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Grade 7 Science

Mixtures &
Solutions:
MATTER
No Is it uniform Yes
throughout?

Heterogeneous Homogeneous
mixture
No Can it be separated yes
by physical means?

Pure Substance Homogeneous


Mixture (solution)
No Can it be decomposed yes
into other substance by
a chemical process?

Element Compound
Mixed or Pure?

 Suppose you pick up a rock on the


beach. You see there are some parts of
it that are grey, white, blue. You
conclude that the different-coloured
parts of the rock must be different types
of matter. Is this a reasonable
conclusion?
Mixed or Pure?
 With a partner, select two of the
following pairs of items and list as many
differences as you can:
 Vinegar and water
 Aluminum foil and plastic wrap
 Steel and glass
 Molasses and cooking oil
 Metal paper clips and saw dust
Mixtures vs. Pure
Substances
Mixtures...
 MAY have distinct visible
components.
 MAY appear uniform
throughout.
 Theyare the physical
combination of two or
more pure substances.

+ = ?
Sugar Water
Examples of Mixtures…
•salt water, kool-aid
•chocolate chip cookie
•muddy water
•salad dressing
Examples of Mixtures…
•Air
Pure Substances...
 ALWAYS appear as
uniform throughout
 They contain either a
single atom or two or more
atoms chemically
combined to form a
different substance.
Limestone- A Pure Substance
(Calcium Carbonate)
 Limestone is a sedimentary rock
composed of calcium carbonate
(CaCO3).
 Has many uses: including as building
material, filler in products such as
toothpaste or paints.
Water- A Pure Substance
 Water is a chemical substance with the
chemical formula H2O. A water
molecule contains one oxygen and two
hydrogen atoms connected by covalent
bonds.
Examples of Pure
Substances
•sugar (C12H22O11)
•gold (Au), copper (Cu)
•carbon dioxide (CO2)
•oxygen (O2)
A Quick Review of chapter so far:

USING THE PARTICLE THEORY OF MATTER WE


CAN DISTINGUISH BETWEEN A PURE
SUBSTANCE AND A MIXTURE

Pure Substance: has only ONE type of particle

Example: gold, iron

Mixture: has 2 or more types of substance in it. We can also


say it has 2 or more types of particles mixed together

Example: sweetened water


Pure Substances:
Pure Substances:

•Pure Substances ALWAYS appear as uniform (the


same) throughout
Mixtures:

Mixtures are the combination of two or more types of


substances.

Sugar – Water- Mixture


pure substance pure substance
The Particle Theory Can help
explain the difference between
pure substances and mixtures:
Homogeneous &
Heterogeneous
Mixtures
Homogeneous Mixture
 also called
solutions
 can be
solid, liquid
or gas Stainless steel
 theparticles
are evenly
mixed so
that none of
the original
substances
are visible Kool-aid
 they appear
to be ONE
substance
 light passes
through
unaffected
Heterogeneous Mixtures
 also called
mechanical
mixtures
 can be
solid, liquid
Granola bar or gas
 the different
parts are visible
to the eye (may
need a
microscope)
 the particles do
Concrete not evenly mix
 Lightwill
reflect
perpendicular
to the
direction of
the beam
The Tyndall Effect
A phenomenon that can be
used to distinguish between
solutions and what appears
to be a solution
 cannot be used to distinguish
between a solution and a
pure liquid
In a Solution...

 Light
passes
unaffected (if a
student looks at the
beaker perpendicular
to the direction of the
beam they will NOT
see it
In a Mechanical Mixture...
 The light will scatter
as it passes through
the mixture because
all particles are not
dissolved (as shown
on the left)