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Chapter 1
The Study of Sociology and
Meaning of Sociology & Anthropology

Sociology is a behavioral science that deals with the

study of society. The origin, evolution, characteristics
and functions, dimensions and basic social institutions
are studied in sociology.
Meaning of Sociology & Anthropology

Anthropology is a behavioral science that deals with

the study of culture. The components, characteristics,
functions, modes and adaptation of culture as well as
cultural values and practices are studied in
Anthropology. The two recent disciplines complement
each other as they belong to the field of humanities.
Relationship Between Sociology &

The two academic disciplines have common

areas of concern. Slight differences may also be
Meaning of Sociology & Anthropology

• Both disciplines are focused on social behavior and

social relationships, since they attempt to understand the
way of life of various culture groups.
• Sociology and Anthropology are interrelated and
interdependent disciplines. The subject matter of
Sociology is society; that of Anthropology is culture.
Common Areas of Concern:

• Both disciplines are interested on the issues of gender,

ethnicity, social class, population growth, environment and
mass culture in the modern world.
• Both disciplines synthesize and generalize data about
human behavior and social systems. Both disciplines are
related to humanities.
Common Areas of Concern:

• Both disciplines are interested on the issues of gender,

ethnicity, social class, population growth, environment and
mass culture in the modern world.
• Both disciplines synthesize and generalize data about
human behavior and social systems. Both disciplines are
related to humanities.
Relevance of Sociology & Anthropology

• They furnish us factual information about society and

culture to understand everyday occurrence and be familiar
with social group from a new perspective.
• They broaden our outlook and view of the world in
order to appreciate our society and culture better.
Relevance of Sociology & Anthropology
• They develop our ability to examine human behavior
objectively and critically. Thus, there is a need to get as
much information as possible to explain the phenomena or
events accurately.
• They help us understand that other social groups are
different from us and that many of our differences have been
due to physical and cultural adaptations to different
Relevance of Sociology & Anthropology

• They dispel our erroneous beliefs about why people

behaved the way they do and therefore help us develop
tolerance for the social group.
• They may give us varied opportunities for career
advancement in the academic field, such as in teaching
research, field social work and community service.
Relevance of Sociology & Anthropology

• Knowledge of both disciplines can be used for urban

planning, housing, recreational development, environmental
and ecological concerns.
• They can be pursued as specialization in project
consultancy serving the needs of the government and
private entities.
Relevance of Sociology & Anthropology

• They can contribute to the formulation of a liberal-

educated man with sense of identity and appreciation of
his cultural heritage.
Relations of Sociology & Anthropology to
the Other Social Sciences

• History- In the study of historical events, sociologists and

anthropologists seek to show the interrelationships between
events and motivations that brought such historical events.
Relations of Sociology & Anthropology to
the Other Social Sciences

• Psychology- In the study of perception, attitudes, values,

social behavior and personality give rise to the fields of
Social Psychology and Psychological Anthropology.
Personality, for instance, can be informed not only by
heredity but also by socio-cultural environment.
Relations of Sociology & Anthropology to
the Other Social Sciences

• Economics- Anthropologists are concerned with the

relationship of economic activities to society while sociologists
seek to show the effect of socio-cultural activities to society.
Relations of Sociology & Anthropology to
the Other Social Sciences

• Political Science- Sociologists and anthropologists are

concerned on the political behavior of man that focuses on
the aspects of government, political institutions and political
parties. Further, sociology is interested in voting behavior,
political issues and decision-making process. Anthropology
seeks to find the interrelationship of politics with other social
Famous Sociologists and Anthropologists
I. Famous Sociologists
I. Heari Saint Simon- He stressed that logic could
improve social life by mitigating or eliminating social
II. Auguste Comte- (1798- 1857) is considered the Father
of Sociology. He believed that there are three concerns
for order: concerns in the study of society, concerns for
continuity, & concerns for change.
Famous Sociologists and Anthropologists
III. Herbert Spencer- (1820-1903), was an English
liberal philosopher. He premiered the principle of survival of
the fittest as applied to human societies.
IV. Emile Durkheim- (1857-1917), A French Sociologist
who devoted his study to understanding the stability of society
and the importance of social participation for individual
Famous Sociologists and Anthropologists
IV. Karl Marx- (1818- 1883), the originator of the Conflict
Theory of Economics Determination, believed that social
institutions like family, law, and socio-cultural patterns
are all developed and adapted to the economic situation.
V. Karl Manheim (1843-1947) was a German Sociologist
who believed that changes in mental attitudes could be
understood by the changes in social situation.
Famous Sociologists and Anthropologists
VII.Max Weber – (1864- 1920), was a German sociologist
who stressed the interplay between social and economic
VIII.Wilfredo Pareto- He believed that society is divided
into two major social stratifications: the masses who are
composed of non rational people and the elite, or
Aristocrat, the upper social classes, who are the few
privileged people.
Famous Sociologists and Anthropologists
IX. Antonio Gramsci- (1891-1937) an Italian sociologist
was famous on his doctrine of hegemony. He states that all
men are intellectuals, but not all men have in society the
function of intellectuals. He further stressed that the
relationship between dominant and subjected social group be
based on willing and active consent.
Famous Sociologists and Anthropologists
X. Lewis H. Morgan- introduced three stages of history of
primitive men: stage of savagery, stage of barbarism, and
stage of civilization.
XI. Harriet Martineau- (1802-1876), was a British woman
journalist & sociologist who had an affectionate treatment
of women & children. She emphasized that women must
develop their potentials by participating at home & act in
the life of the society which is dominated by men.
Famous Sociologists and Anthropologists

