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Early Childhood

Care and Education

Terminologies in ECCE
• Early childhood
- refers to the period between birth and 8 years
of life.
• Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE)
- refers to a range of processes and mechanisms
that sustain and support development during the
early years of life: it encompasses education,
physical, social and emotional care, intellectual
stimulation, health care and nutrition. It also
includes the support a family and community
need to promote children’s healthy development.
Terminologies in ECCE
• Accommodation
- Refers to adjustments or adaptations made in
standards and assessment tools to allow children
with Special Needs or English-Language Learners
to demonstrate their knowledge and skills.
Terminologies in ECCE
• Adult-Child Ratio
- Refers to the number of qualified adult
caregivers relative to the number of children in a
child care program. In determining the regulatory
adult-to-child ratio, the ages of children served
are also considered. In high Quality programs,
there is typically a low adult-child/staff-child
Terminologies in ECCE
• Approaches to learning
- It refers to the skills and behaviors that children
use to engage in learning.
- incorporates emotional, behavioral, and
cognitive self-regulation under a single umbrella
to guide teaching practices that support the
development of these skills; also includes
initiative, curiosity, and creativity.
Terminologies in ECCE
• Attachment
- The emotional and psychological bond between
a child and adult, typically a parent or caregiver,
that contributes to the child’s sense of security
and safety. It is believed that secure attachment
leads to psychological well-being and Resilience
throughout the child's lifetime and is considered a
key predictor of positive Child Development and
Terminologies in ECCE
• Center Based Child Care
- Child care provided in nonresidential group
settings, such as within public or private schools,
churches, preschools, day care centers, or nursery
schools. See related: Community Cased Child
Care/Community Based Organization (CBO).
Terminologies in ECCE
• Child Development
- The process by which children acquire skills in
the areas of social, emotional, intellectual, speech
and language, and physical development,
including fine and gross motor skills.
Developmental stages describe the expected,
sequential order of gaining skills and competencies
that children typically acquire. See related:
Developmental Milestones; Approaches to
Terminologies in ECCE
• Community-Based Child Care/Community-
Based Organization (CBO)
- A nonprofit organization that provides
educational or related services to children and
families within their local community.
Terminologies in ECCE
• Cognitive Development

- Cognitive development is the construction of

thought processes, including remembering,
problem solving, and decision-making, from
childhood through adolescence to adulthood.
Terminologies in ECCE
• Constructive Play
- an organized form of play that is, in many
ways, goal oriented and thoughtful. Children who
are engaged in constructive play use materials to
create something, and this increases in complexity
as they get older.
Terminologies in ECCE
• Cultural Competence
- A term that describes what happens when
special knowledge about individuals and groups of
people is incorporated into standards, policies,
and practices. Cultural competence fosters an
appreciation of families and their unique
backgrounds and has been shown to increase the
quality and effectiveness of services to children.
Terminologies in ECCE
• Curriculum
- A written plan that includes goals for children's
development and learning; the experiences
through which they will achieve the goals; what
staff and parents should do to help children
achieve the goals; and the materials needed to
support the implementation of the curriculum.
Terminologies in ECCE
• Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP)
- an approach to teaching grounded in the research
on how young children develop and learn and in
what is known about effective early education. Its
framework is designed to promote young children’s
optimal learning and development.
Terminologies in ECCE
• Developmental Domains
- Refers to the five domains of Child
Development: Physical, the development and
growth of the child's body, muscles, and senses;
Terminologies in ECCE
• Developmental Milestones
- A set of functional skills or age-specific tasks
that experts agree most children should be able to
do within a certain age range. Milestones enable
families and professionals to monitor a child's
learning, behavior, and development and can
signal when there might be a developmental delay
or cause for greater concern.
Terminologies in ECCE
• Developmental Outcomes
- Describes the condition of a child's
developmental health and life trajectory that can
be impacted by determinants such as: family
income and education level, access to health and
child care services, choice of neighborhood, social
support networks, and genetics, among others.
Terminologies in ECCE
• Developmental Screening and Assessment
- The practice of systematically measuring a
child's development across multiple domains and
looking for signs of developmental delays.
Screening and assessment tools are typically
administered by professionals in healthcare,
community, or school settings with children and
families and can consist of formal questionnaires
or checklists that ask targeted questions about a
child’s development.
Terminologies in ECCE
• Dramatic Play
- a type of play where children accept and assign
roles, and then act them out. It is a time when they
break through the walls of reality, pretend to be
someone or something different from themselves,
and dramatize situations and actions to go along
with the roles they have chosen to play.
Terminologies in ECCE
• Dual Generation Strategies
- An approach to stimulating young children's
healthy development that includes promoting the
capabilities and resources of parents, families or
caregivers. These strategies generally link the
provision of services for children, such as Quality
child care, with services for their parents and
entire families, such as employment counseling or
housing assistance.
Terminologies in ECCE
• Dual Language Learners (DLL)
- Refers to children under the age of five who
have at least one parent or guardian that speaks
a language other than Filipino at home and who
are mastering their native language while learning
English simultaneously.
Terminologies in ECCE
• Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation
- A strategic intervention geared towards
building the capacity of early childhood staff,
programs, families, and systems to prevent,
identify, treat, and reduce the impact of
mental health problems among children from
birth to age six.
- In a child-focused consultation, the consultant
may facilitate the development of an
individualized plan for the child;
- In a classroom-focused consultation, the
consultant may work with the
teacher/caregiver to increase the level of Social-
Terminologies in ECCE
• Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation
- In a classroom-focused consultation, the
consultant may work with the
teacher/caregiver to increase the level of Social-
Emotional support for all the children in the
class through observations, modeling, and
sharing of resources and information;
- In a program-focused consultation, the
consultant may help administrators address
policies and procedures that benefit all children
and adults in the program.
Terminologies in ECCE
• Early Intervention (EI)
- Services that are designed to address the
developmental needs of infants and toddlers with
disabilities, ages birth to three years, and their
families. Early intervention services are generally
administered by qualified personnel and require
the development of an Individualized Family
Service Plan (IFSP). Early intervention is
authorized by the federal Individuals with
Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), Part C.
Terminologies in ECCE
• Early Learning and Development
- A set of expectations, guidelines, or
Developmental Milestones that describe what all
children from birth until kindergarten entry
should know and be able to do as well as their
disposition toward learning. These
standards/guidelines must be developmentally,
linguistically, and culturally appropriate and cover
all Developmental Domains.
Terminologies in ECCE
• Early Literacy
- Refers to what children know about and are
able to do as it relates to communication,
language, reading, and writing before they can
actually read and write. Children's experiences
with conversation, books, print and stories (oral
and written) all contribute to their early literacy
Terminologies in ECCE
• Early Math/Numeracy
- Refers to the foundations of mathematical
reasoning that are acquired in early childhood,
typically by way of number counting, measuring,
sorting, noticing patterns and adding and
subtracting numbers.
Terminologies in ECCE
• Exploratory Play
- is when children use their senses of smell, taste
and touch to explore and discover the texture and
function of things around them. This form of play
allows them to comprehend new experiences.

