with a NULL value. The USING clause for a query can only have IN bind arguments. You can have duplicate placeholders (for bind arguments).
– If dynamic SQL, then you provide a value for each placeholder (by position). – If dynamic PL/SQL, provide a value for each distinct placeholder (by name).
str2list.pkg

x

x

x

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 88

Dynamic SQL using DBMS_SQL
x

Prior to Oracle8i, the only way to perform dynamic SQL was with the DBMS_SQL package. DBMS_SQL is a very large and complex package, with many rules to follow and lots of code to write. Supports all four methods of dynamic SQL, in particular method 4. The overhead for using DBMS_SQL has decreased significantly in Oracle8 and again in Oracle8i. You should only use DBMS_SQL when you cannot use NDS.

x

x

x

x

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 89

Learning Through Examples
x

DDL
– Create an index from within PL/SQL

x

DML
– Update rows in a table

x

DML with binding
– Update rows using bind variables

x

Queries
– Method 3 and a dynamic WHERE clause

x

PL/SQL Version of "SELECT *"
– Example of Method 4

x

PL/SQL
– Create a generic calculation program

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 90

DDL with Dynamic SQL
PROCEDURE create_index (index_in IN VARCHAR2, tab_in IN VARCHAR2, col_in IN VARCHAR2) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR; fdbk INTEGER; DDL_statement VARCHAR2(200) := 'CREATE INDEX ' || index_in || ' ON ' || tab_in || ' ( ' || col_in || ')'; BEGIN DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur, DDL_statement, DBMS_SQL.NATIVE); fdbk := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (cur); DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur); END;

x
creind.sp

Creates an index on any column(s) in any table in your schema.
– Open a cursor, which will be used to execute the DDL statement. – Construct the DDL statement as a string. – Parse and execute that DDL statement.
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 91

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Updates with Dynamic SQL
x

Update numeric column for specified employees.
CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2, ename_in IN emp.ename%TYPE, val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR; fdbk PLS_INTEGER; BEGIN DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur, 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE ename LIKE UPPER (''' || ename_in || ''')', DBMS_SQL.NATIVE); fdbk := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (cur); DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)); DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur); END;
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updnval1.sp

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 92

Updates with Bind Variables
x

Update salaries for date range using binding.
CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE updnumval ( col_in IN VARCHAR2, start_in IN DATE, end_in IN DATE, val_in IN NUMBER) IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR; fdbk PLS_INTEGER; BEGIN DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur, 'UPDATE emp SET ' || col_in || ' = ' || val_in || ' WHERE hiredate BETWEEN :lodate AND :hidate', DBMS_SQL.NATIVE); DBMS_SQL.BIND_VARIABLE (cur, 'lodate', start_in); DBMS_SQL.BIND_VARIABLE (cur, 'hidate', end_in); fdbk := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (cur); DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('Rows updated: ' || TO_CHAR (fdbk)); DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur); END;
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 93

updnval2.sp updnval3.sp

07/27/08 Copyright

Processing Flow for a Dynamic Query
Allocate cursor memory (OPEN_CURSOR) Fill cursor with data (EXECUTE)

Make sure SELECT is well formed (PARSE)

Fill buffer with data (FETCH_ROWS) (EXECUTE_AND_FETCH)

Bind any variables (BIND_VARIABLE) (BIND_ARRAY)

Retrieve the data (COLUMN_VALUE)

Give cursor structure (DEFINE_COLUMN) (DEFINE_ARRAY)
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Release cursor memory (CLOSE_CURSOR)

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 94

Queries with Dynamic SQL
x

Show employees using a dynamic WHERE clause...

CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE showemps (where_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) IS cur INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR; rec emp%ROWTYPE; fdbk INTEGER; BEGIN DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur, 'SELECT empno, ename FROM emp ' || ' WHERE ' || NVL (where_in, '1=1'), DBMS_SQL.NATIVE); DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur, 1, 1); DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur, 2, 'a', 60);

fdbk := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (cur); LOOP EXIT WHEN DBMS_SQL.FETCH_ROWS (cur) = 0; DBMS_SQL.COLUMN_VALUE (cur, 1, rec.empno); DBMS_SQL.COLUMN_VALUE (cur, 2, rec.ename); DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (TO_CHAR (rec.empno) || '=' || rec.ename); END LOOP; DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur); 07/27/08 END; Copyright

showemps.sp showemp2.sp showemps.tst

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 95

Dynamic SELECT * FROM Any Table
x

Method 4 example: the number of columns queried changes with each table.
– The resulting code is much more complicated.
BEGIN FOR each-column-in-table LOOP add-column-to-select-list; END LOOP; DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur, select_string, DBMS_SQL.NATIVE); FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN (cur, nth_col, datatype); END LOOP; LOOP fetch-a-row; FOR each-column-in-table LOOP DBMS_SQL.COLUMN_VALUE (cur, nth_col, val); intab.sp END LOOP; END LOOP; END; 07/27/08 Copyright Very simplified pseudo-code

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 96

Using EXECUTE_AND_FETCH
FUNCTION execute_and_fetch (cursor_in IN INTEGER, exact_match IN BOOLEAN DEFAULT FALSE) RETURN INTEGER; numrows := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur); numrows := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE_AND_FETCH (cur, TRUE);

x

Makes it easy to execute and fetch a single row from a query.
– Very similar to the implicit SELECT cursor in native PL/SQL, which returns a single row, raises NO_DATA_FOUND or raises the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception. – If exact_match is TRUE, then EXECUTE_AND_FETCH will raise the TOO_MANY_ROWS exception if more than one row is fetched by the SELECT. – Even if the exception is raised, the first row will still be fetched and available.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 97

Dynamic Formula Execution
x

Suppose I am building a user interface that allows a user to select a formula for execution, and enter the arguments.
– Using static PL/SQL, I would have to modify my screen every time a new formula was added. – With DBMS_SQL, a single function will do the trick.
FUNCTION dyncalc ( oper_in IN VARCHAR2, nargs_in IN INTEGER := arg1_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg3_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg5_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg7_in IN VARCHAR2 := arg9_in IN VARCHAR2 := ) RETURN VARCHAR2;

0, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL,

arg2_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL, arg4_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL, arg6_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL, arg8_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL, arg10_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL

dyncalc.sf dyncalc.pkg

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 98

More on Dynamic PL/SQL
BEGIN cur := open_and_parse ('BEGIN get_max_sal (:deptin, :salout); END;'); DBMS_SQL.BIND_VARIABLE (cur, ‘deptin’, v_deptin); DBMS_SQL.BIND_VARIABLE (cur, ‘salout’, my_salary); fdbk := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (cur); DBMS_SQL.VARIABLE_VALUE (cur, ‘salout’, my_salary); END;
x

Use BIND_VARIABLE to bind any placeholders in the string -- even OUT arguments which are not being bound to any values. Use VARIABLE_VALUE to extract a value from any variable you have bound. You must have a BEGIN-END around the code. Possibilities inherent in dynamic PL/SQL are mind-boggling!
07/27/08 Copyright
dynplsql.sql dynplsql.sp dynplsql.tst

x

x x

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 99

Indirect Referencing with Dyn PL/SQL
x

Oracle Forms offers support for indirect referencing with the NAME_IN and COPY built-ins. PL/SQL does not support indirect referencing, but you can accomplish much of the same thing with dynamic PL/SQL execution. Here is an example of a "PL/SQL NAME_IN":
FUNCTION valbyname (nm IN VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS v_cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR; fdbk PLS_INTEGER; retval PLV.dbmaxvc2; BEGIN DBMS_SQL.PARSE (v_cur, 'BEGIN :val := ' || nm || '; END;', DBMS_SQL.NATIVE); DBMS_SQL.BIND_VARIABLE (v_cur, 'val', 'a', 2000); fdbk := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE (v_cur); DBMS_SQL.VARIABLE_VALUE (v_cur, 'val', retval); DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (v_cur); RETURN retval; END;
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 100

x

dynvar.pkg dynvar.tst

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DBMS_SQL Status Built-ins
x

The package offers a set of modules to return information about the lastoperated cursor in your session.
– Call these immediately after your usage to make sure they refer to your cursor.

x

IS_OPEN
– Is the cursor already open?

x

LAST_ERROR_POSITION
– Returns relative column position in cursor of text causing error condition.

x

LAST_ROW_COUNT
– Returns the cumulative count of rows fetched from the cursor.

x

LAST_ROW_ID
– Returns the ROWID of last row processed.

x

LAST_SQL_FUNCTION_CODE
– Returns SQL function code of cursor.
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 101

Working with LONG Values
x

DBMS_SQL provides special procedures so that you can extract values from a LONG column in a table.
– DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN_LONG – DBMS_SQL.COLUMN_VALUE_LONG

x x

First, you define the column as a LONG, Then you retrieve the column using the special COLUMN_VALUE_LONG variant.
– Transfer the LONG contents into an index-by table so that you can transfer a value of more than 32K bytes into your PL/SQL program.

dumplong.pkg dumplong.tst

07/27/08 Copyright

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 102

New DBMS_SQL Features

PL/SQL8 Extensions to DBMS_SQL
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 103

New Features in DBMS_SQL
x

The functionality of DBMS_SQL has been extended in Oracle8 in several ways:
– Parse very long SQL strings – Describe cursor columns – Use "array processing" to perform bulk updates, inserts, deletes and fetches. – Support for RETURNING clause to avoid unnecessary queries.