XII. Simone de Beauvoir, a prominent woman social

thinker who rejected the concept of gender differentiation. She
stressed that women should be given a prominent place in society
where they can exercise their potentialities as women leaders.
Famous Sociologists and Anthropologists

II. Famous Anthropologists

I. Ruth Benedict stressed the uniqueness of each
culture, that is each culture must me understood in
its term, free from Western biases. Anything which
one cultural group does is worthy of respect by
another group.
Famous Sociologists and Anthropologists
II. Margaret Mead stressed that the early society is dominated
by cooperation & completion of social classes. She further
agreed that war or aggression is a cultural habit that, once
learned, is passed from generation.
III. William Graham Summer, an evolutionary theorist who
studied Drawin’s theory of natural selection. Summer insisted
that persons who are competitively less fit have no moral right
to subsist on the already scarce resources of society.
Chapter 2
• is a group of people living together in a definite
territory, having a sense of belongingness, mutually
interdependent of each other, and follow a certain
way of life.
• is derived from the Latin word “societas,’ from
socius, which means companion or associate.
• Thus, a society refers to people, collectively
regarded as constituting a community of related,
interdependent individuals living in a definite place,
following a certain mode of life.
• Human society is composed of men, women, and
People live together as a society:

• Survival
•Feeling of gregariousness
• Specialization
Historical Development Society
• Fossils of man, like skeletons, such as his height,
posture, shape and capacity of the skull
• How the creature lived, like their tools, evidences
of fire, types of animal bones, evidence that once a
cave was occupied over a period of time.
Historical Development Society

•Fossils of human feces, to reveal information

about what foods were common at that time and
how the people adapted to their environment, like
gathering, scavenging and hunting for animals.
Historical Development Society
• Physical features of the earth generated by
physical phenomenon, like the erosion of rivers and
lakes caused by winds and waves, and deposition of
sediments in the bottom of ancient seas and lakes,
as proposed by Sociologist James Hutton in
Historical Development Society

• Formation of the earth which occurred at

gradual rates such that the earth is over a
million years old. This is the Uniformitarian
Theory proposed by Charles Lyell in 1830.
Theories in Human Evolution:

• Unilineal Evolution Theory

• Darwin’s Evolution Theory
Unilineal Theory
• All human life passes through different stages
or grades which makes people around the world
differ in their culture. Atty. Lewis Henry
Morgan identified seven stages in his book
Ancient Society.
Stages of the Unilineal Theory:
• Lower savagery (people had fire but no
knowledge on how to utilize the fire well)
• Middle savagery (had fire but no bow and
Stages of the Unilineal Theory:
• Upper savagery (had invented bow and
arrow but lacked knowledge on pottery)
• Lower barbarism (had knowledge on the
domestication of animals and plants but no
knowledge in smelting metals)
Stages of the Unilineal Theory:
• Upper barbarism (had knowledge on the use of
metals but no knowledge of alphabet and the art
of writing)
• Civilized world (people were already literate; had
knowledge on technological & economic discoveries
& invention)
Darwin’s Natural Evolution Theory
• holds that living things descended from simple
forms of organism.
• Charle’s Darwin’s Origin of Species (1859) and
Descent of Man (1871) proposed that man
descended from apes.
Darwin’s Natural Evolution Theory
Darwin presented evidences that natural species
have changed or evolved over a long time species
and such natural evolution of species radically form
new life which is developed out of existing species.
Darwin’s Natural Evolution Theory
Through this period of evolution, organisms
compete with one another over space, food and other
things for survival, or avoid being eaten, resist
diseases or become parasites in order to exist.
Darwin’s Natural Evolution Theory
The species which are not fit for survival
or not better adapted to environmental
conditions die or are eliminated.
Darwin’s Natural Evolution Theory
This process of natural evolution is called the
natural selection process, or otherwise called the
“struggle for existence, & the elimination of the
unfit” natural process of survival.
Limitations in the Study of the Origin of Man