• Environmental Print
- The words that are all around us, such as store
signs, a menu board, or a poster with the daily
Terminologies in ECCE
• Head Start
- A federal program that provides comprehensive
early childhood education, health, nutrition, and
parent involvement services to low-income
families. The program is designed to foster stable
family relationships, enhance children's physical
and emotional well-being and support children's
cognitive skills so they are ready to succeed in
Terminologies in ECCE
• Parent Involvement
- Refers to active parent/family participation in a
child’s care and education. To increase Parent
Involvement, child care providers will typically
identify projects, needs, and goals and let parents
know how they can contribute. Parental
involvement is often measured by metrics related
to attendance at school meetings, events and
parent-teacher conferences; or by volunteering or
serving on a school committee.
Terminologies in ECCE
• Play
- Voluntary, intrinsically motivated activities
commonly associated with pleasure and
enjoyment, not for the purpose of meeting specific
learning outcomes. Through play, young children
engage and interact in the world around them,
developing new Competencies across
Developmental Domains. Types of play include
dramatic/fantasy play, rough and tumble, and
parallel and cooperative play, among others.
Terminologies in ECCE
• Physical Development
- is the process of development that starts in
human infancy and continues into late adolescent
concentrating on gross and fine motor skills as
well as puberty.
Terminologies in ECCE
• Pre-Kindergarten (Pre-K)
- Programs designed for three and four year olds
that focus on School Readiness.
Terminologies in ECCE
• Preschool
- Programs that provide early education and care
to children before they enter kindergarten,
typically from ages 2.5-5 years. Preschools may
be publicly or privately operated and may receive
public funds.
Terminologies in ECCE
• Print Awareness
- refers to a child's understanding of the nature
and uses of print.
- is closely associated with his or her
word awareness or the ability to recognize
words as distinct elements of oral and written
Terminologies in ECCE
• Self-Regulation
- (Behaviorally) is the ability to act in your long-
term best interest, consistent with your deepest
- (Emotionally) is the ability to calm yourself
down when you're upset and cheer yourself up
when you're down.
Terminologies in ECCE
• Separation Anxiety
- Anxiety or distress experienced by a child when
separated from a primary caregiver or
attachment figure. Separation anxiety typically
starts around 8-12 months when
infants/toddlers develop an understanding of
object permanence (that things and people exist
even when they're not present).
Terminologies in ECCE
• School Readiness
- A term to describe the skills, knowledge, and
attitudes necessary to successfully transition to,
and perform well in, the early school years. School
readiness is typically determined based on
children's developmental status and progress in
the following five domains: language and literacy
development, cognition and general knowledge,
Approaches to Learning, physical well-being and
motor development, and social and emotional
Terminologies in ECCE
• Social and Emotional Development
- includes the child’s experience, expression, and
management of emotions and the ability to
establish positive and rewarding relationships with
others (Cohen and others 2005). It encompasses
both intra- and interpersonal processes.
Terminologies in ECCE
• Scaffolding
- refers to a variety of instructional techniques
used to move students progressively toward
stronger understanding and, ultimately, greater
independence in the learning process.