07/27/08 Copyright

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 104

Describing Cursor Columns
PROCEDURE DBMS_SQL.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (c IN INTEGER, col_cnt OUT INTEGER, desc_t OUT DBMS_SQL.DESC_TAB);

x

Before PL/SQL8, it was not possible to determine the datatypes of the columns defined in a cursor.
– Now you can call the DBMS_SQL.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS.

x

Returns all of the column information in an index table of records.
– The record TYPE is also defined in DBMS_SQL.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 105

Basic Steps to Describe Columns
x

The following script shows the individual steps you will need to perform in order to use this feature.
CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE show_columns IS cur PLS_INTEGER := DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR; cols DBMS_SQL.DESC_TAB; ncols PLS_INTEGER; BEGIN DBMS_SQL.PARSE (cur, 'SELECT hiredate, empno FROM emp', DBMS_SQL.NATIVE); DBMS_SQL.DESCRIBE_COLUMNS (cur, ncols, cols); FOR colind IN 1 .. ncols LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (cols(colind).col_name); END LOOP; DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR (cur); END;

desccols.pkg desccols.tst showcols.sp

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 106

"Array Processing" in DBMS_SQL
x

PL/SQL8 now allows you to specify the use of "arrays", i.e., index tables, when you perform updates, inserts, deletes and fetches. Instead of providing a scalar value for an operation, you specify an index table. DBMS_SQL then repeats your action for every row in the table. It really isn't "array processing".
– In actuality, DBMS_SQL is executing the specified SQL statement N times, where N is the number of rows in the table.

x

x

x

This technique still, however, can offer a significant performance boost over Oracle7 dynamic SQL.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 107

Recommendations for Dynamic SQL
x

Bind (vs. concatenate) whenever possible.
– Increased chance of reusing parsed SQL, and easier code to write. – But remember: you cannot pass schema elements (table names, column names, etc.) through the USING clause.

x

Encapsulate statements to improve error handling.
– With NDS, only possible for statements that do not need USING and INTO clauses, though you could write variations for those as well. – Encapsulate DBMS_SQL.PARSE so that you include the trace in that program.

x

Use the Oracle8i invoker rights model whenever you want to share your dynamic SQL programs among multiple schemas.
– Otherwise that SQL will be executed under the authority of the owner of the code, not the invoker of the code.
effdsql.sql openprse.pkg whichsch.sql

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 108

NDS or DBMS_SQL: Which is Best?
x

Dynamic SQL and PL/SQL is very useful, but DBMS_SQL is hard to use. Both implementations will still come in handy...
– If, of course, you have upgraded to Oracle8i!

x

Major Advantages of NDS:
– Ease of use – Performance – Works with all SQL datatypes (including user-defined object and collection types) – Fetch into records

x

When You'd Use DBMS_SQL:
– – – – – – – Method 4 Dynamic SQL DESCRIBE columns of cursor SQL statements larger than 32K RETURNING into an array Reuse of parsed SQL statements Bulk dynamic SQL Available from client-side PL/SQL

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 109

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Oracle Advanced Queuing
x

The high performance, asynchronous, persistent messaging subsytem of Oracle

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 110

Who Needs Messaging? Everyone!
x

In the distributed world of the Internet, systems are now heavily reliant on the ability of components to communicate with each other in a dependable, consistent manner.
Distribution Center Coffee Beans Producer

Retailer Shipping Service

Consumer
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 111

Applications Relying on Messaging
x x x x

Stock trading system Airline reservation system Auction portals Any e-commerce application

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 112

Key Features of Oracle AQ
x

Leverage full power of SQL
– Messages are stored in database tables

x

Database high availability, scalability and reliability all carry over to queues
– Strong history and retention – Backup and recovery – Comprehensive journaliing

x

Rich message content increases usefulness of queueing
– Use object types to define highly structured payloads

x

New to Oracle8i, AQ now offers a publish/subscribe style of messaging between applications.
– Rule-based subscribers, message propagation, the listen feature and notification capabilities.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 113

AQ architectural overview
Queue Monitor process
Queue table

Queue
“Producers”
Enqueued messages
Message 4 Message 3 Message 2 Message1

“Consumers”

Dequeued messages

Messages include both control information and “payload” (content)
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 114

Oracle AQ Highlights
x

In 8.0, AQ supports:
– – – – – Multiple queues Resetting order and priority of queued items Queue management using only SQL & PL/SQL Multiple message recipients Propagation of queue to remote servers Rules-based publish & subscribe Listening on multiple queues Easier monitoring Native Java interface
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 115

x

Oracle8i adds:
– – – –

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AQ Components
x

The DBMS_AQ package offers enqueue and dequeue capabilities The DBMS_AQADM package provides administrative functionality to manage queues and queue tables. Underlying database tables and views The queue monitor (background process)
– Set # of processes with the AQ_TM_PROCESSES initialization parameter.

x

x x

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 116

DBMS_AQADM Highlights
CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE DROP_QUEUE_TABLE CREATE_QUEUE DROP_QUEUE START_QUEUE STOP_QUEUE ADD_SUBSCRIBER Assigns name, payload type, storage clause, sort column, whether multiple consumers Drops table if all queues in the table have been stopped Associates queue table with queue; assigns retry and retention properties to queue Drops a stopped queue Can also turn on/off enqueue and dequeue operations Stops queue, optionally waiting for outstanding transactions Adds an “agent” as a subscriber

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 117

Creating Queue Tables and Queues
CREATE TYPE message_type AS OBJECT (title VARCHAR2(30), text VARCHAR2(2000)); / BEGIN DBMS_AQADM.CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE (queue_table => 'msg', queue_payload_type => 'message_type'); DBMS_AQADM.CREATE_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue', queue_table => 'msg');

Define the "payload"

Create the queue table

Define a queue in the queue table

DBMS_AQADM.START_QUEUE (queue_name => 'msgqueue'); END;
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Start the queue
aq.pkg PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 118

The "operational package": DBMS_AQ
x

DBMS_AQ is deceptively simple.
– Only two procedures, but lots of complexity buried inside the parameters of these procedures.

x

ENQUEUE puts a message into a specified queue, and returns a RAW message handle DEQUEUE extracts a message from a specified queue Parameters control message properties such as:
– – – – – Visibility (ON_COMMIT or IMMEDIATE) Priority Delay Expiration Locking behavior
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 119

x x

aq.sql 07/27/08 Copyright

Simple Enqueue Example
DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T; msgprops DBMS_AQ.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T; msgid aq.msgid_type; my_msg message_type; BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue', 'May there be many more...'); DBMS_AQ.ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue', queueopts, msgprops, my_msg, msgid); END;
07/27/08 Copyright

Declare records to hold various enqueue and msg properties.

Set up the payload with an object constructor.

aqenq*.*

Place the message on the specified queue and get a msg ID in return.
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 120

More Interesting Enqueue Example
DECLARE ... Same setup as previous page ... BEGIN my_msg := message_type ( 'First Enqueue', 'May there be many more...'); msgprops.delay := 3 * 60 * 60 * 24;

DBMS_AQ.ENQUEUE ('msgqueue', queueopts, msgprops, my_msg, msgid1); my_msg := message_type ( 'Second Enqueue', 'And this one goes first...'); queueopts.sequence_deviation := DBMS_AQ.BEFORE; queueopts.relative_msgid := msgid1; DBMS_AQ.ENQUEUE ( 'msgqueue', queueopts, msgprops, my_msg, msgid2); END;
07/27/08 Copyright

Specify a delay before the payload is available.

Modify the dequeue sequence by changing the deviation field and relative msg ID.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 121

Dequeue Example
DECLARE queueopts DBMS_AQ.DEQUEUE_OPTIONS_T; msgprops DBMS_AQ.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T; msgid aq.msgid_type; /* defined in aq.pkg */ my_msg message_type; PROCEDURE getmsg (mode_in IN INTEGER) IS BEGIN queueopts.dequeue_mode := mode_in; DBMS_AQ.DEQUEUE ( 'msgqueue', queueopts, msgprops, my_msg, msgid); END; BEGIN getmsg (DBMS_AQ.BROWSE); getmsg (DBMS_AQ.REMOVE); getmsg (DBMS_AQ.REMOVE); END;
07/27/08 Copyright
aqdeq*.* PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 122

Declare records to hold various dequeue and msg properties.

Dequeue operation isolated in local module.

Demonstrates destructive and non-destructive dequeuing.

Prioritized Payloads
x

You can assign priorities to individual payloads and then dequeue according to those priorities.
– The lower the numeric priority value, the higher the priority.

x

A stack implementation using AQ demonstrates this well.
PROCEDURE push (item IN VARCHAR2) IS queueopts DBMS_AQ.ENQUEUE_OPTIONS_T; msgprops DBMS_AQ.MESSAGE_PROPERTIES_T; msgid aq.msgid_type; item_obj aqstk_objtype; BEGIN item_obj := aqstk_objtype (item); msgprops.priority := g_priority; queueopts.visibility := DBMS_AQ.IMMEDIATE; g_priority := g_priority - 1; DBMS_AQ.ENQUEUE ( c_queue, queueopts, msgprops, item_obj, msgid); END;

aqstk.pkg aqstk2.pkg priority.*

07/27/08 Copyright

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 123

Defining Message Subscribers
x

You can specify that a message is to be enqueued for a list of subscribers.
– The message is then not removed from the queue until all subscribers have dequeued the message.

x

Steps to working with a subscriber list:
– 1. The queue table must be defined to support multiple subscribers or consumers.
BEGIN DBMS_AQADM.CREATE_QUEUE_TABLE ( queue_table => 'major_qtable', queue_payload_type => 'student_major_t', multiple_consumers => TRUE);

– 2. Add subscribers for the queue.
DBMS_AQADM.ADD_SUBSCRIBER ( c_queue, SYS.AQ$_AGENT (name_in, NULL, NULL));
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aqmult*.*

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 124

Oracle AQ - Summary
x

Very powerful and flexible architecture.
– Much more robust that DBMS_PIPE. – Significant enhancements in Oracle8i, supporting a publish-subscribe model, improved security, LISTEN capability.

x

Considered by Oracle to be a core component of its overall solution.
– Crucial for Oracle to have a message-oriented middleware in order to offer an all-Oracle solution. – Should be strongly supported "down the road".

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 125

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Managing Large Objects with DBMS_LOB
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 126

LOB Terms
x

LOB = Large OBject: a category of datatype allowing storage of “unstructured” data up to 4 gigabytes LOB datatype can be:
– Column in table – Attribute in object type – Element in nested table

x

x

Possible applications include office documents, Images, sounds, video, etc. LOB datatypes are the successor to LONGs.
– Oracle has announced deprecation of LONGs; they should no longer be used, though they will probably not be actually desupported.

x

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 127

Types of Large Objects
x

“Internal” LOBs
– BLOB: unstructured binary data – CLOB: single-byte fixedwidth character data – NCLOB: multi-byte fixedwidth character data (or varying width in )

x

“External” LOBs
– BFILE: pointer to an operating system file

x

Temporary LOBs
– Internal LOBs that do not participate in transactions, improving performance.

x

Key programming differences:
– Internal LOBs participate in transactions; external do not – External LOBs are read-only from within Oracle

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 128

PL/SQL built-ins for LOBs
x

Package DBMS_LOB
– Supports for all LOBs: Reading, substring and instring searches, comparison and length checking – For internal LOBs: Write, append, copy, erase, trim – For external LOBs: File existence test, open, close

x

Other built-in functions

– LOADFROMFILE (load an external BFILE into a BLOB) – EMPTY_LOB(), EMPTY_CLOB() – BFILENAME

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 129

Deceptively simple example
x

BLOB-typed column in a table
CREATE TABLE incoming_faxes (fax_id INTEGER, received DATE, fax BLOB);

x

Retrieve record with BLOB into PL/SQL variable
DECLARE CURSOR fax_cur IS SELECT fax FROM incoming_faxes; the_fax BLOB; BEGIN OPEN fax_cur; FETCH fax_cur INTO the_fax; CLOSE fax_cur; END;

Question: What’s in the_fax?

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 130

The “LOB locator”
xLOB

columns [usually] contain pointers, not the LOBs themselves
<lob segment> fax_id 281937 received 12-JAN-98 fax <lob locator>

xUpdating xThis

the LOB changes the pointer

complicates use of LOBs

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– LOB locators cannot span transactions – Programs must lock records containing LOBs before updating – Programs performing DML must accommodate dynamic LOB locator values
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 131

Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert
x

Create a table
CREATE TABLE web_pages ( url VARCHAR2(512) PRIMARY KEY, htmlloc CLOB);

1 of 2

x

Must get a new LOB locator before writing into the LOB:
DECLARE the_url web_pages.url%TYPE := 'http://www.oodb.com'; the_loc CLOB; BEGIN INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url, EMPTY_CLOB()) RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc; ...