• There are two reasons why the study of

man was not successful;
• Restrictions to geographical boundaries
• Failure to recognize common humanity
Limitations in the Study of the Origin of Man

•Restrictions to geographical boundaries

• the travel to distant parts of the world in
studying & observing people’s life & culture is
restricted by the absence of adequate
transportation & communication facilities.
Limitations in the Study of the Origin of Man

•Failure to recognize common humanity

• For instance, the study of savagery is the
study of mankind.
Evolution of Society
• Paleolithic
• Mesolithic
• Neolithic
• Metallic
Paleolithic Stage
Paleolithic Stage (5,000 BC- 8,000 BC)
• also called the Stone Age because men used
unpolished & crude stones as their tool
• Paleolithic come from two Greek words,
“palaios” which means old & “lithos” meaning
Paleolithic Stage (5,000 BC- 8,000 BC)

• Men living in this period are called the

Java men, Neanderthal men, and Cro-
Magnon men.
Characteristics of the Old Paleolithic Men:
 They made & used tool implements,
especially crude stones
 They gathered & collected foods through
hunting & fishing
 The foods that they usually eat are wild
fruits, nuts & berries.
Characteristics of the Old Paleolithic Men:
The early Paleolithic men hunted, fished &
protected their families & tribe while the early
Paleolithic women gathered wild plants, fruits,
nuts & prepared food for eating as well as
took care of their children
Characteristics of the Old Paleolithic Men:

Both men & women constructed their dwellings, made

ornaments & tools & trained their children for adult
 The late Paleolithic people were lovers of art &
paintings, & these paintings were found in caves in
France & Spain which date back from 28, 000 BC to
Mesolithic Stage
Mesolithic Stage (10, 000 BC)
• known as the Period of Transitional
• Because of the glaciers that occurred, some
of the animals became extinct & they
adjusted to the new environment.
Mesolithic Stage (10, 000 BC)
•People live along the coast, fishing, &
gathering shellfish while others lived inland
where they made bows & arrows for hunting,
devised skis, sleds, & dugout canoes, &
domesticated dogs.
Neolithic Stage
Neolithic Stage (8000 BC- 4000 BC)
• called the Polished Stone Age
• the word Neolithic is derived from the two
Greek words “neos,” which means new and
“lithos,” stone.
Characteristics of Men in the Neolithic Stage:

 Instead of food gathering such as hunting

& fishing, they also produced their own food
through agriculture & science production.
 The people also engaged in herding, pottery
& weaving.
Characteristics of Men in the Neolithic Stage:

They polished their tools & weapons.

 The people domesticated animals.
 The people learned to build dug-outs--- the
world’s first boats.
Metallic Stage
Metallic Stage (4000 BC-1500 BC)
• This stage is characterized by the presence of
three (3) metals:
• The metal used as a tool implement is
1 st

copper. This metal is soft so the tools made from

it are soft & dull. The Sumerians & Egyptians
had this metal as their tools & weapons.
Metallic Stage (4000 BC-1500 BC)
• Later, in 3, 500 BC, bronze was used for the
people’s tools & weapons.
• In 1500 BC, iron began to be used by the
Hitites of Asia Minor in their tools &
weapons & later spread to Europe & other
Three Views:
• According to Economic &
Materials System
• According to Evolutionary View
• According to People’s Subsistence

According to Economic & Materials System

1. Pre-class Societies. This society is

characterized by communal ownership of
property & division of labor. Examples of
these are earliest clans & tribes.

According to Economic & Materials System

2. Asiatic Societies. The people are

economically self-sufficient but their leaders are
despotic and powerful.

According to Economic & Materials System

3. Ancient Societies. These societies are
characterized by private land ownership. The rich
(the haves) owned big tract of private properties
while the poor (the have-nots) worked as laborers.
Thus, wealth is limited to a few people.

According to Economic & Materials System

4. Feudal Societies. The aristocrats (feudal lords) owned
the wealth of the country due to their ownership of big
tract of lands. The peasants worked on the lands of
feudal lords with only few benefits received by them.
However, these types of societies collapsed due to the
rise of cities & metropolis as a result of the rise of
trades & industries.

According to Economic & Materials System

5. Capitalists Societies. These societies existed in
societies where two classes of people appeared. The
bourgeoise (property owner) who owned the capital and
the means of production and the proletariat (the laborers
or workers who are compelled to work for the capitalists
or sell their small properties to the capitalists.

