Objectives of the Session

Why study Training Methods ? Who select training Methods ? What are Training Methods ? How TMethods Selected ?

1 Why Study Training Methods?

TM are the means people use to achieve performance
objectives of the contents of a training programme . It is important to know which method may help trainees acquire desired skills, knowledge and attitudes

2 Who Select Training Methods?
‡Trainers apply


‡How applied ? ‡Motivation ‡Liking ‡Efficient ‡Meet Objective

3 What are Training Methods?

Lectures Discussions Demonstrations Simulations Practical Exercises Projects Individualized Learning Case Studies On the Job Training Work Site Visits Computer Assisted

3 What are Training Methods?
Methods Procedures Techniques Processes

Training Programme

Untrained Person

Trained Person

4 How are T Methods Selected?
Analyzing components of Training Programme

Identifying characteristics of methods Comparing Training Components with Methods

Analysing Training Components

‡Learning Principles ‡Training Objectives ‡Trainees ‡Trainers ‡Constraints

Analysing Training Components

‡Learning Principles
Learning is different for individuals Motivation is Essential to learning Learning should be relevant to trainee¶s Experience Feedback

Learning---Retention of information



Words & Pictures Words, Picture & Practice



-study by UNESCO

Learning---Retention of information

Tell me and I

Show me and I may


Involve me and I will



Specify Objectives

Selection of appropriate training methods depends on clearly defined performance objectives . With objectives identified, it is possible to define the methods or combination of methods , appropriate for each objective

Specify Objectives- example

Objective: Given different types of hardwoods, the students will identify each by name

Method: Presentation of actual wood samples is better than picture, colored photographs would be better than black and white and any kind of picture or illustration would be better than telling about wood

Describing Trainees

If training methods are to be used effectively,there must be a match between the characteristics of trainees and the content of Learning material and its presentation

Describing Trainees- characteristics



Describing Trainees- characteristics


‡Age ‡Gender ‡Education Level ‡Aptitude to learn ‡Cultural Factors ‡No. of Trainees

Describing Trainees- characteristics

‡Prerequisites Skills ‡Target Skills ‡Study Skills ‡Attitudes


Describing Trainers

‡Teaching Qualifications ‡Technical Know-how ‡Skill Level ‡Attitude towards trainees & Training ‡Individual Initiative

Identify Constraints

‡Budget Availability ‡Facilities Availability ‡Time Available for Training

Identifying Characteristics of Methods

Lecture Method

It is a teacher centered Activity where trainees listen to and watch the trainer present a lesson

‡One way ‡Notes taken by students ‡Serves Large Number ‡Less Costly ‡Little interaction ‡Little Retention ‡Don¶t Promote individual learning ‡No Problem Solving Skills ‡No Opportunity to Manipulate, tools, machines or materials

Discussion Method

‡Takes more time ‡Effective with small groups ‡ Improves Communication Skills

The trainer direct trainees discussions of topics. Trainees answer Questions & sometimes initiate their Questions for the trainer

‡Actively involve trainees ‡Good Learning

Demonstration Method

‡Requires Skilled Trainer ‡Requires equipments«. It is another teacher centered Method where trainees get a chance to watch certain manual skills. Trainer shows trainees how To use a tool, machine or process ‡May be a Workshop, Lab ‡No Interaction of trainees with tools«.

Practical Exercises

‡Promote interest & Enthusiasm ‡Opportunity to work with tools, machines
It gives trainees a chance to practice certain observable skills. Trainees are guided by the trainer. Job or assignment sheets give trainees specific instructions

‡Repetition may kill enthusiasm ‡May require tools, machines, materials«.


‡Individual or Group projects ‡Promote team work ‡Promote Communication Projects are trainee centered. Trainees collect data, design the Project and actually produce a Finished product may be under the guidance of trainer ‡May be Costly ‡May require equipments ‡Cant be applied to Large No

Case Studies

‡Examine Real Situation ‡Builds skills in ‡Communication ‡Problem solving ‡Creativity ‡Method is Costly ‡Time Consuming ‡Sometimes no solutions

It involve trainees in solution of a problem. Usually working in small groups, trainees study a Problem described in a case.

On the Job Training

‡Costly ‡Supervisors loose interest Used to develop job skills and Supplement class room training Teacher centered & trainees get Opportunity to feel real job Environment for learning ‡Hard to schedule ‡Priorities may be different ‡Good Learning Environment

Work Site Visits

‡Check list to observe ‡Trainers observe learning Visitations to work sites offer trainees a good chance to see the application of skills and knowledge in real situations ‡Costly ‡Time Consuming ‡Observing Large Group

Computer Assisted

‡Trainer Validate Learning ‡Useful ‡Time Consuming Trainee direct their own learning with the computer assisted method ‡Updating Processors ‡Skilled Trainers

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