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 132

Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic insert
DECLARE the_url web_pages.url%TYPE := 'http://www.oodb.com'; the_loc CLOB; html_tab UTL_HTTP.HTML_PIECES; piece_length PLS_INTEGER; running_total PLS_INTEGER := 1;

This block retrieves INSERT INTO web_pages VALUES (the_url, EMPTY_CLOB()) and loads a web page RETURNING htmlloc INTO the_loc; into a CLOB column
html_tab := UTL_HTTP.REQUEST_PIECES(url => the_url); FOR the_piece_no IN 1..html_tab.COUNT LOOP piece_length := LENGTH(html_tab(the_piece_no)); DBMS_LOB.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc, Note: We are ignoring amount => piece_length, several likely exceptions offset => running_total, buffer => html_tab(the_piece_no)); running_total := running_total + piece_length; END LOOP; 07/27/08 Copyright END; PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 133

BEGIN

Example: Piecewise CLOB programmatic update
DECLARE Program must lock the record explicitly CURSOR hcur IS SELECT htmlloc FROM web_pages WHERE url = 'http://www.oodb.com' FOR UPDATE; the_loc CLOB; str_offset INTEGER; BEGIN OPEN hcur; FETCH hcur INTO the_loc; CLOSE hcur; str_offset := DBMS_LOB.INSTR(lob_loc => the_loc, pattern => 'oodb'); IF str_offset != 0 THEN DBMS_LOB.WRITE(lob_loc => the_loc, amount => 4, offset => str_offset, buffer => 'cool'); END IF; END; 07/27/08 Copyright

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 134

Preparing to use BFILEs
x

You must first create an Oracle “DIRECTORY”
– Creates logical alias for full directory path – Similar to LIBRARY (used for C "external procedures"), but DIRECTORY namespace is global

x

Syntax:

CREATE OR REPLACE DIRECTORY <directory name> AS '<full path to directory>';

x

Example:

CREATE DIRECTORY web_pix AS 'D:\bill\training\pix';

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 135

Using BFILE datatype in DDL
x

In a table...
CREATE TABLE web_graphics ( image_id INTEGER, image BFILE);

x

In an object type...
CREATE TYPE Business_card_t AS OBJECT ( name Name_t, addresses Address_tab_t, phones Phone_tab_t, scanned_card_image BFILE ); /

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 136

The built-in BFILENAME function
x

Returns value of datatype BFILE. Spec: Example:
FUNCTION BFILENAME(directory_exprn, file_exprn) RETURN BFILE;

x

DECLARE picture BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX', 'prodicon.gif'); BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphics VALUES (100015, picture); END; /

x

Notes:
– No automatic file checking or synchronization – No participation in transactions

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 137

Loading File into Database BLOB
CREATE TABLE web_graphic_blobs ( image_id INTEGER, image BLOB); DECLARE pic_file BFILE := BFILENAME('WEB_PIX', 'prodicon.gif'); pic_blob_loc BLOB := EMPTY_BLOB(); BEGIN INSERT INTO web_graphic_blobs VALUES (1, pic_blob_loc) RETURNING image INTO pic_blob_loc; DBMS_LOB.FILEOPEN(pic_file, DBMS_LOB.FILE_READONLY); DBMS_LOB.LOADFROMFILE(dest_lob => pic_blob_loc, src_lob => pic_file, amount => DBMS_LOB.GETLENGTH(pic_file)); DBMS_LOB.FILECLOSE(pic_file); END; / 07/27/08 Copyright
loadblob.sql

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 138

New DBMS_LOB APIs in 8i
x

Support for temporary LOBs
– No logging or rollback ¿ faster! – Lifespan: session, call, or transaction

x

Ability to retrieve LOB “chunk size”
– Allows programmer to tune READs and WRITEs

x

For all internal LOBs
– OPEN & CLOSE allow control over timing; that can mean less I/O
» Trigger will not fire until CLOSE » Indexes will not update until CLOSE

– ISOPEN
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 139

Large Object - Summary
x

LOB support in Oracle is now significantly improved.
– Complete support in PL/SQL (and other APIs) – Much better performance and control than with LONGs – Usable in object types

HOT

x

Some weaknesses...
– LOB locator behavior slightly abstruse – Inability to modify BFILEs directly from within PL/SQL.

COLD

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 140

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Leveraging Java Inside PL/SQL

07/27/08 Copyright

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 141

Overview of Java interoperability
x

Java inside or outside 8i server can call PL/SQL
– Standard JDBC and SQLJ calls with Oracle extensions – Same Java on client, mid-tier, or server Not covered in this seminar

x

PL/SQL can call Java inside 8i server
– – – – Command-line tools load Java classes DDL extensions publish Java classes Writing stored procedures, functions, triggers in Java Distinct Java & PL/SQL namespaces

x

But first...a BRIEF introduction to Java...
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 142

07/27/08 Copyright

Question 1: What is Java?
x

Could it be...
– The end of programming history as we know it? – The easiest, fastest, slickest piece of software ever designed by human beings? – Just the latest in a series of "silver bullets" promoted by software vendors in order to prop up quarterly sales? – The first and only successful O-O language? – None of the above?

x

We don't really need to take a vote.
– We just need to keep a firm grip on common sense and stay focused on delivering solutions.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 143

Question 2: Will Java Replace PL/SQL?
x

While that scenario is certainly possible, it is very unlikely and totally unthinkable for years to come. PL/SQL will still be:
– Faster and more productive than Java for database operations. – A language in which hundreds of thousands of developers are trained. – Ubiquitous in thousands of production applications and millions of lines of code. – Supported and improved by Oracle -- and very aggressively, to boot.

x

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 144

Some Important Things to Remember
x

Java is a case sensitive language...
– string is definitely not the same as String.

x

Everything is a class (or an object instantiated from a class)...
– Before you can call a (non-static) class method, you have to instantiate an object from that class. – Well, everything exception the primitive datatypes.

x

You don't have to know how to do everything with Java to get lots of value out of it...
– Don't get overwhelmed by all the classes and all the strange quirks.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 145

Building a Java Class
x

Let's start from the very beginning...
public class Hello { public static void main (String[] args) { System.out.println ("Hello world!"); } }

x

No members, no methods, except the "special" main method.
– Used to test or run stand-alone a class,

CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE hello IS BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ('Hello world!'); END;
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Oh, by the way: the PL/SQL version

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 146

Compiling Classes
x

Before you can use a class, you must compile it with the javac command.
– You must also either have set the CLASSPATH or include it in your javac call. – This will convert the .java file to a .class file. – It will also automatically recompile any classes used by your class that has not been compiled since last change.

SET CLASSPATH = d:\Oracle\Ora81\jdbc\lib\classes111.zip; e:\jdk1.1.7b\lib\classes.zip;d:\java D:> javac Hello.java -classpath d:\java

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 147

Running a Class
x

Run a class? What does that mean? It means that if your class contains a method with this header:
public static void main (String[] args)

x

then you can "run" the main method with the java command:
d:\java> java Hello

x

You can also pass one or more arguments on the command line:
d:\java> java Hello mom Hello2.java

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 148

Using a Class
x

The main method is handy for providing a built-in test mechanism of your class. Usually, however, you will use a class by instantiating objects from the class and then invoking class methods on the object. Let's build a performance analyzer class to explore these ideas.

x

x

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 149

Compare Performance of Methods
x

Use System.currentTimeMillis to calculate elapsed time to nearest thousandth of a second.
class Tmr { private long Gstart = 0; public void capture () { Gstart = System.currentTimeMillis(); } public void showElapsed () { p.l ("Elapsed time ", System.currentTimeMillis() - Gstart); } public long elapsed () { return (System.currentTimeMillis() - Gstart); } public void showElapsed (String context) { p.l ("Elapsed time for " + context, elapsed()); }
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 150

p.java Tmr.java InFile.java

}

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Types of Classes
x

There are several different kinds of classes in Java, besides the "regular" kind we just saw...

x

Abstract class
– The class can contain members and methods, but at least one method remains unimplemented.

x

Interface class
– The class only contains unimplemented methods.

x

Inner class
– Classes that are defined inside other classes.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 151

And Now for Some Scary Buzzwords!
x

Inheritance
– Subclasses inherit methods and variables from extended superclasses.

x

Polymorphism
– An object of a class can have "multiple" forms, either as its own class or as any superclass. – Dynamic polymorphism: form is determined at run-time. – Static polymorphism: form is chosen at compile-time (PL/SQL overloading). supertype/"wider"
Citizen Person Employee Hourly Worker Salaried Worker

subtype/"narrower"
War Criminal
Person.java

A Class Hierarchy
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Management NonManagement

Corporation

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 152

Language Basics
x

Comments

// Single line comment /* Block comment */ /** Documentation comment */

x

Primitive datatypes

boolean – So I lied; these are not objects instantiated char byte from classes. short

int long float double

x

Strings
– A String object is a read-only; if you assign a new value to it, you are actually allocating a new object. – Can't do a direct == comparison.

String myName; myName = "Steven"; myName = "Feuerstein"; if (myName.equals(YourName)) foundFamily();

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 153

Writing Loops in Java
x

Three kinds of loops: while, do-while and for
– Note: you need squiggly brackets only if there is more than one statement in the loop body.
for (initialize; expression; step) { lotsaStuff } while (expression) { lostsaStuff } do { lostsaStuff } while (expression);

Examples:
for (indx indx=0; indx < args.length; indx++) System.out.println (args[indx]);

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static void processAll (Enumeration enum) { while (enum.hasMoreElements ()) { processIt (enum.NextElement()); System.out.println ( (String)enum.nextElement()) } }
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 154

Passing Parameters
x

Some important differences from PL/SQL...
– No default values for arguments; you must supply a value for each parameter. – Only positional notation is supported. – If a method has no arguments, you still include the open and close parentheses.
class PuterLingo { private String mname; public PuterLingo (String name) { mname = name; } public String name () { return mname; } } class LotsALingos { public static void main (String args[]) { PuterLingo Java = new PuterLingo("Java"); System.out.println (Java.name()); } }

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 155

Exception Handling in Java
x

Very similar to PL/SQL; you "throw" and "catch" exceptions, rather than raise and handle.
Throwing my own exception

public static int numBytes (String filename) { try { if (filename.equals("")) throw new Exception ("Filename is NULL"); Put inside try clause File myFile = new File (filename); } return myFile.length(); catch (SecurityException e) { return -1; } catch (Exception e) { System.out.println (e.toString()); }

File-related exceptions

}

"WHEN OTHERS" in Java

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 156

Differences Between Java & PL/SQL
x

Exceptions are objects derived directly or indirectly from the Exception class.
– So you can pass them as arguments and do anything and everything else you can do with objects.

x

You must inform users of your method of which exceptions may be thrown.
– Use the throws clause in your specification, as in:

public static int numBytes (String filename) throws SecurityException, NoSuchFile { ... }