According to Economic & Materials System

6. Democratic Societies. These societies are
characterized by free enterprise where people are
free to engage in any lawful business for profit
or gain. People had to work on their own
livelihood according to what the law mandates.

According to Evolutionary View

Based from the evolutionary view of
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) that human
societies evolved from simple (primitive) to
complex (industrial) societies which are classified
According to Evolutionary View
1. Simple Societies. These types of societies
were predominantly small, nomadic &
leadership is unstable. The people had no
specialization or skills, thus people lived in a
simple life.
According to Evolutionary View
2. Compound Societies. Two or more simple
societies merged to form a new & bigger
society. These types of societies tended to be
predominantly settled agricultural societies &
tended to be characterized by a division of four
or five social classes.
According to Evolutionary View
3. Doubly Compound Societies. These societies
are completely integrated, more definite in
political & religious structure & more complex
division of labor. Considerable progress in
infrastructure & knowledge in arts had taken
According to Evolutionary View
4. Militant Societies. These societies are characterized
as follows: (1) the existence of military organization &
military rank; (2) individual lives & private possessions
are at the disposal of the State; (3) individual activities
(recreation, movements, satisfaction of biological needs
production of goods) are totally regulated by the State.
In other words, individuals exist to serve the State.
According to Evolutionary View
5. Industrial Societies. These societies are characterized by the
following: (1) people elect their representatives to protect their
individual initiatives; (2) freedom of belief, religion, production of
industrial goods exist; (3) disputes & grievances are settled
through peaceful arbitration; (4) business organizations appear
where cooperative efforts between management & labor are based
on contractual arrangement. In other words, these type of
societies protect individual freedom, rights & initiatives.
According to Evolutionary View
6. Post-Industrial Societies. These types of societies are
characterized by: (1) spread of computer machines &
internet. Information & communication technology exist
in these periods (2) Inventions & discoveries in medicines,
agriculture, business whether in physical & natural
sciences emerged (3) pollution, diseases, calamities are
prevalent as a result of the use of advanced technology.
According to People’s Subsistence
1. Food Gathering Societies. (more than 16, 000
years ago) This is the earliest form of society. The
people subsisted from day to day through hunting
larger animals, collecting shellfish & vegetable
gathering. Their tools were made of stones, wood and
According to People’s Subsistence

2. Horticultural Societies. (12, 000 to 15, 000 years

ago. As a means of food production, the people
planted seeds for subsistence. For instance, in
Thailand rice was planted about 11, 000 years ago;
in the Middle East, wheat barley & rye were planted
10, 000 years ago, & in Mesoamerica, corn was
planted about 6, 000 to 9, 000 years ago.
According to People’s Subsistence TYPES OF SOCIETIES

3. Pastoral Societies. Most of the people were

nomadic who follow their herds in quest of animals for
food & clothing to satisfy their needs. They raised
animals to provide milk, fur & blood for protein.
These societies typically are relatively small,
wandering communities organized along male-centered
kinship groups.
According to People’s Subsistence TYPES OF SOCIETIES

4. Agricultural Societies. In early agriculture societies, people

used to plow than hoe in food production. By the use of plow, it
turns the topsoil deeper allowing for better aerating & fertilizing
thus improving better yield when harvested. In the latter part,
about 5, 500 BC, the people, especially in the Middle East,
were not only using plow but also irrigation farming which
resulted to a larger yield of production that can even feed large
numbers of people who did not know how to produce food by
According to People’s Subsistence TYPES OF SOCIETIES

5. Industrial Societies. These societies began in the 18th

century during the Industrial Revolution & gained

momentum by the turn of the 19 century. This period is
characterized by the use of machines as means of food
production. Mass production of guns, invention of steam
locomotives & large-scale production of steel, & well-
coordinated labor force took place. Thus, the people began to
be highly skilled & highly diversified in their occupation.
According to People’s Subsistence TYPES OF SOCIETIES

6. Post-Industrial Societies. Information &

communication technology is the hallmark of these modern
societies. Post Industrial society is characterized by the
spread of computer technology, advances in this technology
are made by highly-trained computer specialists who work to
increase the capabilities of computers & internet. The use of
modern technology gave rise to several technological problems
such as pollution, lung illness, skin problems & others.
of a
Several ways by which a society is dissolved:

• when the people kill each other through civil

• when an outside force exterminates the members of
• when the members become apathetic among
themselves or have no more sense of belongingness
Several ways by which a society is dissolved:

• when a small society is absorbed by a stronger &

larger society by means of conquest or territorial
• when an existing society is submerged in water killing,
all the people & other living things in it
• when the people living in such a society voluntarily
Characteristics of Society

1. Society is a social system. A social system consists

of individuals interacting with each other. A system
consists of sub-parts whereby a change in one part
affects the other parts. Thus, a change in one group
of individuals will affect the stability of the other
parts of the system.
Characteristics of Society

