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You are on page 1of 55

62323: Architectural Structures II

of Steel

Monther Dwaikat

Assistant Professor

Department of Building Engineering

An-Najah National University

Contents

Structural Design

Design Loads

Structural Steel - Properties

Design philosophies

Determining load and resistance factors

Load and resistance factors

Introduction to Design of Steel

Structures

General Introduction

• Structural design is a systematic & iterative process that involves:

• Identification of intended use & occupancy of a structure – by owner

• Development of architectural plans & layout – by architect

• Identification of structural framework – by engineer

• Estimation of structural loads depending on use & occupancy

• Analysis of the structure to determine member & connection design

forces

• Design of structural members & connections

• Verification of design

• Fabrication & Erection – by steel fabricator & contractor

• Inspection & Approval – by state building official

Primary Responsibilities

The primary responsibilities are:

• Owner - primary responsibility is deciding the use &

occupancy, & approving the arch. plans of the

building.

• Architect - primary responsibility is ensuring that the

architectural plan of the building interior is appropriate

for the intended use & the overall building is

aesthetically pleasing.

• Engineer – primary responsibility is ensuring the

safety & serviceability of the structure, i.e., designing

the building to carry the loads safely.

Primary Responsibilities

• Fabricator – primary responsibility is ensuring that the

designed members & connections are fabricated

economically in the shop or field as required.

• Contractor/Erector - primary responsibility is ensuring

that the members & connections are economically

assembled in the field to build the structure.

• State Building Official – primary responsibility is

ensuring that the built structure satisfies the

appropriate building codes accepted by the Govt.

Structural Design

Conceptually, from an engineering standpoint, the

parameters that can be varied (somewhat) are:

• The material of construction

• The structural framing plan.

The choices for material include:

• Steel

• Reinforced concrete

• Steel-concrete composite construction.

The choices for structural framing plan include:

• Moment resisting frames.

• Braced frames.

• Dual frames

• Shear wall frames, and so on.

The engineer can also innovate a new structural framing

plan for a particular structure if required.

Structural Design

All viable material + framing plan alternatives

must be considered & designed to compare the

individual material + fabrication / erection costs to

identify the most efficient & economical design for

the structure.

considered, designing the structure consists of

designing the individual structural components,

i.e., the members & the connections, of the

framing plan.

Structural Design

Determination of dimensions and selection of cross sections.

The design process is a loop:

Structural Analysis

YES NO

Final Design

Structural Design

Optimal structural design shall achieve balance between

the following requirements:

Strength

Serviceability

Optimal design

Economy

Roles and responsibilities of the

structural steel designer

Arrange and proportion the members of the structures,

using engineer’s intuition and sound engineering

principles, so that they can be practically erected, have

sufficient strength (safe), and are economical.

without problems

• Safety: Ensure structures can safely support the loads.

Ensure deflections and vibrations are

controlled for occupants comfort.

• Cost: Minimize costs without sacrifice of strength

(consider labor costs in fabrication and

erection, not just material costs)

Basic Structural Shapes

Trusses

Frames ( Beam-Column)

• Beams

• Girders

• Columns

Space trusses/frames

Steel Structures

Purlin

s

Columns

Beams-

Frames

Bracing

Steel Structures

Industrial/Parking

structures “Frames”

Steel Structures

Joists/Trusses

Steel Structures

Steel Structures

Girder bridges

Steel Structures

Truss

bridges

Steel Structures

Cable stayed

& suspended

bridges

Structural Members

Structural members are categorized based up on the

internal forces in them. For example:

• Tension member –subjected to tensile axial force only

• Column or compression member –subjected to compressive axial

force only

• Tension/Compression member –subjected to tensile/compressive

axial forces

• Beam member –subjected to flexural loads, i.e., shear force &

bending moment only. The

• axial force in a beam member is negligible.

• Beam-column member – member subjected to combined axial

force & flexural loads (shear

• force, & bending moments)

Structural Members

• In trusses:

• All the members are connected using pin/hinge connections.

• All external forces are applied at the pins/hinges.

• All truss members are subjected to axial forces (tension or

compression) only.

• In frames:

• The horizontal members (beams) are subjected to flexural loads

only.