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 157

Java's Not So Tough!
x

You can learn enough Java in less than a week to:
– Build simple classes – Leverage Java inside PL/SQL

x

Moving to the next level of expertise will be more of a challenge.
– Object oriented development (Java) is very different from procedural coding (PL/SQL).

x

Now let's explore how you can put Java to work for you inside PL/SQL programs.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 158

Java Stored Procedures (JSPs)
Java applet or app. using JDBC or SQLJ

Oracle 8i server
PL/SQL cover for Java method Java virtual machine running Java method

Oracle Developer client (PL/SQL)

Net8

OCI or Pro*C client
VB or C++ via OO4O or ODBC
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 159

JSPs: Some sample uses
xPL/SQL

extender

– For example, better file I/O – RMI callouts, network communication in/out
xPL/SQL

replacement

– More standard language – Good performer for numeric processing tasks – Beware database I/O & string manipulation performance
xScaleable

deployment of third party code

– Vertical application – Web server – XML parser/generator
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 160

Creating JSP to call from PL/SQL
x x

1. Create Java classes in your favorite IDE 2. Load into server using “loadjava” command-line tool 3. Publish PL/SQL cover using AS LANGUAGE JAVA... rather than BEGIN...END 4. Grant privileges as desired 5. Call from PL/SQL (or SQL) as if calling PL/SQL

x

x x

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 161

Create Java class(es)
class Corporation extends Person { long layoffs; long CEOCompensation; public Corporation ( String Pname, long Playoffs, long PceoComp) { name = Pname; layoffs = Playoffs; CEOCompensation = PceoComp; } public String toString () { return name + " is a transnational entity with " + layoffs + " laid-off employees, paying its" + " Chief Executive Officer " + CEOCompensation; } public static void main (String[] args) { // A very scary company Corporation TheGlobalMonster = new Corporation ( "Northrup-Ford-Mattel-Yahoo-ATT", 5000000, 50000000); System.out.println (TheGlobalMonster); 07/27/08 Copyright }}

Notes on Java classes
x

toString method automatically used by System.out.println main method is used to test the class. Entry points must be public static in most cases Classes may call other classes Avoid GUI calls

x

x

x

x

person.java PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 162

Upload using “loadjava” utility
.class file .java file Java resource file .jar file Oracle 8i server

loadjava

Java class Java source

Java resource

xExample: xloadjava

loadjava -user scott/tiger -oci8 -resolve datacraft/bill/Hello.class

options (abbreviated)

loadjava will connect using OCI driver Resolves external class references at compile time -resolver (shown later) Search path like CLASSPATH 07/27/08 Copyright

-oci8 -resolve

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 163

Publish
x

Example (top-level call spec)

x

Syntax (simplified)

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION hello_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.bill.Hello.Emp(int) return java.lang.String'; /

CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] { PROCEDURE | FUNCTION } <name> [ RETURN <sqltype> ] [ ( <args> ) ] [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME '<method fullname> (<Java type fullname>, ...) [ return <Java type fullname> ]';
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 164

Call the wrapped method
x

Method 1: Call as if PL/SQL module
BEGIN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(hello_emp(7499)); END;

x

Method 2: Use 8i SQL CALL statement; for example, from SQL*Plus:
VARIABLE thename VARCHAR2(12) CALL hello_emp(7499) INTO :thename; PRINT :thename

– CALL avoids overhead of SELECT fn FROM DUAL
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jsp.sql

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 165

Publishing -- more concepts
xShape

mapping

– Java methods declared “void” become PL/SQL procedures – Signature mismatches detected only at runtime
xType

mapping (typical)
VARCHAR2 DATE NUMBER user-defined object type user-defined object type object REFerence user-defined collection type

java.lang.String java.sql.Timestamp java.math.BigDecimal oracle.sql.STRUCT <named type> oracle.sql.REF oracle.sql.ARRAY
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 166

Publish in PL/SQL Package Spec
x

Designate Java module in PL/SQL package spec...
CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.util.Hello.Emp(int) return java.lang.String'; END; /

(No package body required in this case)
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 167

Publish as module in package body
x

...or in package body
CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2; END; / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY hello_pkg2 AS FUNCTION hi_emp (empno_in IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.util.Hello.Emp(int) return java.lang.String'; END; /

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 168

Publish as object type method
x

Either in spec:

CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30), MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.util.Hello.Emp(int) return java.lang.String'); / CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE foo_t AS OBJECT ( bar VARCHAR2(30), MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2); / CREATE OR REPLACE TYPE BODY foo_t AS MEMBER FUNCTION hello_emp RETURN VARCHAR2 IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.util.Hello.Emp(int) return java.lang.String'; END; /

or in the body:

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 169

New DDL Statements and Roles
x

CREATE JAVA

– Alternative to “loadjava” utility – Creates or replaces an Oracle “library unit” from Java source, class, or resource – Can read file designated with BFILE() function

x

ALTER JAVA: compiles Java source, resolves Java class references. DROP JAVA: drops a named Java library unit Several roles available for Java operations:
– JAVAUSERPRIV, JAVASYSPRIV (needed for file IO operations), JAVA_ADMIN, JAVAIDPRIV, JAVADEBUGPRIV – You can also grant specific privileges.

x

x

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 170

Passing Oracle8 objects
Oracle8i server
Object in O-R table
Java application

Java object

x x

Harder than you’d think Three different interfacing techniques
– oracle.sql.STRUCT – oracle.sql.CustomDatum – oracle.jdbc2.SQLData

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 171

JPublisher utility
Database server
Definition of type or REF in data dictionary
User-supplied JPublisher input file

xWhat

does it do?

– Generates Java that encapsulates type and REF
xThree

types of mapping supported for methods
JPublisher
– “Oracle mapping” – “JDBC mapping” – “Object JDBC mapping”

Generated Java file(s) for use in Java programs

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 172

Passing object using JPub-generated Java
x

After generating and uploading classes with JPub, they become available to use in mapping Example of passing an Account_t object:
CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE account_save (new_acct IN Account_t) IS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'datacraft.bill.AccountRuntime.save (datacraft.bill.Account_t)'; /

x

jspobj.sql 07/27/08 Copyright

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 173

Example: Improving File I/O
x

You can read/write files in PL/SQL with UTL_FILE, but that package is very limited. Java offers many file-related classes with much greater capabilities. Let's see how we can make that great Java stuff available from within PL/SQL.

x

x

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 174

Encapsulate Java Classes
x

You won't generally access native Java methods in your PL/SQL wrapper.
– Instead build a static method that instantiates a Java object from the class and then invokes the relevant method against that object.

x

Let's start with something simple...
– The File class offers a length method that returns the number of bytes in a file. – This is not available through UTL_FILE (though you can get it through DBMS_LOB).

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 175

My Own Java Class for File Manipulation
x

Accept the name of a file and return its length.
import java.io.File; public class JFile2 { public static long length (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName); return myFile.length(); } } JFile2.java

x

Take each of these steps:
– Import the File class to resolve reference. – Instantiate a File object for the specified name. – Call the method of choice against that object and return the value.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 176

Build a Package over Java Method
x

Let's put it in a package; we will certainly want to add more functionality over time.
– I translate the Java long to a PL/SQL NUMBER.
CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER; END; / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION length (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile.length (java.lang.String) return long'; END; / xfile2.pkg

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 177

Mapping the Boolean Datatype
x

Both Java and PL/SQL support a native Boolean datatype, so you'd expect smooth sailing. Not so! To pass a Boolean back from Java to PL/SQL, you will need to take these steps:
– 1. Convert the Java boolean to a String or number and return that value. – 2. Write a "hidden" PL/SQL wrapper function that returns the string or number. – 3. Write a "public" PL/SQL wrapper function to convert that number to a true PL/SQL Boolean.

x

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 178

Translate Boolean to Number
x

Accept the name of a file and return its length.
import java.io.File; public class JFile3 { public static int canRead (String fileName) { File myFile = new File (fileName); boolean retval = myFile.canRead(); if (retval) return 1; else return 0; } }

JFile3.java

x

Translate TRUE to 1 and FALSE to 0.
– And don't forget: this is a boolean primitive, not a Boolean class.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 179

Wrapper for Pseudo-Boolean function
x

Simple translation back to PL/SQL Boolean.
– Avoid the hard-codings with named constants...
CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE xfile IS FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN; END; / CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY xfile IS FUNCTION IcanRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN NUMBER AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'JFile3.canRead (java.lang.String) return int'; FUNCTION canRead (file IN VARCHAR2) RETURN BOOLEAN AS BEGIN xfile3.pkg RETURN IcanRead (file) = 1; JFile4.java END; xfile4.pkg END; JFile.java / xfile.pkg
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Passing Objects to Java with STRUCT
x

You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class.
public class UnionBuster { public static void wageStrategy (STRUCT e) throws java.sql.SQLException { // Get the attributes of the labor_source object. Object[] attribs = e.getAttributes(); Obtain attributes of the Oracle object.

// Access individual attributes by array index, // starting with 0 String laborType = (String)(attribs[0]); BigDecimal hourly_rate = (BigDecimal)(attribs[1]); System.out.println ( "Pay " + laborType + " $" + hourly_rate + " per hour"); Extract individual attribute values from the array.

}

}

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UnionBuster.java passobj.tst PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 181

Wrapping a STRUCT-based Method
x

You can pass Oracle object information to Java without relying on JPub by using the STRUCT class.
CREATE TYPE labor_source_t AS OBJECT ( labor_type VARCHAR2(30), hourly_rate NUMBER); / The Oracle object type definition

CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE bust_em_with ( labor_source_in IN labor_source_t) AS LANGUAGE JAVA NAME 'UnionBuster.wageStrategy (oracle.sql.STRUCT)'; / BEGIN bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Workfare', 0)); bust_em_with ( labor_source ('Prisoners', '5')); END;
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Fully specify the STRUCT class in parameter list.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 182

Viewing Output from Java Methods
x

Java provides a "print line" method similar to DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE: System.out.println.
– Call it within methods and output will display in your Java environment.
public class HelloAll { public static void lotsaText ( int count) { for (int i = 0; i < count; i++) { System.out.println ( "Hello Hello Hello Hello Hello All!");

}}}

x

When called within a PL/SQL wrapper, you can redirect the output to the DBMS_OUTPUT buffer.
– Here is a good nucleus for a login.sql file:
SET SERVEROUTPUT ON SIZE 1000000 CALL DBMS_JAVA.SET_OUTPUT (1000000);
HelloAll.java HelloAll.tst

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 183

Error Handling with Java-PL/SQL
x

Java offers a very similar, but more robust error handling mechanism than PL/SQL.
– Exceptions are objects instantiated from the Exception class or a subclass of it, such as java.sql.SQLException. – Instead of raising and handling, you "throw" and "catch". – Use two methods, getErrorCode() and getMessage() to obtain information about the error thrown.

x

Any error not caught by the JVM (Java virtual machine) will be thrown back to the PL/SQL block or SQL statement.
– And also spew out the entire Java error stack! (at least through 8.1.5).