2. Society is relatively large. The people must be

socially integrated to be considered relatively large
than if the people are individually scattered. Thus, the
people in a family, clan, tribe, neighborhood,
community are socially integrated to be relatively
large in scope.
Characteristics of Society

3. Society socializes its members & from those from

without. Since most of society’s members are born to
it, they are taught the basic norms& expectations.
Those who come from other societies, before being
accepted as functioning members, are socialized &
taught the basic norms & expectations of such
Characteristics of Society

4. Society endures, produces & sustains its members

for generations. For society to survive, it must have
the ability to produce, endure & sustain its new
members for at least several generations. For instance,
if a society cannot assist its members during their
extreme conditions of hunger & poverty, that society
will not survive long.
Characteristics of Society

5. Society holds its members through a common

culture. The individuals in a society are held together
because that society has symbols, norms, values,
patterns of interaction, vision & mission that are
commonly shared by the members of such society.
Characteristics of Society

6. Society has clearly-defined geographical territory.

The members in a society must live in a certain
specific habitat or place & have a common
belongingness & sense of purpose.
Major Functions
of Society
Major Functions of Society

1. Society provides a system of socialization.

Knowledge & skills, dominant patterns of behavior,
moral & social values, & aspects of personality are
transmitted to its members, especially to the young.
The family, the peer groups, the school, the church
& other government & non-government organizations
play a role in the individual ’s development.
Major Functions of Society

2. Society provides the basic needs of its

members. Food, clothing, shelter, medicine,
education, transportation & communication
facilities, etc. must be provided by society to
satisfy the basic needs of its members.
Major Functions of Society

3. Society regulates & controls people’s behavior.

Conformity to the prevailing norms of conduct ensures
social controls. The police, armed forces, law-
enforcement agencies & even the church & other
government & non-government organizations exist as a
means of social control. Peace & order are created
through a system of norms & formal organizations.
Major Functions of Society

4. Society provides the means of social participation. Through

social participation, the individuals in a society learn to interact
with each other, present & discuss their concerns & solve their
own problems or renew their commitments & values. The people
are given the opportunities to contribute their knowledge & skills
for the betterment of their family, neighborhood & community.
Religious organizations, civic-organizations, people’s
organizations (POs) & non-government organizations (NGOs)
do their part in community development.
Major Functions of Society

5. Society provides mutual support to the members.

Mutual support is provided to the members of society
in the form of relief in any form & solution to
problems met by them. This form of assistance may
come from the family, neighbors, clans, government &
non-government agencies, civic & religious
Chapter 3

Basic Dimensions
of Social Life
• Personality & character are
molded, shaped & reshaped by the
society where we live.
Social Process
• is a long & complicated way of being
inducted into a group whereby an individual
interacts & learns the physical, intellectual &
social skills, values & culture of the society
where he is a member.
Social Process
• it begins at birth & continues
throughout life
• in this process, the individual becomes a
social person, for example, a recognized
Stages of Social Process
• Imitation Stage
• Play Stage
• Game Stage
Importance of Social Process
• It plays a vital role in the transmission
of culture. It is through social process by
which society transmits its culture to the
succeeding generation.
Importance of Social Process
• It plays a vital role in personality
development. Social process largely
determines the child’s personality
Importance of Social Process
• It plays a vital role in sex-role
differentiation. Every individual is expected
to play his role in society
Social Group
• is composed of 2 or more persons interacting with
each other with established set of norms.
• is a specified number of individuals whereby one is
distinct from the others with respect to values,
attitudes, knowledge but have a common purpose
as a whole.
• consists of 2 or more individuals interacting with each
other & constituting a distinct social unit.
• is a set of individuals with some similar characteristics
& minimum awareness of others.
• is a number of people who, at a given time, interrelate
with one another with common shared attitudes,
sentiments, aspirations & goals & with a set of norms.
Characteristics of Social Groups
• A group must have relative permanence.
• A group must have a goal or purpose of
• A group must have a method of recruiting
members into it.
• Members in a group must be identified according
to their positions.
Characteristics of Social Groups
• Members must have roles in a group.
• A group must have a norm of behavior to be
• Members of a group must have common interest
& values.
• Social relations among the members in a group
Dimensions of Groups
1. Size
2. Structure
3. Goals
4. Cohesiveness
5. Members’ Identity
6. Existence of Leadership
Classification of Groups

1. According to Closeness of
a. Primary group
b. Secondary group
Classification of Groups
2. According to Self-Identification
a. In-group & Out-group
b. Peer group (play group, gang, clique)
c. Reference group
d. Voluntary group (Personal interest groups, Self
service groups & Political action groups)& Involuntary
Classification of Groups