• In braced frames:

• The vertical members (columns) are subjected to compressive

axial forces only.

• The diagonal members (braces) are subjected to

tension/compression axial forces only.

• In moment frames

• The vertical members (beam-columns) are subjected to combined

axial & flexural loads.

Structural Connections

Members of a structural frame are connected together

using connections. Prominent connection types include:

• Truss / bracing member connections are used to connect two or

more truss members together. Only the axial forces in the

members have to be transferred through the connection for

continuity.

• Simple shear connections are the pin connections used to

connect beam to column members. Only the shear forces are

transferred through the connection for continuity. The bending

moments are not transferred through the connection.

• Moment connections are fix connections used to connect beam to

column members. Both the shear forces & bending moments are

transferred through the connections with very small deformations

(full restraint).

Structural Connections

Truss connection

Simple Shear

connection

Moment resisting

connection

Structural Loads

The building structure must be designed to carry or resist

the loads that are applied to it over its design-life. The

building structure will be subjected to loads that have been

categorized as follows:

• Dead Loads (D): are permanent loads acting on the structure.

These include the self-weight of structural & non-structural

components. They are usually gravity loads.

• Live Loads (L): are non-permanent loads acting on the structure

due to its use & occupancy. The magnitude & location of live loads

changes frequently over the design life. Hence, they cannot be

estimated with the same accuracy as dead loads.

• Wind Loads (W): are in the form of pressure or suction on the

exterior surfaces of the building. They cause horizontal lateral

loads (forces) on the structure, which can be critical for tall

buildings. Wind loads also cause uplift of light roof systems.

Structural Loads

• Snow Loads (S): are vertical gravity loads due to snow,

which are subjected to variability due to seasons &

drift.

• Roof Live Load (Lr): are live loads on the roof caused

during the design life by planters, people, or by

workers, equipment, & materials during maintenance.

• Values of structural loads can be computed based on

the design code.

Dead Loads (D)

Dead loads consist of the weight of all materials of

construction incorporated into the building including but

not limited to walls, floors, roofs, ceilings, stairways, built-

in partitions, finishes, cladding & other similarly

incorporated architectural & structural items, & fixed

service equipment such as plumbing stacks & risers,

electrical feeders, & heating, ventilating, & air conditioning

systems.

satisfactorily from simple formulas based in the weights &

sizes of similar structures. For example, the average

weight of steel framed buildings is 3 - 3.6 kPa, & the

average weight for reinforced concrete buildings is 5 - 6

kPa.

Dead Loads (D)

From an engineering standpoint, once the materials and

sizes of the various components of the structure are

determined, their weights can be found from tables that

list their densities. See Tables 1.2 & 1.3, which are taken

from Hibbeler, R.C. (1999), Structural Analysis, 4th

Edition.

Dead Loads (D)

Live Loads – Summary Table

Building floors are usually subjected to uniform live loads or

concentrated live loads. They have to be designed to safely support

these loads.

Offices 2.5 - 5

Corridors 5

Residential 2

Stairs and exit ways 5

Stadiums 5

Sidewalks 12

Wind Loads

Design wind loads for buildings can be based on: (a) simplified

procedure; (b) analytical procedure; & (c) wind tunnel or small-

scale procedure.

Refer to ASCE 7-05 for the simplified procedure. This simplified

procedure is applicable only to buildings with mean roof height

less than 18 m or the least dimension of the building.

The wind tunnel procedure consists of developing a small-scale

model of the building & testing it in a wind tunnel to determine

the expected wind pressures etc. It is expensive & may be

utilized for difficult or special situations.