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 184

Trapping and Identifying Errors
x

Currently, the entire Java stack is displayed on your screen, and you have to do some digging to extract the Oracle error information.
BEGIN dropany ('TABLE', 'blip'); EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (SQLCODE); DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (SQLERRM); END; /

SQL> 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

java.sql.SQLException: ORA-00942: table or view does not exist at oracle.jdbc.kprb.KprbDBAccess.check_error(KprbDBAccess.java) at oracle.jdbc.kprb.KprbDBAccess.parseExecuteFetch(KprbDBAccess.java) at oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleStatement.doExecuteOther(OracleStatement.java) at oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleStatement.doExecuteWithBatch(OracleStatement.java) at oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleStatement.doExecute(OracleStatement.java) at oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleStatement.doExecuteWithTimeout(OracleStatement.java) at oracle.jdbc.driver.OracleStatement.executeUpdate(OracleStatement.java) at DropAny.object(DropAny.java:14)

-29532 dropany.tst ORA-29532: Java call terminated by uncaught Java exception: java.sql.SQLException: getErrInfo.sp dropany2.tst ORA-00942: table or view does not exist 07/27/08 Copyright

DropAny.java

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 185

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

External Procedures
x

An external procedure is a 3GL routine that can serve as the “body” of a PL/SQL function, procedure, or method.
– Must be a shared object library on Unix or a dynamically linked library (DLL) on Windows.

x

An Oracle8 feature that allowed relatively "native" callouts to C from PL/SQL for the first time.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 186

Process & data flow
Application
Makes request

Net8 External Procedur e Listener
spawns

External Shared Library
calls routine from

Client or serverside applicatio n

Calls

PL/SQL Runtime Engine PL/SQL body

Routine in .DLL or .so file

returns results returns results

extproc

returns results

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 187

External procedures: Sample uses
x x x x x

Send email Invoke operating system command Invoke custom or legacy application Call C runtime library function Perform admin tasks

email.sql

diskspace.sql

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 188

Determine free disk space on NT (1/4)
x

Use pre-existing routine:
– GetDiskFreeSpaceA in kernel32.dll – For given drive letter, this function returns:
» » » » » sectors per cluster bytes per sector number of free clusters total number of clusters “return code” indicating success or failure

x

First, create an Oracle8 “library”:
CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY nt_kernel AS 'c:\winnt\system32\kernel32.dll'; /

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 189

Package spec (2/4)
x

Nothing unexpected here:
CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2, sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER, bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER, number_of_free_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER, total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER; END disk_util; /

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 190

Package body in Oracle 8.0 (3/4)
CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY disk_util AS FUNCTION get_disk_free_space (root_path IN VARCHAR2, sectors_per_cluster OUT PLS_INTEGER, bytes_per_sector OUT PLS_INTEGER, number_of_free_clusters OUT pls_integer, total_number_of_clusters OUT PLS_INTEGER) RETURN PLS_INTEGER IS EXTERNAL LIBRARY nt_kernel NAME "GetDiskFreeSpaceA" All the LANGUAGE C magic is in CALLING STANDARD PASCAL the PARAMETERS EXTERNAL (root_path STRING, sectors_per_cluster BY REFERENCE LONG, section bytes_per_sector BY REFERENCE LONG, number_of_free_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG, total_number_of_clusters BY REFERENCE LONG, RETURN LONG); END disk_util; 07/27/08 Copyright PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 191

x

Usage (4/4)
DECLARE lroot_path VARCHAR2(3) := 'C:\'; lsectors_per_cluster PLS_INTEGER; lbytes_per_sector PLS_INTEGER; lnumber_of_free_clusters PLS_INTEGER; ltotal_number_of_clusters PLS_INTEGER; return_code PLS_INTEGER; free_meg REAL; BEGIN return_code := disk_util.get_disk_free_space (lroot_path, lsectors_per_cluster, lbytes_per_sector, lnumber_of_free_clusters, ltotal_number_of_clusters); free_meg := lsectors_per_cluster * lbytes_per_sector * lnumber_of_free_clusters / 1024 / 1024; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('free disk space, Mb = ' || free_meg); diskspace.sql END;
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 192

Creating your own external procedure
x

1. Identify or create shared library 2. Identify or CREATE LIBRARY within Oracle 3. Map the parameters using:
– EXTERNAL clause (Oracle8) or – LANGUAGE clause (Oracle8i)

x

x

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 193

1. Identify/create external routine
x x

Prerequisite: O/S must support shared libraries Some useful routines are pre-built in C runtime library
– On Unix: /lib/libc.so – On NT: <systemroot>\system32\crtdll.dll

x

Building a shared library of your own requires knowledge of:
– Appropriate language (typically C) – Compiler & linker

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 194

2. Create the Oracle library
x

Syntax:

CREATE OR REPLACE LIBRARY <library name> AS '<full path to file>';

x

Assigns a programmer-defined alias to a specific shared library file Notes
– Requires CREATE LIBRARY privilege – Does not validate directory – Can’t use symbolic link

x

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 195

3. Map the parameters
This can get complicated, because…
– Must pass extra parameters to designate:
» NULL/NOT NULL state » String length » Maximum allocated length

– Six choices of parameter mode
» » » » » » IN RETURN IN BY REFERENCE RETURN BY REFERENCE OUT IN OUT

These details are better suited for close reading…
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Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Oracle8i New Features
Autonomous Transactions Invoker Rights Model Row Level Security

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 197

Oracle8i New Features
x

Oracle8i offers a number of PL/SQL-specific features that give you tremendous additional flexibility and capability.
– And the learning curve to take advantage of these features is generally not too steep.

x x x

Autonomous Transactions The Invoker Rights Model Row level security

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 198

Autonomous Transactions
x

Prior to Oracle8i, a COMMIT or ROLLBACK in any program in your session committed or rolled back all changes in your session.
– There was only one transaction allowed per connection.

x

With Oracle8i, you can now define a PL/SQL block to execute as an "autonomous transaction".
– Any changes made within that block can be saved or reversed without affecting the outer or main transaction.
CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE loginfo ( code IN PLS_INTEGER, msg IN VARCHAR2) AS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION;

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 199

When to Use Autonomous Transactions
x

Reusable Application Components
– ATs are more or less required in the new distributed application architecture of the Internet. – One component should not have any impact (esp. something like a COMMIT) on other components.

x

Logging Mechanism
– Commonly developers lot to database tables, which can cause all sorts of complications: your log entry becomes a part of your transaction. – Now you can avoid the complexities (need for ROLLBACK TO savepoints and so on).

x

Tracing Code Usage
– Build retry mechanisms, software usage meter, etc.

x

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Call functions within SQL that change the database.
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 200

Logging with ATs
x

Don't forget that ROLLBACK in the exception section!

CREATE OR REPLACE PACKAGE BODY log IS PROCEDURE putline ( code_in IN INTEGER, text_in IN VARCHAR2 ) IS PRAGMA AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION; BEGIN INSERT INTO logtab VALUES (code_in, text_in, SYSDATE, USER, SYSDATE, USER, rec.machine, rec.program ); COMMIT; EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN ROLLBACK; END; END;
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Avoid interdependencies with the main transaction.

While we're at it, let's add some session information.
logger.sp log81.pkg log81*.tst retry.pkg retry.tst

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Tips and Gotchas with ATs
x

An AT program must COMMIT or ROLLBACK before terminating, or an error is raised. The AT PRAGMA can be used only with individual programs and toplevel anonymous blocks.
– You cannot define an entire package as an AT. – You cannot define a nested anonymous block to be an AT.

x

x

The AT PRAGMA goes in the body of packages.
– You cannot tell by looking at the package spec if you are calling ATs or not -and this info is not available in the data dictionary.

x

Any changes committed in an AT are visible in the outer transaction.
– You can use the SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL SERIALIZABLE to indicate that you do not want the changes visible until the outer transaction commits. – Place the SET TRANSACTION statement in the outer transaction.
autonserial.sql auton_in_sql.sql autontrigger*.sql

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 202

The Invoker Rights Model
x

Prior to Oracle8i, whenever you executed a stored program, it ran under the privileges of the account in which the program was defined.
– This is called the …

Definer Rights Model
x

With Oracle8i, you can now decide at compilation time whether your program or package will execute in the definer's schema (the default) or the schema of the invoker of the code.
– This is called the …

Invoker Rights Model
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 203

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About Definer Rights
x

Allows you to centralize access to and control of underlying data structures. Ignores roles and relies on directly-granted privileges. But it can be a source of confusion and architectural problems.

OE Code
Order_Mgt
Place Cancel

Sam_Sales
Close Old Orders

x

OE Data

X

x

Orders

Cannot alter table directly.

Note: Oracle built-in packages have long had the capability of running under the invoker's authority.
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 204

Problems with Definer Rights
x

Deployment & maintenance
– Must install module in all remote databases where needed – In some databases, each user has own copy of table(s), requiring copy of stored module

x

Security
– No declarative way to restrict privileges on certain modules in a package -- it's all or nothing, unless you write code in the package to essentially recreate roles programmatically. – Can bypass 8i’s “fine-grained” access features (see the DBMS_RLS package) – Difficult to audit privileges

x

Sure would be nice to have a choice...and now you do!

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 205

Oracle8i Invoker Rights Syntax
x

For top level modules:
CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] <module type> [ AUTHID { DEFINER | CURRENT_USER } ] AS ...

x

For modules with separate spec and body, AUTHID goes only in spec, and must be at the package level. Synonyms may be necessary if modules use object names not qualified by schema.
– In other words, do what it takes to get the code to compile. You could also create local, "dummy" objects. – At run-time, the objects referenced may well be different from those against which it compiled.

x

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 206

"Reflection" Capability of Invoker Rights
x

With invoker rights, you can execute code owned by another schema, yet have all references to data structures "reflect back" into your own schema.