3. According to Size & Structure

a. Large groups & small groups
b. Majority group & minority group
c. Open group & Closed group
Classification of Groups

4. According to Lineage
a. Clan
b. Tribe
Basis for Grouping
1. Common ancestral relationship
2. Physical proximity
3. Similarity in body characteristics
4. Similarity in interest
Group’s Influence on the Individual
• When an individual becomes a member
of a group, his behavior is influenced and
affected by the group.
Measures of Cohesiveness
• Number of friends
• Morale of the members
• Sense of belongingness
• Commitment of the members
Social Stratification
• is the ranking of individuals & groups in
any given society.
• is the hierarchical arrangement of social
categories that evolve into social groups with
their status & roles.
Social Stratification
• is a social structure where individuals are
differentiated according to social status & roles.
• refers to what sociologists call it as
“institutionalized inequality” of individual or
“social injustice” due to social categories.
Social Stratification
• is the hierarchical ordering of social positions
along various scales of values.
• is an institutionalized pattern of social inequality
& social injustice by which social categories are
ranked according to class, status and role.
• Society is composed of different groups
with different social structures (social
stratification), that is some groups are
“higher” or “lower” than other groups.
• All societies of any size (large or small)
have a social structure.
• However, as societies grow larger, more
often different groups are formed within
• Social stratification results when one
group has a functional importance in the
community while others do not.
Social Stratification is
Distinguished from Social
Social Stratification is Distinguished from
Social Differentiation
• Social differentiation refers to how people
can be distinguished from one another.
People in a group may differ in skin
color, hair color, race, mental & physical
ability, & the like.
Social Stratification is Distinguished from
Social Differentiation
• Social stratification refers to the ranking of people in a
society. In closed stratification, people cannot change
their ranks while those in the open social stratification,
people can change their ranks. In short, social
stratification refers to separating people into social
categories & these categories are ranked as higher or
Indicators of Social Stratification
1. Sources of income. There are different sources of income.
These are inherited wealth, earned wealth, profits &
professional fees, salaries, wages, private relief, among others.
Wealth is everything that is owned by a person. Inherited
wealth is acquired since birth & without effort. Acquired
wealth is achieved through ones effort either by talent, income
or by marriage. Income refers to the amount of money a
person receives.
Indicators of Social Stratification
2. Occupation. What people do for a living determines,
to a large extent, the social position of the person.
Occupation may be classified into professionals, non-
professionals (clerks, drivers, etc.), proprietors of small
business, skilled workers, semi-skilled workers, unskilled
Indicators of Social Stratification

3. Education. Disparities in social status may also

apply to the educational background of the person.
Possession of any educational backgrounds may
characterize the person’s status in the community.
Indicators of Social Stratification
4. Types of house dwelling. Dwellings can be
categorized as permanent house (concrete & excellent in
appearance), semi-permanent house (semi-concrete &
very good in appearance & construction), temporary
house (wood & fair in appearance & construction) and
poorly constructed house (houses found in squatter
areas, or below-the-bridge houses).
Indicators of Social Stratification
5. Location of residence. Power, prestige & wealth are
also attached to the location of residence. There is a
disparity of social status when one residence is located
in Forbes Park, White Plains, squatter area,
mountainous-rugged area, in subdivision & non-
subdivision area.
Indicators of Social Stratification
6. Kinship or family. In the Philippines, when a
person belongs to the family of Ayala’s, Villar’s,
Cojuangco’s--- that person in regarded as belonging to
the upper class (rich) status. If a child comes from a
family whose house is situated in the squatter area, he
is regarded as poor. Sons & daughters of sultans’ &
datus are highly regarded as rich children.
Types of Social Stratification
• Open System
• Closed System
• Ethnic System
Open System
• Social stratification is not rigid.
• One person can move up or down to a
class through intermarriages, opportunities,
or achievements.
Open System
• Whether people do something to improve their
lives or not, this greatly depends on them.
• The class structure is an open system.
• It encourages people to strive & achieve
Open System
• The following are typical of a class
• Upper Class
• Middle Class
• Lower Class
Open System
1. Upper Class. The people in this class have great wealth
& sources of income. They constitute the elite wealthy
group in a society. They have high reputation in terms of
power & prestige. They live in exclusive residential area,
belong to exclusive private clubs, & may have strong
political influence in the system of government. They own
several cars & properties & their children may study in
exclusive schools.
Open System
2. Middle Class. People in this class system may belong
to the upper middle class like the businessmen &
professionals or in the lower- middle class like the teachers,
clerks, etc. People belonging to the upper-middle class
generally command high income, often have college
education, live in comfortable homes, own properties, have
some money savings, & active in community activities.
Open System
2. Middle Class. People in the lower-middle class have not
achieved the same lifestyle of the upper-middle class but
somehow have modest income & live a simple life.
Open System
3. Lower Class. People in this class belong to the bottom
of socio-economic ladder. This class system may be
categorized into two: upper-lower class & lower-lower class.
People in the upper-lower class may be considered as the
working class or the laborers. They have acquired little
education, little time to be involved in civic & community
activities. Some of them are underemployed, have many
socio-economic problems, with little or no luxuries at all.
Open System
3. Lower Class. The lower-lower class people are those who
are unemployed, or no source of income except by begging
or dependent from private & government relief. Many of
them live in squatter areas, under the bridge, in street
corridors, or with no house at all. Many of them are
liabilities of society because they may be involved in drug
addiction & criminalities.
Closed System
This social stratification may
be categorized into caste system
& estate system.