The analytical procedure is used in most design offices. It is

fairly systematic but somewhat complicated to account for the

various situations that can occur:

Wind Loads

Wind velocity will cause pressure on any surface in its

path. The wind velocity & hence the velocity pressure

depend on the height from the ground level. Equation 1.3

is recommended by ASCE 7-05 for calculating the velocity

pressure (qz) in SI

Wind Loads

qz – Static wind pressure

V - the wind velocity in m/s

Kd - a directionality factor (= 0.85 see Table 6.4 page 80)

Kzt - a topographic factor (= 1.0)

I - the importance factor (=1.0)

Kz - varies with height z above the ground level (see Table 6.3

page 79)

exposure B structure surrounded by buildings/forests/…

at least 6m height

exposure C open terrain

Wind Loads

A significant portion of Palestine has V = 100 km/h. At these

location

qz = 402 Kz (N/m2)

wind pressure (p) for the building structure conservatively

as follows:

p = q GCp (N/m2)

ASCE 7-05 pg. 79

A – large city centers

B – urban/ suburban area

C – open terrain with scattered obstructions

D – Flat unobstructed surface

Wind Loads

G - gust effect factor (= 0.85)

Cp - external pressure coefficient from Figure 6-6 page 48-49

in ASCE 7-05 or

Cp = 0.8 windward

Cp = -0.5 leeward

Cp = -0.7 sidewalls

Cp = -0.7 slope<0.75

(1.5)

• Note that:

• A positive sign indicates pressure acting towards a surface.

• Negative sign indicates pressure away from the surface

Example 1.1 – Wind Load

Consider the building structure with the structural floor plan & elevation

shown below. Estimate the wind loads acting on the structure when the

wind blows in the east-west direction. The structure is located in

Nablus.

15 m

15 m

15 m 15 m

Plan

Example 1.1 – Wind Load

6 @ 3m

6 @ 3m

Example 1.1 – Wind Load

Velocity pressure (qz)

• Kd - directionality factor = 0.85

• Kzt - topographic factor = 1.0

• I - importance factor = 1.0

• V = 100 kph in Nablus

qz = 402 Kz (N/m2)

• Kz - varies with height z above the ground level

• Kz values for Exposure B, Case 2

Example 1.1 – Wind Load

Wind pressure (p)

• Gust factor = G = 0.85 for rigid structures

• External pressure coefficient = Cp = +0.8 for windward walls

• Cp = -0.5 for leeward walls

• Cp = -0.7 for side walls

• External pressure = q G Cp

• External pressure on windward wall = qz GCp = 402 Kz x 0.85 x 0.8 =

273.4 Kz Pa toward surface

• External pressure on leeward wall = qh GCp = 402 K18 x 0.85 x (-0.5)

= 145.2 Pa away from surface

• External pressure on side wall = qh GCp = 402 K18 x 0.85 x (-0.7) =

203.3 Pa away from surface

• The external pressures on the structure are shown in the following

two figures.

Example 1.1 – Wind Load

203.3

273.4 Kz

145.2

203.3

Example 1.1 – Wind Load

3m

232.4

3m 221.5

3m 207.8 145.2

191.4

3m 180.4

169.5

3m

155.8

3m

Background of Structural Steel

Economical production in large volume not available until mid 19th

century and the introduction of the Bessemer process. Steel became

the principal metallic structural material by 1890.

Steels consists almost entirely of iron (over 98%) and small quantities

of carbon, silicon, manganese, sulfur, phosphorus, and other

elements.

The quantities of carbon affect properties of steel the most.

Increase of carbon content increases hardness and strength

Alloy steel – has additional amounts of alloy elements such chronium,

vanadium, nickel, manganese, copper, or zirconium.

The American Society for Testing of Materials (ASTM) specifies exact

maximum percentages of carbon content and other additions for a

number of structural steels. Consult Manual, Part 2, Table 2-1 to 2-3

for availability of steel in structural shapes, plate products, and

structural fasteners.

ASTM classifications of structural

steels

Carbon steels – A36, A53, A500, A501, A529, A570. Have

well-defined yield point. Divided into four categories:

• Low-carbon steel (< 0.15%)

• Mild steel (0.15 to 0.29%, structural carbon steels)

• Medium-carbon steel (0.3 to 0.59%)

• High-carbon steel (0.6 to 1.7%)

High-Strength Low-Alloy steels – A242, A572, A588,

A606, A607, A618, A709

• Well-defined yield point

• Higher strengths and other properties

Alloy Steels – A514, A709, A852, A913.