Central Code schema
PACKAGE acct_mgr
AUTHID CURRENT_USER

User/Data schema
PROCEDURE mng_account IS BEGIN ... code.acct_mgr.destroy(...); END;

make modify destroy

...FROM accounts WHERE...

accounts table

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 207

Tips and Gotchas for Invoker Rights
x

Does not apply to code objects, only data
– When your stored code references another stored code element, the definer rights model is always applied to resolve the reference. – Both static and dynamic SQL is supported.

x

Once a definer rights program is called, all other calls in stack are resolved according to definer rights.
– AUTHID CURRENT_USER is ignored.

x

Information about the rights model is not available in the data dictionary What if you want to maintain a single version of your code for both pre-Oracle8i and Oracle8i installations, taking advantage of the invoker rights model whenever possible?
– A creative use of SQL*Plus substitution variables comes in very invdefinv.sql handy. Note: cannot use with wrapped code.
oneversion.sql

x

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 208

When to Invoke Invoker Rights
x

You want to reuse the same code among many users, but you want their own directly-granted privileges to determine access.
National HQ Check City Statistics New York Schema stolenlives

Chicago Schema stolenlives

x

Especially handy with dynamic SQL.
– Share a program that uses dynamic SQL (whether DBMS_SQL or the new native implementation) and you end up taking the most unexpected DDL and DML detours.
authid.sql whichsch*.sql

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 209

Combining Invoker & Definer Rights
x

Rely on invoker rights to allow centralized code to work with schema-specific data. Rely on definer rights to access centralized data from any schema.
HQ
Chicago
Check City Statistics

x

New York

stolenlives

Analyze Pattern

stolenlives

perpetrators

perp.sql

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 210

Row Level Security

DBMS_RLS
Row-Level Security

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 211

Row-Level Security with DBMS_RLS
x

Oracle8i offers a new package, DBMS_RLS, with which to implement automated row-level security (also referred to as "fine grained access control").
Row Level Security
x

The establishment of security policies on (restricted access to) individual rows of a table. Prior to Oracle8i, you could achieve this only partially through the use of views. The DBMS_RLS package (along with "system contexts") now allow you to do so in a foolproof manner.
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 212

x

x

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Components Needed for RLS
x

System Contexts
– A new feature in Oracle8i, the system context is a named set of attributevalue pairs global to your session.

x

Security Policy Packages
– You will need to write a package containing functions that establish the security policies to be applied to a particular table.

x

Database Logon Triggers
– I want to make sure that when a person logs in, their context information is set properly.

x

DBMS_RLS
– Use programs in DBMS_RLS to associate your security policies with tables.

x

Let's step through a simple example to see how all these pieces tie together.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 213

A National Health Care System
x

The year is 2010.
– A massive, popular uprising in the United States has forced the establishment of a national healthcare system. No more for-profit hospitals pulling billions of dollars out of the system; no more private insurance companies soaking up 30 cents on the dollar; all children are vaccinated; all pregnant women receive excellent prenatal care.

x

We need a top-notch, highly secure database for NHCS. The main tables are patient, doctor, clinic and regulator. Here are some rules:
– Doctors can only see patients who are assigned to their clinic. – Regulators can only see patients who reside in the same state. – Patients can only see information about themselves.
fgac.sql

x

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 214

Set the Context
x

Define a context in the database, and create a procedure that will set the context attributes (type and ID) upon login.

CREATE CONTEXT patient_restriction USING nhc_pkg; PROCEDURE set_context IS This is a simplification. See CURSOR doc_cur IS fgac.sql for logic that identifies SELECT doctor_id FROM doctor different types of people and WHERE schema_name = USER; sets the context accordingly. doc_rec doc_cur%ROWTYPE; BEGIN OPEN doc_cur; FETCH doc_cur INTO doc_rec; DBMS_SESSION.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction', c_person_type_attr, 'DOCTOR'); DBMS_SESSION.SET_CONTEXT ( 'patient_restriction', c_person_id_attr, doc_rec.doctor_id); END;
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 215

Define the Predicate
x

A predicate is a string that will be appended to the WHERE clause of the table to which this security policy is associated (see next page).
FUNCTION person_predicate ( schema_in VARCHAR2, name_in VARCHAR2) RETURN VARCHAR2 IS l_context VARCHAR2(100) := Extract the context SYS_CONTEXT (c_context, c_person_type_attr); information for this retval VARCHAR2(2000); connection. BEGIN IF l_context = 'DOCTOR' THEN retval := 'home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor We need a different string WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT (''' || to modify the WHERE c_context || ''', ''' || clause for each type of c_person_id_attr || '''))'; person.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 216

Create the Security Policy
x

Use the DBMS_RLS.ADD_POLICY procedure.
– The following procedure call specifies that the WHERE clause of any query, update or delete against the SCOTT.PATIENT table will be modified by the string returned by the person_predicate function of the SCOTT.nhc_pkg package.
BEGIN DBMS_RLS.ADD_POLICY OBJECT_SCHEMA OBJECT_NAME POLICY_NAME FUNCTION_SCHEMA POLICY_FUNCTION STATEMENT_TYPES END;

( => => => => => =>

'SCOTT', 'patient', 'patient_privacy', 'SCOTT', 'nhc_pkg.person_predicate', 'SELECT,UPDATE,DELETE');

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 217

Create Logon Trigger, Setting Context
x

By setting the context in the logon trigger, we guarantee that the context is set (and the predicate applied) no matter which product is the entry point to Oracle.

CREATE OR REPLACE TRIGGER set_id_on_logon AFTER LOGON ON DATABASE BEGIN nhc_pkg.set_context; EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( 'Error ' || SQLCODE || ' setting context for ' || USER'); END;
fgac.sql

Exception handling in trigger is critical! If you allow an exception to go unhandled, logon is disabled.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 218

Queries Transparently Filtered
x

What you see is determined automatically by who you are.
Context Information for "SWALLACE": Type: DOCTOR Doctor sees only her ID: 1060 patients. Predicate: home_clinic_id IN (SELECT home_clinic_id FROM doctor WHERE doctor_id = SYS_CONTEXT ('patient_restriction', 'person_id')) Patients Visible to "SWALLACE": CSILVA - Chris Silva - IL VSILVA - Veva Silva - IL

Context Information for "CSILVA": Type: PATIENT ID: Predicate: schema_name = 'CSILVA' Patients Visible to "CSILVA": CSILVA - Chris Silva - IL 07/27/08 Copyright

Patient sees only himself.

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 219

Take Full Advantage of PL/SQL!
January... February... March... April... May...

It's so easy to fall into a rut with a programming language.
x

– You learn what you need to get the job done, and you use only what you know.
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Jump out of your rut - and play a new tune with PL/SQL!

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 220

Achieving PL/SQL Excellence

Appendices
(a.k.a., If time permits…)
x x x x

UTL_FILE – file IO DBMS_JOB – Job scheduling DBMS_PIPE – Pipe-based communication DBMS_UTILITY – the kitchen sink package

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 221

Built-in Packages: UTL_FILE

UTL_FILE
Server-side File I/O
Application FOPEN GET_LINE PUT_LINE ... Physical Files

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 222

UTL_FILE: Server-side I/O
x

Allows you to read from and write to operating system files on the database server. A "version 1" (fairly primitive) utility...
– Maximum of 1023 bytes per line (read or write) until Oracle 8.0.5, when it jumps to 32K. – No higher-level file operations supported (change privileges, delete, copy, random access to contents). – Limitations on files you can access (no mapped files, no use of environmental variables).

x

x

But you can read lines from a file and write lines to a file.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 223

UTL_FILE Module Outline
FCLOSE FCLOSE_ALL FFLUSH FOPEN GET_LINE IS_OPEN NEW_LINE PUT PUT_LINE
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Close the specified file Close all open files in your session Flush all data from the UTL_FILE buffer to your file Open a file Get the next line from a file Returns TRUE if the file is open (sort of) Insert a new line character in file at the end of current line Puts text into the UTL_FILE buffer Puts text and new line character into UTL_FILE buffer. Puts formatted text into the buffer
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 224

PUTF

Authorizing Directory Access
x

Oracle requires you to list explicitly those directories you wish to be able to read/write with UTL_FILE.
– You do this by adding lines to the instance parameter file.

x

Follow these rules to avoid many headaches.
– Use a separate entry for each directory (and subdirectory; there is no subdirectory recursion). – No single or double quotes around directory, no trailing delimiter.
utl_file_dir = /tmp utl_file_dir = /accounts/newdev

x

And don't do either of the following:
utl_file_dir = . Allows read & write for current directory. utl_file_dir = * Allows read & write for any directory.
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 225

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Test UTL_FILE Access
x

About the hardest part to working with UTL_FILE is simply getting started. So before you write anything fancy, modify your initialization file, restart your database, and then run the following test script (it can't get much simpler than this):
DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE; BEGIN /* Change the directory name to one to which you at least || THINK you have read/write access. */ fid := UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('c:\temp', 'test.txt', 'W'); UTL_FILE.PUT_LINE (fid, 'hello'); UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid); END; /
utlfile.tst

x

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 226

Opening a File
DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE; BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('c:\temp', 'test.txt', 'W'); END;

x

Specify file location, name and operation type.
– Types are 'R' for Read, 'W' for Write and 'A' for Append.

x

The FOPEN function returns a record ("file handle") based on the UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE.
– Currently contains a single ID field.

x x

Maximum of 10 files may be opened in each user session. Test to see if file is open with the IS_OPEN function.
– In actuality, this function simply returns TRUE if the file handle's id field is NOT NULL. Not much of a test...

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 227

Reading from a File
DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE; BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('c:\temp', 'test.txt', 'R'); UTL_FILE.GET_LINE (fid, myline); UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid); END;

x x

Can only read from a file opened with the "R" mode. Lines in the file cannot be longer than 1023 bytes in length.
– In Oracle8 Release 8.0.5 and above, the ceiling is raised to 32K.

x

The NO_DATA_FOUND exception is raised if you read past the end of the file.
– You might want to build your own GET_LINE which handles the exception and returns an EOF Boolean status flag.
getnext.sp

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 228

Writing to a File
DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE; BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('c:\temp', 'test.txt', 'W'); UTL_FILE.PUT_LINE (fid, 'UTL_FILE'); UTL_FILE.PUT (fid, 'is so much fun'); UTL_FILE.PUTF (fid, ' that I never\nwant to %s', '&1'); UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid); END; UTL_FILE is so much fun that I never want to stop

Resulting Text

x

You can use PUT, PUT_LINE or PUTF.
– PUTF is like the C printf program, allowing for some formatting.

x

Call FFLUSH to make sure that everything you have written to the buffer is flushed out to the file.
– The file buffers are automatically flushed when you close a file or exit your session.
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 229

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Closing a File
DECLARE fid UTL_FILE.FILE_TYPE; BEGIN fid := UTL_FILE.FOPEN ('c:\temp', 'test.txt', 'R'); UTL_FILE.GET_LINE (fid, myline); UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid); EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE.READ_ERROR THEN UTL_FILE.FCLOSE (fid); END;
x

If you do not close the file, you will not see the data you have (supposedly) written to that file. You can close a single file with FCLOSE or all open files with FCLOSE_ALL. You should close files in exception handlers to make sure that files are not left "hanging" open.
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 230

x

x

Error Handling in UTL_FILE
PACKAGE UTL_FILE IS invalid_path invalid_mode invalid_filehandle invalid_operation read_error write_error internal_error END;
x

EXCEPTION; EXCEPTION; EXCEPTION; EXCEPTION; EXCEPTION; EXCEPTION; EXCEPTION;

UTL_FILE relies on a combination of user-defined exceptions and STANDARD exceptions to communicate errors.
– NO_DATA_FOUND when you try to read past the end of the file. – UTL_FILE-named exceptions in other cases.

x

You have to take special care to trap and handle the named exceptions.
– They all share a common SQLCODE of 1.
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 231

