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Project Management Framework

Project Management Framework

Definition of a Project

A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique

product, service, or result

A project has the following 3 characteristics:

•Unique – different
•Temporary – A project has a definite start and end date
•Progressively Elaborated – The project scope is broadly described
during the initial phase of the project and made more explicit as the
project progresses
Project Management Framework

A program is defined as a group of related projects, subprograms, and program activities

managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing
them individually.

A portfolio refers to a collection of projects, programs, sub-portfolios, and operations
managed as a group to achieve strategic objectives.

Example of a Project – Construction of a building

Example of a Program – Construction of a housing complex with several buildings
Example of a Portfolio – All the housing projects of the company

•Projects within a program are related through the common outcome or collective
• If the relationship between projects is only that of a shared client, seller, technology, or
resource, the effort should be managed as a portfolio of projects rather than as a program
Project Management Framework
Projects are typically authorized as a result of one or more of the following
strategic considerations:
•Market demand
•Strategic opportunity/business need
•Social need
•Environmental consideration
•Customer request
•Technological advance and
•Legal requirement

Project Management:

The application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities

to meet project objectives. Project management is accomplished through the
appropriate application and integration of the 47 logically grouped project
management processes, which are categorized into 5 Process groups and 10
Knowledge areas
Project Management Framework
Managing a project typically includes, but is not limited to:

• Identifying requirements;
• Addressing the various needs, concerns, and expectations of the stakeholders in
planning and executing the project;
• Setting up, maintaining, and carrying out communications among stakeholders
that are active, effective, and collaborative in nature;
•Managing stakeholders towards meeting project requirements and creating
project deliverables;
•Balancing the competing project constraints, which include, but are not limited
Resources, and
Project Management Framework
Project Management Office

A project management office (PMO) is a management structure that standardizes the

project-related governance processes and facilitates the sharing of resources,
methodologies, tools, and techniques.
There are several types of PMO structures in organizations, each varying in the degree of
control and influence they have on projects within the organization, such as:

Supportive. Supportive PMOs provide a consultative role to projects by supplying

templates, best practices, training, access to information and lessons learned from other
projects. This type of PMO serves as a project repository. The degree of control provided by
the PMO is low.

Controlling. Controlling PMOs provide support and require compliance through various
means. Compliance may involve adopting project management frameworks or
methodologies, using specific templates, forms and tools, or conformance to governance.
The degree of control provided by the PMO is moderate.

Directive. Directive PMOs take control of the projects by directly managing the projects
Project Management Framework
A primary function of a PMO is to support project managers in a variety of ways which
may include, but are not limited to:

•Managing shared resources across all projects administered by the PMO;

•Identifying and developing project management methodology, best practices, and
•Coaching, mentoring, training, and oversight;
•Monitoring compliance with project management standards, policies, procedures,
and templates by means of project audits;
•Developing and managing project policies, procedures, templates, and other shared
documentation (organizational process assets); and
•Coordinating communication across projects.


Projects require project management activities and skill sets, while operations require
business process management, operations management activities, and skill sets.
Project Management Framework
Operations Management
• Repetitive execution of activities and processes that produce the same
product, service or result.
• Operations require business process management whereas projects require
project management.
• Operations are ongoing actions that produce repetitive outputs by the
resources doing the same thing over and over

Project and Operations intersections

•At each closeout phase

•When developing a new product, upgrading a product, or
expanding outputs
•Improvement of operations or the product development process
•Until the divestment of the operations at the end of the product
Project Management Framework
Competency requirements of a Project Manager:

Knowledge—Refers to what the project manager knows about

project management.

Performance—Refers to what the project manager is able to do or

accomplish while applying his or her project management

Personal—Refers to how the project manager behaves when

performing the project or related activity.Personal effectiveness
encompasses attitudes, core personality characteristics, and
leadership, which provides the ability to guide the project team
while achieving project objectives and balancing the project
Organizational Influences
Organizational Cultures and Styles
Cultures and styles are group phenomena known as cultural norms, which
develop over time. Organizational culture is shaped by the common experiences
of members of the organization and most organizations have developed unique
cultures over time by practice and common usage.

Common experiences include, but are not limited to:

•Shared visions, mission, values, beliefs, and expectations;
•Regulations, policies, methods, and procedures;
•Motivation and reward systems;
•Risk tolerance;
•View of leadership, hierarchy, and authority relationships;
•Code of conduct, work ethic, and work hours; and
•Operating environments.

Organizational Communications
Project management success in an organization is highly dependent on an
effective organizational communication style
Organizational Influences – Organization Structure

A functional organization is one where the functional managers have all the
power. The "project manager", only takes down notes at status meetings and
does bookkeeping -- but has no actual authority to plan projects, assign work or
manage changes. We call that role a project expeditor, and the person filling
that role usually reports directly to the functional manager.

- In a weak matrix, the project manager is usually a part-time role. In many

cases, the project manager is really a project coordinator, which is more of an
administrative role but does have some limited authority over the project and
usually reports to a higher-level manager. The budget is controlled by the
functional manager, and all major project decisions must be cleared with the
functional manager.

