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MECHANICS OF

MATERIALS

Ferdinand P. Beer

E. Russell Johnston, Jr.

John T. DeWolf

Topic 1:

David F. Mazurek

Lecture Notes:

J. Walt Oler

Concept of Stress

Texas Tech University

Modified by:

Tracy Dong Ruan

Swinburne University

of Technology

© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Contents

1. Review of Statics

Free-Body Diagram (FBD) and Force Triangle

2. Concept of Stress

3. Normal Stress

Axial Loading

Centric & Eccentric Loading

4. Shearing Stress

Transverse Loading

6. Factor of Safety

© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-2

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

1. Review of Statics

Example 1:

support a 30 kN load

boom and rod joined by pins at

the junctions and supports

determine the internal force in

each structural member and the

reaction forces at the supports

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Review of Statics

Method 1 : Free-body diagram (FBD)

• Free-body diagram: structure is detached

from supports and the loads and reaction

forces are indicated.

• Conditions for static equilibrium:

MC 0 Ax 0.6 m 30 kN0.8 m 0

A x 40 kN

Fx 0 A x Cx 0

Cx Ax 40 kN

Fy 0 A y C y 30 kN 0

A y C y 30 kN

these equations.

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Review of Statics

Free-body diagram (FBD) of a component

component must satisfy the conditions for

static equilibrium.

M B 0 A y 0.8 m

Ay 0

equation

C y 30 kN

• Results:

Bx A 40 kN C x 40 kN C y 30 kN

FAB Ax 40 kN(tension)

FBC 402 302 kN 50kN (compression)

© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1-5

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Review of Statics

Two-force members:

Cy

Cx the members are subjected to only two forces

which are applied at member ends.

to an axis between the force application points,

equal in magnitude, and in opposite directions.

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Review of Statics

Method 2 : Force triangle

the corresponding force triangle:

FAB FBC 30 kN

• FBD of pin B:

4 5 3

FAB 40 kN FBC 50 kN

Compressive force: “push”, acts towards the pin

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Review of Statics

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Sine Law

A general format of

Sine law behind the

force triangle

FAB FBC 30 kN

a b c

FAB F 30 kN

BC

SinA SinB SinC

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Review of statics

the whole structure

a structural component

a joint / pin

a joint / pin

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

properties of materials such as yield, fracture, break, etc?

the failure of materials?

materials ?

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

2. Concept of Stress

the forces distributed over a given section, is

called the stress :

P

A

1 Pa = 1 N/m2

1 MPa = 106 Pa

1 GPa = 109 Pa

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Concept of Stress

negative sign – compressive stress (boom AB)

d. Whether or not a component will break under the given loading depends on:

the force

the cross-sectional area

the material of the component

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Concept of Stress

Example 2: Let us assume that rod BC is made of steel with

a maximum allowable stress all 165 MPa .

Can rod BC safely support the load to which it

dBC = 20 mm will be subjected?

• From previous statics analysis (Example 1)

FAB = 40 kN (compression)

FBC = 50 kN (tension)

internal force is 50 kN with a stress of

20mm 2

A r 2 ( ) (10 10 3 m) 2 314 10 6 m 2

2

P 50 103 N

BC 159 MPa

A 314 10-6 m2

• Conclusion: the stress is smaller than the

allowable stress, all 165MPa , thus the

strength of member BC is adequate.

© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 - 14

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Concept of Stress

• Design of new structures requires selection of

Example 3: appropriate materials and component dimensions

to meet performance requirements

• For reasons based on cost, weight, availability,

etc., the choice is made to construct the rod from

aluminum all= 100 MPa). What is an

appropriate choice for the rod diameter?

P P 50 103 N

all A 500 10 6

m 2

d2

A

4

d

4A

4 500 106 m 2

2.52 102 m 25.2 mm

• An aluminum rod 26 mm or more in diameter is

adequate.

© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 - 15

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

3. Normal Stress

a. In the previous example, rod BC is a two-force member,

the force are directed along the axis of the rod, we say the

rod is under axial loading. The resultant internal forces

for an axially loaded member is normal to a section cut

perpendicular to the member axis.

stress in a member under axial loading,

P

ave

A

F

lim

A0 A

it is found to vary across the section. However the

resultant of the stress distribution must satisfy

P ave A dF dA

A

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

concentrated loads P and P’, this variation is small in the

section away from the points of application of

concentrated loads, but it is quite noticeable in the

neighborhood of these points.

indeterminate, i.e., can not be found from statics alone.