• Social contact is rigid & clearly defined.

People are born & die in their caste. Contact
between & among the caste is minimal &
governed by a set of rules--- especially those
who belong to the lower degree, as this will
tend to bring them down.

• The caste system existed for centuries in

India & these were the Brahmans who were
associated with the priesthood, the
Kahataryias (warriors), the Vaishyus
(businessmen & traders), & then the Shudrus
Estate System
• is somewhat a closed system in which the person’s
social standing is based on ownership of land, birth,
or military strength.
•Individuals who were born into one of the estates
remained there throughout life but in extreme cases
there is social mobility, that is people could change
their status.
Estate System
•In the middle ages, there are three major
estates in Europe--- nobility, clergy & the
Ethnic System
• this social stratification is based on national
origin, language & religion.
• ethnicity sets segments of society apart &
each group has a sense of identity.
• People interact more freely with those people
belonging to the same ethnic category.
Ethnic System
• in America before, the white race claim superiority
over the negro (black) race.
• during the Spanish & American colonial systems,
the colonizers perceived themselves to be occupying
the upper social class than the natives or Indios.
• In a democracy, a person can improve his
social status but the degree of mobility varies.
• In an open system, every person is provided
equal opportunities to everyone to compete for
the role & status derived regardless of gender,
race, religion, family background & political

• Three kinds of mobility:

• Social mobility
• Geographical mobility
• Role mobility
Social Mobility
• refers to the movement upward or downward
among the social positions in any given social
• may be upward (vertical) mobility and
horizontal mobility.
Social Mobility
• In upward social mobility or vertical mobility, the
individuals can move from lower to higher status in a
social stratification.
• In downward social mobility, the individual changes his
social status from higher to lower status.
• In horizontal mobility, a change in status may come
about through one’s occupation, marrying into a certain
family, & others.
Geographical Mobility
• is otherwise known as physical mobility.
• it may be a voluntary migration of people from one
geographical area due to change in residence, commuting
from home to office, making business trips & voluntary
migration from one country to another country.
• it may also be forced migration which include forced
relocation of residence, eviction, dispossession of unwanted
people & transportation of slaves.
Role Mobility
• the person shifts from role to role.
• every member of a society has roles to play.
•Different situations call for enactment of various roles.
• Ex. The father is the bread winner of the family but
may be a teacher in school, or the leader at home or a
follower in the school or office.
Role Mobility
• Ex. A daughter may be submissive at home but
very active & aggressive as a campus leader.
• Ex. A teacher may have varied roles such as being
a mother, a wife, a guidance counselor, a community
leader, etc.
Meaning & Nature
Social Interaction
 process of responding to
various actions & reactions of
individuals in a social situation.
 process by which people act &
react in relation to other people.
 process whereby people
accomplish some purposes & is
 Social interaction is universal.
 It takes place anywhere in the
family, school, office, church
organization, neighbor, institution
& community where one engages
in conversation or when one
greets another.
 Vendor interacts with
customers; teachers with
students; classmate with another
classmate, teachers with
administrators, parents with
children, husband with wife.
 It may also formally occurs in
the case of interviews, open
 Much of what people do everyday
is interaction since man’s behavior
is almost directed towards another
(not to oneself).
 All animals interact but the
interaction of human beings is
higher & complicated in nature.
 People interact through symbols,
gestures & languages.
 Our response to man’s behavior is
based on the meaning attached to
others actions.
 For every action perceived by man
from another, he gives meaning to it
according to his own perception of the
action & conditioned by his culture.
 People may interact by direct contact
or e-mail, internet, phone, texting, etc.
Types of Social Interaction
 Non-verbal
 Unfocused &
focused interaction
Non-verbal interaction
 communication may be done
through non-verbal behavior such
as body language or gesture.
 slightly nodding one’s head,
making a circle with the use of a
thumb, or when thumb is up, or
waving the hand to another may
mean different interpretation to
people of different culture.
Unfocused & focused interaction
 social interaction may happen
accidentally or intentionally.
 in unfocused interaction, people
interact with each other because
they happen to be in each others’
presence accidentally.
 ex. 2 vendors may look & interact
with each other, while they happen to
be in front of a cashier in a mall.
Unfocused & focused interaction
 in focused interaction, two or
more people are purposely
interacting because of a particular
purpose in mind.
 ex. When people are conversing
while attending a program, seminar,
or engage in open forum, or
interacting in a party.
Forms of Social Interaction
 Cooperation 
 Conflict Differentiation
 Competition 
 Negotiation Accommodati
 Coercion on
 group effort, team work or
cooperative efforts are needed to
achieve a common goal.
 such group efforts produce a
desired end more efficiently &
 the act of working together as a
team for a common purpose
 it is a mutual sharing of efforts
to achieve the desired goal
 it is a process in which people
work together to achieve a
common goal & benefits
 it is a mutual sharing of efforts &
abilities to achieve the desired end
 it is a continuous endeavor of two
or more persons to perform a task
or to reach a goal that is commonly
Reasons for Cooperation
 it can bring a sense of sharing a
certain challenge
 it may be due to incentives & other
 it is a sense of caring for people in
 it is an expression of self-interest in
the object or thing being undertaken
Reasons for Cooperation
 it is the need for mutual
 it is loyalty to the group
 it is a sense of working
Usefulness of Cooperation
 it can bring strong cohesiveness
among the members of a group
 it can bring stability & order in a
 it promotes consensus &
compromise in social issues due to
diversity of member’s background
Usefulness of Cooperation
 it can expedite the attainment of a
desired end
 scarce resources can accomplish
bigger task through coordination
 limited funds can be put into efficient
 better results of a task is achieved
 arises when there is
antagonism & opposition
between interest, values &
principles between & among
individuals or groups.
 is counter productive & disruptive
& usually brings anxiety, harm &
injury against the opponent
 there is intent to injure physically
& psychologically the other
competing party
Benefits Conflict
 it promotes stability & integrating
mechanisms among the members of the
 groups with similar interest are drawn
together to be able to achieve their ends.
 discord & problems are identified
between the competing groups such that
appropriate remedies may be given.
 this form of social interaction
arises when two or more
individuals or groups pursue a
common end, each one wants to
achieve or win in a competition.
 often, there are established rules
to be followed or observed.
 However, in some cases,
individuals or groups use
illegitimate means to attain their
purpose & as such, it produces
 Exists when two or more
individuals or groups reach a
mutually satisfactory agreement
 This agreement may either be
oral or written depending on the
matter to be negotiated.
 They may negotiate on certain
form of exchange, cooperation
or competition.
 However, when negotiation fails,
conflict & sometimes coercion
 one individual or group imposes
an idea or an action on another,
usually with the use of physical or
mental force.
 The purpose is for the other to
accept the person’s ideas or
 Coercion may result to ridicule,
withholding of something, ex-
communication, failure to grant
recognition, suspension of benefits,
or withholding the favor being
asked for.
 arises when two or more
individuals or groups create
different things, services or interest
instead of having the same thing,
service or interest.
 When individuals interact, they
carry with them their occupational
statuses & roles.
 when two or more individuals or
groups are willing to settle their
differences, they agree on certain
working arrangements to enable
them to pursue their respective
 there is avoidance of conflict to
maintain peace & order in society
Elements in Social Interaction
 Status
 ascribed
 achieved
 Roles
 Groups
 Institutions
 refers to a social position in a
social structure that determines
where the person fits within that
structure in a society.
 may be higher or lower
depending upon the person’s
authority & power within the social
 social status guides the
individual in his interaction with
other individuals in a given social
 status may be acquired or
 ascribed status is acquired at
birth or are assigned, or
involuntarily assumed later
without effort.
 Ex. Children of wealthy familie &
poor families.
 achieved status is open to any
individual through his effort,
talent, income, or by marriage or
by opportunities available to the
 are patterns of expected behavior
attached to a particular status.
 When a person with a particular
status requires him to act, it is called
role expectation.
 When a person requires him to
perform his role, it is called role status.
 A person may have more than one
role to perform.
 refers to a number of people with
similar norms, values, expectations
& interest who interact consciously
to each other.
 They have something in common
& have the tendency to get
 Social institutions are organized
patterns of beliefs & behavior focused
on basic social needs & are based on
the systems of social role, norms, &
shared meanings that provide
regularity in social interaction.
 Social institutions evolve in all
sectors of society.