- In a balanced matrix, the project manager is a full-time role with more

authority. Project decisions and budget responsibilities are shared between the
functional manager and the project manager -- the project manager needs to
clear decisions with the functional manager, but the functional manager also
needs to clear decisions with the project manager.
Organizational Influences – Organization Structure

- In a strong matrix, the project manager has more authority over the project
than the functional manager. The functional manager's role is more concerned
with making sure the team members' professional development and
organizational needs are met, while the project manager makes the bulk of the
project-related decisions and generally doesn't need to get the functional
manager's approval for them.

Finally, a projectized organization is one where the project manager has full
authority, and if there is a functional manager he has very limited authority. The
project manager has complete authority to assign work to the team, work with
the budget, manage changes, and carry out all project management

When you're taking the PMP exam, if a question asks about a project
manager's role in a project but doesn't specify a specific type of
organization, assume it's talking about a strong matrix organization.
Organizational Influences
Organizational Process Assets:
•Organizational process assets are the plans, processes, policies, procedures,
and knowledge bases specific to and used by the performing organization.
•Organizational process assets provide guidelines and criteria for tailoring the
organization’s processes to the specific needs of the project.
•Organizational process assets may be grouped into two categories: (1)
processes and procedures, and (2) corporate knowledge base.

Some of the common corporate knowledge bases are

•Configuration management knowledge bases
•Financial data bases
•Historical information and lessons learned knowledge bases
• Issue and defect management databases
•Process measurement databases
•Project files from previous projects
Organizational Influences
Enterprise environmental factors (EEF)
EEF refer to conditions, not under the control of the project team, that influence,
constrain, or direct the project.

EEF include, but are not limited to:

•Organizational culture, structure, and governance;
•Geographic distribution of facilities and resources;
•Government or industry standards
•Existing human resources (e.g., skills, disciplines, and knowledge, such as design,
development, legal, contracting, and purchasing);
•Personnel administration (e.g., staffing and retention guidelines, employee
performance reviews and training records, reward and overtime policy, and time
•Company work authorization systems;
•Marketplace conditions;
•Stakeholder risk tolerances;
•Political climate;
•Organization’s established communications channels;
•Commercial databases and
•Project management information system
Project Governance – Project Stakeholders
Project stakeholders: A stakeholder is an individual, group, or organization who
may affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a decision, activity,
or outcome of a project.

Project staff. The members of the team who carry out the work of creating the
project deliverables.

Functional Managers are individuals who play a management role within

administrative or functional areas of the business, (e.g., managers in departments
like Human Resource, Accounting, Finance, etc. are functional managers.)

Operations Managers are individuals who have a management role in core

business areas, such as Research and Development, Design, Manufacturing,
Testing, or Maintenance. Unlike functional managers, operations managers deal
with producing and maintaining the saleable products or services of the
Project Governance – Project Stakeholders
Sponsor: Provides funding and other resources for the project and is ultimately
accountable for success; also serves as an escalation point for important issues

Customer Who acquires the project's product, service, or result

User Who directly uses the project's product, service, or result

Team Members All the team members actively working on the project
The project management team is a part of the project team. It includes the project
manager and a few other key team members who are directly involved in
managing the project.

Organizational groups. Organizational groups are internal stakeholders who are

affected by the activities of the project team.

Business partners. Business partners are external organizations that have a special
relationship with the enterprise, sometimes attained through a certification

Note: Differences among stakeholders must be resolved in favor of the customer.

Project Governance Framework

Project governance framework provides the project manager

and team with structure, processes, decision-making models
and tools for managing the project, while supporting and
controlling the project for successful delivery

It includes a framework for making project decisions; defines

roles, responsibilities, and accountabilities for the success of
the project; and determines the effectiveness of the project
Project Governance
Project Team
Project management staff. The members of the team who perform project management

Project staff. The members of the team who carry out the work of creating the project

Supporting experts. Supporting experts perform activities required to develop or execute

the project management plan.

User or Customer Representatives. Members of the organization who will accept the
deliverables or products of the project
Sellers. Sellers, also called vendors, suppliers, or contractors, are external companies that
enter into
a contractual agreement to provide components or services necessary for the project.

Business partner members. Members of business partners’ organizations may be

assigned as members of the project team to ensure proper coordination.

Business partners. Business partners provide specialized expertise or fill a specified role
such as installation, customization, training, or support.
Project Governance

Project Success
Since projects are temporary in nature, the success of the project
should be measured in terms of completing the project within the
constraints of scope, time, cost, quality, resources, and risk as
approved between the project managers and senior management
Project success should be referred to the last baselines approved
by the authorized stakeholders.

The project manager is responsible and accountable for setting

realistic and achievable boundaries for the project and to
accomplish the project within the approved baselines
Project Life Cycle

Product Life Cycle

A product life cycle is undertaken to launch a product.