• Yield point defined as the stress at 0.2% offset strain

• Low-alloy steels quenched and tempered → 550 to 760 MPa yield

strengths

Advantages and disadvantages of

steel as a structural material

Advantages

• High strength per unit of weight → smaller weight of structures

• Uniformity

• Elasticity

• Long lasting

• Ductility

• Toughness

• Easy connection

• Speed of erection

• Ability to be rolled into various sizes and shapes

• Possible reuse and recyclable

Advantages and disadvantages of

steel as a structural material

Disadvantages

• Maintenance costs

• Fire protection/Fireproofing costs

• Susceptibility to buckling failure

• Fatigue

• Brittle fracture

Types of Steel

Three basic types of steel used for structural steel

• Plain Carbon Steel

• Low-alloy steel

• High-alloy “specialty steel”

The most commonly used is mild steel - ASTM A36

Typical high strength steel: Fu 400 MPa (58 ksi )

Fy 290 344 MPa (42 50 ksi) Fy 344 MPa (50 ksi)

Fu 444 482 MPa (63 70 ksi) Fu 448 MPa (65 ksi)

The higher the steel strength, the higher the carbon content and

the less ductile it is.

Stress-strain curve

Standard Plain Carbon Steel

P ( Load )

f

Stress “f” A ( Area )

Strain Hardening

Fu

Fy Yield plateau

E

Elastic

Lo (Original Length)

What is a Limit State

unfit for its intended purpose it has reached or

exceeded a limit state

• Strength limit states

• Serviceability limit states

Limit States

Strength Limit States

a) Loss of Equilibrium

b) Loss of load bearing capacity

c) Spread of local failure

d) Very large deformations

a) Excessive deflection

b) Excessive local damage

c) Unwanted vibration

Design Philosophies

Allowable Stress Design

Service loads are calculated as expected during service

life.

Linear elastic analysis is performed.

A factor of safety (FOS) of the material strength is assumed

(usually 3-4)

Material Strength

Allowable Stress

FOS

stress)

Limitations

• Case specific, no guarantee that our design covers all cases

• Arbitrary choice of FOS?!

Plastic Design

Service loads are factored by a “load factor”.

The structure is assumed to fail under these loads, thus,

plastic hinges will form under these loads “Plastic Analysis”.

The cross section is designed to resist bending moments

and shear forces from the plastic analysis.

Members are safe as they are designed to fail under these

factored loads while they will only experience service loads.

Limitations

• No FOS of the material is considered, neglecting the uncertainty in

material strength!

• Arbitrary choice of overall FOS?!

Load and Resistance Factor Design

(LRFD)

LRFD is similar to plastic design in that it performs design

with the assumption of failure! - Reliability Based Design

Service loads are multiplied by load factors (g) and linear

elastic analysis is performed.

Material strength is reduced by multiplying the nominal

material strength by a resistance factor (f)

The design rule is: Load Effect < Resistance

for all limit states!!

• Where Rn is the nominal strength and Q is the load effect for the ith

limit state

Load and Resistance Factor Design

(LRFD)

Resistance: Shear, Bending, Axial Forces

Advantages of LRFD

• Non-case specific, statistical calculations guarantee population

behavior.

• Uniform factor of safety as both load and material factors are tied

by reliability analysis

Probabilistic Basis for LRFD

If we have the probability distribution of the load effect (Q)

and the material resistance (R) then:

• The probability of failure can be represented by observing the

probability of the function (R-Q)

• The probability of failure PF can be represented as the probability that

Q ≥ R:

Probability

of failure

AISC Load combinations

AISC considers the following load combinations

in design g i Qi fi Rn

1 1.4 D

2 1.2 D 1.6 L 0.5( Lr or S or R)

g i Qi

4 1.2 D 1.6 W 0.5 L 0.5 ( Lr or S or R)

Dead loads (D)

5 1.2 D 1.0 E 0.5 L 0.2 S Live loads (LL)

• Occupancy load

6 0.9 D (1.6 Wor 1.0 E ) (L)

• Roof load (Lr)

• Snow load (S)

f 0.75 1.00 • Rain loads (R)

• Trucks and

fi Rn

pedestrians

Wind Loads (W)

e.g. f for yield is 0.9 and for bolt shear is 0.75 Earthquakes (E)

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