Recommended Exception Section
EXCEPTION WHEN UTL_FILE.INVALID_PATH THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_invalid_path); RAISE; WHEN UTL_FILE.INVALID_MODE THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_invalid_mode); RAISE; WHEN UTL_FILE.INVALID_FILEHANDLE THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_invalid_filehandle); RAISE; WHEN UTL_FILE.INVALID_OPERATION THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_invalid_operation); RAISE; WHEN UTL_FILE.READ_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_read_error); RAISE; WHEN UTL_FILE.WRITE_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_write_error); RAISE; WHEN UTL_FILE.INTERNAL_ERROR THEN recNgo (PLVfile.c_internal_error); RAISE; END;

utlflexc.sql

x

Trap locally by name; record the error, translating the generic user-defined exception into an understandable message. Re-raise exception if you want it to propagate from that block.
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 232

x

Built-in Packages: DBMS_JOB

DBMS_JOB
Scheduled Execution of Stored Procedures
Application Oracle Job Queue Subsystem SUBMIT RUN REMOVE ... Background Process DBA_JOBS

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 233

Overview of DBMS_JOB
x

DBMS_JOB provides an API to the Oracle job queues, which in turn offers job scheduling capabilities within the Oracle Server. Built by Oracle to support snapshots and replication. Made its debut in PL/SQL Release 2.1, but only “publicly available” and supported in PL/SQL Release 2.2. You can use DBMS_JOB to:
– – – – Replicate data between different database instances. Schedule regular maintenance on instances. Schedule large batch jobs to run on "off hours". Create a listener program to poll the contents of a pipe and take action. – Spawn background processes to avoid blocking client process.

x x

x

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 234

DBMS_JOB Module Outline
BROKEN CHANGE INTERVAL ISUBMIT NEXT_DATE REMOVE RUN SUBMIT USER_EXPORT WHAT
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Marks the job as either FIXED or BROKEN. Broken jobs will not run as scheduled. Changes one or all attributes of a job. Changes the interval between executions of a job. Submits a job to the queue using a predefined job number. Changes when a queued job will run. Removes the job from the queue. Forces immediate execution of the specified job number. Submits a job to the queue returning a unique job number. Returns the job string for a job number. Changes the job string of a job.
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 235

Submitting a Job
DECLARE job# BINARY_INTEGER; BEGIN DBMS_JOB.SUBMIT (job#, 'calculate_totals;', SYSDATE, 'SYSDATE + 1'); END;

x

A job is a call to a stored procedure or an anonymous block
– It must end with a semi-colon and can contain “hard-coded” arguments.

x

When you submit a job, you specify the date on which it should next execute, and then the job’s execution interval (frequency of execution).
– In the above example, I run calculate_totals immediately and then on a daily basis thereafter. Notice that the start time is a DATE expression, while the interval is a string (this is dynamic PL/SQL!)

x

You can also call DBMS_JOB.ISUBMIT and supply the job number, instead of having DBMS_JOB generate one for you.
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 236

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Submit Job Example
DECLARE v_jobno INTEGER; BEGIN DBMS_JOB.submit ( job => v_jobno, what => 'DBMS_DDL.ANALYZE_OBJECT ' || '(''TABLE'',''LOAD1'',''TENK''' || ',''ESTIMATE'',null,estimate_percent=>50);', next_date => TRUNC (SYSDATE + 1), interval => 'TRUNC(SYSDATE+1)' ); p.l (v_jobno); END; /

x

This block submits a job that uses a built-in procedure, DBMS_DDL.ANALYZE_OBJECT, to analyze a specific table every evening at midnight.
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DBMS_JOB.ISubmit Job Example
BEGIN DBMS_JOB.ISUBMIT (job => 1 ,what => 'my_job1(''string_parm_value'',120);' ,next_date => SYSDATE + 1/24 ,interval => 'SYSDATE +1'); DBMS_JOB.ISUBMIT (2, 'my_job2(date_IN=>SYSDATE);' ,SYSDATE+1,'SYSDATE+10/1440'); DBMS_JOB.ISUBMIT(3,'BEGIN null; END;',SYSDATE,null); END; /

x

This block submits three jobs to the job queue, numbered 1,2, and 3.
– Job 1 passes a string and number into procedure MY_JOB1, runs it in one hour and executes every day thereafter. – Job 2 passes a date into procedure MY_JOB2, executes for the first time tomorrow and every 10 minutes thereafter. – Job 3 is a PL/SQL block which does nothing, executes immediately, and will be removed from the queue automatically.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 238

Specifying Job Times & Frequencies
x

Probably the most complicated part of using DBMS_JOB is to get the string expression of the job interval right.
– Since it's a string, you must use 2 single quotes to embed strings. – Use date arithmetic to request intervals smaller than a day.
Every hour Every Sunday at 2 AM First Monday of each quarter, at 9 AM Every Monday, Wednesday and Friday at 6 PM 'SYSDATE + 1/24' 'NEXT_DAY (TRUNC (SYSDATE), ''SATURDAY'') 2/24' 'NEXT_DAY ( ADD_MONTHS (TRUNC (SYSDATE, ''Q''), 3), ''MONDAY'') + 9/24' 'TRUNC (LEAST ( NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE, ''MONDAY''), NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE, ''WEDNESDAY''), NEXT_DAY (SYSDATE, ''FRIDAY''))) + 18/24'
PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 239

+

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Other Job Queue Operations
x

Remove a job from the queue.
– Only if the job was submitted from same schema
BEGIN FOR rec IN (SELECT * FROM USER_JOBS) LOOP DBMS_JOB.REMOVE (rec.job); END LOOP; Remove all jobs for current schema.

x

Run a job immediately.
– Performs an implicit COMMIT in current session.
DBMS_JOB.RUN (my_job#);

x

Export jobs from the queue.
– Produces a string that can be used to recreate an existing job in the job queue. – Uses DBMS_JOB.ISUBMIT, retaining current job number.
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expjob.sql

PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 240

Job Queue Views
x

You can also view the job queue by looking at the DBA_JOBS_RUNNING, DBA_JOBS and USER_JOBS views.
– The following query blends job information with session information to display currently-executing jobs, who owns them and when they began.
SELECT jr.job ,username ,jr.this_date ,what job_id username start_date job_definition jr j s
showjobs.sql

FROM

DBA_JOBS_RUNNING ,DBA_JOBS ,V$SESSION

WHERE s.sid = jr.sid AND jr.job = j.job ORDER BY jr.this_date;
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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 241

Setting up the Job Facility
x

Make sure that the correct access is set up for the DBMS_JOB package.
– The default is PUBLIC access. You will have to take special DBA action if you want to restrict who can run jobs.

x

You will need to set three parameters in the init.ora (initialization) file for your database instance:
– job_queue_processes=N where n is the number of concurrent background processes permitted. The valid range is 0 through 36. – job_queue_interval=N where N is the interval in seconds to check the job queue. The valid range is 1 to 3600 (a maximum, therefore, of one hour).

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 242

Error Handling with DBMS_JOB
x

What if your stored procedure fails?
– After 16 attempts, the job facility will mark your job as broken. – Do you want it to try 16 times? – In addition, if your failure raises an unhandled exception, it may cause the background processes to fail and no longer run any jobs at all.

x

To avoid unexpected and unhandled failures of scheduled jobs:
– Always use the RUN built-in to execute your job in a “test” mode. Then you can go ahead and submit it. – Always include a WHEN OTHERS exception handler in your job program which traps any and all problems and automatically sets the job status to broken.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 243

Stopping the Job When It Fails
PROCEDURE calc_totals IS BEGIN ... EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN job# := job_pkg.job (‘calc_totals’) DBMS_JOB.BROKEN (job#, TRUE); job_pkg.log (‘calc_totals’, ‘FAIL’); END;

spacelog.sql showspc.sql

x

The WHEN OTHERS exception handler of the calc_totals procedure traps any kind of failure.
– Obtains the job number from a packaged function by passing the name of the procedure. – Uses a call to BROKEN to set the status of the job to “broken”. – Calls log program of package to record that failure took place. – Now the job facility will not try to run this program again. You can go in and fix the problem.

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 244

"Good to Knows" for DBMS_JOB
x

You may find it useful to always wrap your stored procedure call (the what) inside a BEGIN-END block.
– We've noticed some aberrant, difficult to reproduce behavior at times with "straight" procedure calls.

x

You will need to fully-qualify all database links (with user name and password) to get them to work properly. If you find that you submit a job to run immediately and it does not start, perform a COMMIT after your submit. When a job runs, it picks up the current execution environment for the user. You can use the DBMS_IJOB to manage the jobs of other users.
– DBMS_JOB only allows you to modify characteristics and behavior of jobs submitted by the current schema.

x

x

x

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 245

Built-in Packages: DBMS_PIPE

DBMS_PIPE
Inter-session Communication

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PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 246

DBMS_PIPE Overview
x

Allows communication between different Oracle sessions through a pipe in the RDBMS Shared Global Area.
– Operates outside of database transaction limitations.

x

Uses for DBMS_PIPE include:
– Parallelization of program execution. Oracle uses database pipes to parallelize database operations. You can parallelize your own code. – More sophisticated debugging inside PL/SQL programs (work around fundamental limitations of DBMS_OUTPUT). – Interface PL/SQL-database activities with operating system functions and programs written in other languages. – Perform and commit DML in a separate transaction space from your main transaction.

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Architecture of DBMS_PIPE
Shared Global Area “Sue” “Bob”
Message Buffer Message Buffer

Session A x

Session B

A pipe is a named object that uses the System Global Area to provide a non-transaction based conduit of information.
– The pipe sends/receives a message, which can be composed of one or more separate packets, using a maximum of 4096 bytes. – Names can be up to 128 chars long (do not use names beginning with “ORA$”. They are reserved for Oracle use).

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Processing Flow of DBMS_PIPE
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Construct a message from packets of information.
– Each packet can be a string, date, number, ROWID or RAW. – There is just one message buffer per session.

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Send the message to a named pipe.
– If there isn’t currently room in the pipe, you can wait for up to 1000 days (or 86400000 seconds) for the pipe to be cleared. – This is the default, so you should always specify a timeout period.

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Receive a message from that pipe.
– You can wait for up to 1000 days for a message.

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Unpack the message packets and take action.
– Separate out the individual packets in the message (again: string, date or number).
pipex1.sql pipex2.sql

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DBMS_PIPE Module Outline
Module Name
CREATE_PIPE

Description
Creates a PUBLIC or PRIVATE pipe.

NEXT_ITEM_TYPE Returns the datatype of the next item in the piped message. PACK_MESSAGE Packs an item into the message buffer for your session. PURGE Empties the contents of a pipe into your local buffer freeing it for removal, making it a candidate for removal with a LRU algorithm.

RECEIVE_MESSAGE Receives a message from pipe and copies to local buffer. REMOVE_PIPE RESET_BUFFER Removes a pipe explicitly created via CREATE_PIPE. Clears your buffer so that PACK_MESSAGE and UNPACK_MESSAGE can work from the first item.

SEND_MESSAGE Sends contents of message buffer to the specified pipe. UNIQUE_SESSION_NAME Returns name that is unique among all sessions in the database. UNPACK_MESSAGE Unpacks the next item from the local message buffer and deposits it into the specified local variable.
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Creating Public and Private Pipes
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There are two ways to create pipes: implicitly and explicitly.
– Send messages to non-existent pipe implicitly create it. – Use CREATE_PIPE to create a pipe explicitly.
PROCEDURE newpipe IS stat INTEGER; BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.CREATE_PIPE ( pipename => 'bbs', maxpipesize => 20000, private => TRUE);

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An explicit pipe can be private (accessible only to sessions with matching userID or SYSDBA privileges).
– Specify TRUE for private argument of CREATE_PIPE.