A product life cycle may have several projects (hence multiple project life cycles) and
The product phases are generally sequential and non-overlapping, e.g., a project
undertaken to design a new desktop computer is only one phase in the product life
Project Life Cycle
Project Life Cycle

A project life cycle includes all the phases required for a project to create a
product, service, or result.
Example: In IT or software development projects, a sample project life
cycle may include the phases of Initiation, High Level Design, Low Level
Design, Coding, Unit Testing, Integration Testing, User Acceptance Testing,
and Rollout.
The project life cycle is industry specific and can be different for each

The following are features of a project life cycle:

•The project life cycle includes phases that initiate the project, plan and
organize it, execute the project work, and close out the project.
•It includes the transitional activities at the beginning and end of the project;
so, there is a link with ongoing operations of the performing organization.
•The project life cycle may be just one phase of the product life cycle
Project Life Cycle
Typical Project Phase – Cost and Staffing Effort

Project Life Cycle

Typical Project Phase – Impact of Changes and Risk

Project Life Cycle
• The project life cycle is divided into project phases.
• This provides a formal basis for control and reduces the degree of
•A management review is held at the end of a phase, and often includes
a decision regarding whether to start the activities of a subsequent
•Phase-end reviews are also called phase gates, kill points, decision
gates, milestones, phase exits, and toll gates.
• A phase-end review can also be used to terminate the project if

The two basic types of phase-to-phase relationships are

a) sequential and b) overlapping.

Sequential: A phase starts after the previous phase is complete. This

approach reduces uncertainty but does not give options to crunch schedule

Overlapping: A phase starts prior to the completion of the previous one.

Allows for schedule compression, but may increase risk and chances of rework
Project Life Cycle
Predictive Life Cycles
Predictive life cycles are ones in which the project scope, and the time and cost required to
deliver that scope, are determined as early in the project life cycle as practically possible.

Iterative and Incremental Life Cycles

Iterative and incremental life cycles are ones in which project phases (also called iterations)
intentionally repeat one or more project activities as the project team’s understanding of the
product increases. Iterations develop the product through a series of repeated cycles, while
increments successively add to the functionality of the product.

Iterative and incremental life cycles are preferred when an organization needs to manage
changing objectives and scope, to reduce the complexity of a project, or when the partial
delivery is beneficial without impact to the final deliverable or set of deliverables.

Adaptive Life Cycles

Adaptive life cycles (also known as change-driven or agile methods) are intended to respond
to high levels of change and ongoing stakeholder involvement.
Adaptive methods are also iterative and incremental, but differ in that iterations are very
rapid (usually with a duration of 2 to 4 weeks) and are fixed in time and cost.
Project Life Cycle
Characteristics of Project Life Cycles

1. / Factors that increase throughout the project, then decrease sharply when the project nears completion:
•Cost of the project
•Resource levels / usage

2. Factors that increase throughout the project, and remain high at the end of the project:
•Probability of successfully completing the project
•Cost of changes
•Cost of repairing defects

3. Factors that decrease throughout the project:

• Uncertainty about the project
•Stakeholders' influence or ability to change the characteristics of the project's product, service, or result
•Stakeholders' influence or ability to change the cost of the project
Project Life Cycle
Project Management Life cycle

:The project management life cycle is not industry specific and is valid for al projects.

The project management life cycle includes five project management process groups:
•Monitoring and Controlling
The process groups interact and overlap as shown below. Project management processes are iterative, overlap, and interact with each other.
Project Management Processes
Project management processes. These processes ensure the effective flow of the
project throughout its life cycle. These processes encompass the tools and
techniques involved in applying the skills and capabilities described in the Knowledge
Product-oriented processes. These processes specify and create the project’s
product. Product oriented processes are typically defined by the project life cycle and
vary by application area as well as the phase of the product life cycle. The scope of the
project cannot be defined without some basic understanding of how to create the
specified product.
Project Management Processes

•Initiating Process Group. Those processes performed to define a new project

or a new phase of an existing project by obtaining authorization to start the
project or phase.
•Planning Process Group. Those processes required to establish the scope of the
project, refine the objectives, and define the course of action required to attain
the objectives that the project was undertaken to achieve.
•Executing Process Group. Those processes performed to complete the work
defined in the project management plan to satisfy the project specifications.
•Monitoring and Controlling Process Group. Those processes required to track,
review, and regulate the progress and performance of the project; identify any
areas in which changes to the plan are required; and initiate the corresponding
•Closing Process Group. Those processes performed to finalize all activities
across all Process Groups to formally close the project or phase.
Project Management Process Groups - a cross-sectional view of the processes

Project Management Processes

Project Management Processes
Work performance data. The raw observations and measurements identified during
activities performed to carry out the project work. Examples:
•Reported percent of work physically completed
•Quality and technical performance measures
•Start and finish dates of schedule activities
Work performance information. The performance data collected from various
controlling processes, analyzed in context and integrated based on relationships across
Examples :
•Status of deliverables
•Status for change requests
•Forecasted estimates to complete.
Work performance reports. The physical or electronic representation of work
performance information compiled in project documents, intended to generate
decisions or raise issues, actions, or awareness.
•Status reports
•Memos, justifications, information notes,
•Electronic dashboards, recommendations, and updates.
Project Management Processes