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A public pipe is accessible as long as you know its name.
– Implicitly-created pipes are always public.
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Sending a Message
Provide pipe name, seconds you will wait, and new max pipe size (you can make it bigger, but not smaller). FUNCTION send_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2, timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait, maxpipesize IN INTEGER DEFAULT 8192) RETURN INTEGER;

FOR month_num IN 1 .. 12 LOOP DBMS_PIPE.PACK_MESSAGE ( total_sales (month_num)); END LOOP; pipe_stat := DBMS_PIPE.SEND_MESSAGE ( ‘monthly’, 60, 10 * 4096); IF pipe_stat != 0 THEN RAISE could_not_send;
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Fill your message buffer with packets of data.

Send to "monthly" pipe, waiting up to 1 minute, expanding pipe size to 40 Kbytes.

Status of 0 means message was sent.
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Receiving and Unpack a Message
FUNCTION receive_message (pipename IN VARCHAR2, timeout IN INTEGER DEFAULT maxwait) RETURN INTEGER;

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First you pull the message from the pipe and place it in buffer with RECEIVE_MESSAGE.
– Specify pipe and number of seconds you will wait before you time out. – Pipe status of 0 means the message was read successfully.
PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT VARCHAR2); PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT NUMBER); PROCEDURE unpack_message (item OUT DATE);

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Then you call UNPACK_MESSAGE to extract individual packets from the message.
– You need to know the datatype of packet or check it using NEXT_ITEM_TYPE.
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A Pipe-based Listener Program
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Program wakes up every N seconds to read the data from the pipe and analyze results from assembly line (an intentional "infinite loop"!).
PROCEDURE analyze_assembly_data (every_n_secs IN INTEGER) IS pipe_status INTEGER; Wait up to N prod_total NUMBER; seconds for the BEGIN next report. LOOP pipe_status := DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE ( 'production', every_n_secs); If I got something, pass it on to the IF pipe_status = 0 computation THEN program. DBMS_PIPE.UNPACK_MESSAGE (prod_total); analyze_production (SYSDATE, prod_total); ELSE RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR ( Stop process if data -20000, 'Production data unavailable.'); not received. END IF; END LOOP; 07/27/08 Copyright END; PL/SQL Advanced Techniques - page 254

Unpacking the Message
FUNCTION next_item_type RETURN INTEGER;

Returns one of the following values:
Value 0 6 9 11 12 23 Description or Data type No more items in buffer NUMBER VARCHAR2 ROWID DATE RAW

dbpipe.sql dbpipe.tst

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Since a message can be composed of packets of different datatypes, you have to make sure that you unpack a packet into the right kind of variable. Either:
– You know the datatype and therefore can “hard-code” the correct variable into the call to UNPACK_MESSAGE. – Or you use the built-in NEXT_ITEM_TYPE to tell you in advance the datatype of the next packet in the message and take appropriate action.
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Parallelizing Your Code with Pipes
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Oracle uses DBMS_PIPE to improve RDBMS performance; you can do the same for your application if:
– You have multiple CPUs available. – You have processes which can run in parallel.

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Suppose I want to calculate my net profit. In order to do so I must first compute total sales, total office expenses and total compensation.
– These programs each take 15 minutes, but are not dependent on each other.

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Without pipes, I must execute them sequentially and incur an elapsed time of 45 minutes before I calculate the profits. – The CEO is decidedly unhappy about the delay.

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Sequential vs. Parallel Execution
Sequential Execution: Maximum Elapsed Time
S t a r t E n d

Process A

Process B

Process C

Parallel Execution: Minimum Elapsed Time Start

Process A

Process B

Process C

End
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Parallelizing PL/SQL Execution
BEGIN kick_off_sales_calc; kick_off_exp_calc; kick_off_totcomp_calc; wait_for_confirmation; calculate_net_profits; END;
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The “kick off” programs pass their messages to separate pipes.
– Other programs running in the background grab the messages and start their corresponding calculation program. – When each program is complete, it puts a message (perhaps even a value) into the pipe.

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The “wait” program waits till it receives a message from each program. Then net profits can be computed -- in a muchdecreased elapsed time.
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Code to Kick Off and Calculate
PROCEDURE kick_off_sales_calc IS stat INTEGER; BEGIN DBMS_PIPE.PACK_MESSAGE (1995); stat := DBMS_PIPE.SEND_MESSAGE (‘sales’); END; PROCEDURE calculate_sales IS stat INTEGER; BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (‘sales’); IF stat = 0 THEN lots_of_number_crunching; DBMS_PIPE.PACK_MESSAGE (sales$); stat := DBMS_PIPE.SEND_MESSAGE (‘sales’); ELSE DBMS_PIPE.PACK_MESSAGE (NULL); stat := DBMS_PIPE.SEND_MESSAGE (‘sales’); END IF; END; Send message to start calculations.

Receive the year, calculate sales, and send back the results.

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Waiting for Confirmation
PROCEDURE wait_for_confirmation IS stat INTEGER; BEGIN stat := DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (‘sales’); DBMS_PIPE.UNPACK_MESSAGE (sales$); stat := DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (‘offexp’); DBMS_PIPE.UNPACK_MESSAGE (offexp$); stat := DBMS_PIPE.RECEIVE_MESSAGE (‘comp’); DBMS_PIPE.UNPACK_MESSAGE (comp$); END; PROCEDURE calculate_net_profits IS BEGIN net_profits := sales$ - offexp$ - comp$; END; Perform final calculation.

Wait for all calculations to finish. The order in which you wait is insignificant.

parallel.sql

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Other DBMS_PIPE Examples
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Simple trace package that sends it output either to screen or to pipe.
– Demonstrates the use of toggles and switches in packages.

watch.pkg p_and_l.pkg

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Implementation of a system-wide, in-memory cache.
– A request for data is passed to a "central" pipe. – A listener program grabs the request (including the return pipe name), obtains the data, and sends it to the pipe. – The requester reads the information from the pipe.
syscache.pkg syscache.tst

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Built-in Packages: DBMS_UTILITY
DBMS_UTILITY
Application GET_TIME GET_HASH_VALUE FORMAT_CALL_STACK ...

A ‘grab-bag’ of miscellaneous operations

SCHEMA

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DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline
ANALYZE_DATABASE ANALYZE_PART_OBJECT COMMA_TO_TABLE COMPILE_SCHEMA DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_BLOCK DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS_FILE DB_VERSION EXEC_DDL_STATEMENT FORMAT_CALL_STACK FORMAT_ERROR_STACK GET_HASH_VALUE
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Analyze objects in database Runs ANALYZE TABLE or ANALYZE INDEX for each partition of the object (Oracle8). Parses comma-delimited list to index-by table. Recompile INVALID objects in specified schema. Gets block number part of data block address. Gets file number part of data block address. Returns database version (Oracle8) Executes DDL statement (Oracle8). Returns execution call stack. Returns error stack. Returns hash value for string.
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dbver.pkg dbparm.pkg

DBMS_UTILITY Module Outline, cont.
GET_PARAMETER_VALUE GET_TIME IS_PARALLEL_SERVER MAKE_DATA_BLOCK_ADDRESS NAME_RESOLVE NAME_TOKENIZE PORT_STRING TABLE_TO_COMMA Retrieves value of database parameter (Oracle8). Returns "current time" down to hundredth of second. Returns TRUE if in parallel server mode. Creates data block address from block & file numbers. Resolves name of object into component parts. Parses string object designator into components. Returns platform and version of database. Converts list (in index-by-table) of elements into a comma-delimited list (string).

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Sub-Second Timings with GET_TIME
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GET_TIME returns the number of 100ths of seconds that have elapsed since an arbitrary point in time.
– SYSDATE only reflects times down to the nearest second, so GET_TIME offers significant additional granularity. – Useful when analyzing individual PL/SQL programs, especially those that run in sub-second time.

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Compare results from consecutive calls to GET_TIME to determine the elapsed time of PL/SQL code execution.
Basic steps necessary to convert GET_TIME into a performance analysis tool. DECLARE v_start BINARY_INTEGER; BEGIN v_start := DBMS_UTILITY.GET_TIME; calc_totals; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (DBMS_UTILITY.GET_TIME - v_start); END;
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Building a Layer Over GET_TIME
Partial package specification PACKAGE PLVtmr IS PROCEDURE turn_on; PROCEDURE turn_off; PROCEDURE set_factor (factor_in IN NUMBER); PROCEDURE capture ( context_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL) PROCEDURE show_elapsed (prefix_in IN VARCHAR2 := NULL, adjust_in IN NUMBER := 0, reset_in IN BOOLEAN := TRUE); END PLVtmr; BEGIN PLVtmr.capture; calc_totals; PLVtmr.show_elapsed; END;

Clean and lean timing code
ovrhead.sql plvtmr.sps plvtmr.spb

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Accessing the Execution Call Stack
Use in the exception section to show context of error. EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE ( DBMS_UTILITY.FORMAT_CALL_STACK); END; ----- PL/SQL Call Stack ----object line object handle number name 88ce3f74 88e49fc4 88e49390 88e2bd20 8 2 1 1 package STEVEN.VALIDATE_REQUEST function STEVEN.COMPANY_TYPE procedure STEVEN.CALC_NET_WORTH anonymous block

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"Little known facts" about FORMAT_CALL_STACK:
– Contains embedded new-line characters, equivalent to CHR(10).

– Most recent program at beginning of "report". – Does not show package elements, only the package name.
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Accessing Call Stack Contents
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The call stack length can easily exceed 255 bytes, which means you cannot pass it to DBMS_OUTPUT directly. Instead, use a loop to read through the stack.
CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE dispcs IS stk VARCHAR2(10000); next_newline INTEGER; next_line VARCHAR2(255); startpos INTEGER := 1; BEGIN stk := DBMS_UTILITY.FORMAT_CALL_STACK || CHR(10); LOOP next_newline := INSTR (stk, CHR(10), startpos, 1); EXIT WHEN next_newline = 0; next_line := SUBSTR ( stk, startpos, next_newline - startpos + 1);

dispcs.sp dispcs.tst callstack.pkg plvcs.sps

DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE (next_line); startpos := next_newline + 1; END LOOP; END;
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Resolving Names of Stored Code
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Code names have many components; the way they are attached also follows a complicated syntax.
– Use NAME_RESOLVE to break down an identifier string into its components easily.

PROCEDURE DBMS_UTILITY.NAME_RESOLVE (name IN VARCHAR2, context IN NUMBER, schema OUT VARCHAR2, part1 OUT VARCHAR2, part2 OUT VARCHAR2, dblink OUT VARCHAR2, part1_type OUT NUMBER, object_number OUT NUMBER);
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Possible "Part 1" Types 5 7 8 9 Synonym Procedure Function Package

What a chore! All those arguments...but don't see it as a problem, see it as an opportunity...for encapsulation!
showcomp.sp snc.pkg

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