In practice, it will be assumed that the distribution of

normal stresses in an axially loaded member is

uniform.

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

f. Centric & eccentric loading

• A uniform distribution of stress in a section

infers that the line of action for the resultant of

the internal forces passes through the centroid

of the section.

• A uniform distribution of stress is only

possible if the concentrated loads on the end

sections of two-force members are applied at

the section centroids. This is referred to as

centric loading.

• If a two-force member is eccentrically loaded,

then the resultant of the stress distribution in a

section must yield an axial force and a

moment.

• The stress distributions in eccentrically loaded

members cannot be uniform or symmetric.

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

4. Shearing Stress

• Forces P and P’ are applied transversely to the

member AB.

of section C are called shearing forces.

defined as the shear of the section and is equal to

the load P.

P

ave

A

to be uniform.

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Shearing Stress

Shearing stresses are commonly found in bolts, pins and rivets used to

Shearing stress examples : connect various structural members and machine components.

P F P F

ave ave

A A A 2A

© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 - 20

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Shearing Stress

Shearing stresses are commonly found in bolts, pins and rivets used to connect various

structural members and machine components.

Consider the two plates A and B, which are connected by a bolt CD. If the plates are

subjected to tension forces of magnitude F, stresses will develop in the section of bolt

corresponding to the plane EE’. Drawing the diagram of the bolt and of the portion

located above the plane EE’, we conclude that the shearing P in the section is equal to F.

The average shearing stress in the section is obtained. (single shear)

If splice plates C and D are used to connect plates A and B, shear will take place in bolt HJ

in each of the two planes KK’ and LL’ (and similarly in bolt EG). The bolts are said to be

in double shear. To determine the average shearing stress in each plane,we draw free-body

diagrams of bolt HJ and of the portion of bolt located between the two planes.

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

stresses in the members they

connect, along the bearing

surfaces, or surfaces of contact.

stress, called the bearing stress,

P P

b

A td

bolt on the plate section and is

equal to td.

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

6. Factor of Safety

a. Definition

b. Relation to stress-strain curves

c. Determination of F.S .

a. Checking elements

b. Members with fastener holes

c. Pins loaded by several forces

a. Axial loads

b. Shearing Loads

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

6. Factor of Safety

Ultimate load: the largest load that a member can carry, Pu.

Ultimate strength: Pu

u

A

Allowable load: The maximum load that a member will be allowed to carry,

sometimes is referred as working load or design load.

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Factor of Safety

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Factor of Safety

Factor of safety: the ratio of the ultimate load to the allowable load

F .O.S or F .S . Factor of safety

F .S . F .S .

Fall allowable load all allowable stress

PY yield load Y yield stress

F.S. F.S.

Pworking working force working working (or actual) stress

Structural members must be designed such that the working stresses are less than

the ultimate strength of the material. Thus, only a fraction of the ultimate load

capacity of the member is utilized when the allowable load is applied. The

remaining portion of the load-carrying capacity of the member is kept in reserve

to assure its safe performance.

© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 - 26

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Factor of Safety

It is the most important engineering task.

If F.S. is chosen too small, the possibility of failure becomes unacceptable large.

If F.S. is chosen too large, the result is an uneconomical or un-functional design.

such as:

• uncertainty in material properties / loadings / analyses

• number of loading cycles

• types of failure

• maintenance requirements and deterioration effects

• risk to life and property

• importance of member to structures integrity

• influence on machine function

© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 - 27

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

The 20-mm diameter rod

BC has flat end of 20 x 40-

mm rectangular cross

section, while boom AB has

a 30x50-mm rectangular

cross section and is fitted

with a clevis at end B. Both

members are connected by

B by a pin from which the

30-kN load is suspended by

means of a U-shaped

bracket. Boom AB is

supported at A by a pin

fitted into double bracket,

while rod BC is connected

at C to a single bracket. All

pins are 25 mm in diameter.

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Example 4:

• Determine the stresses in

the members and

connections of the structure

shown.

FAB = 40 kN (compression)

FBC = 50 kN (tension)

normal stresses in AB and

BC, and the shearing stress

and bearing stress at each

pinned connection

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

a. Rod & boom normal stresses

20mm 2

A r 2 ( ) (10 10 3 m) 2 314 10 6 m 2

2

P 50 103 N

BC 159 MPa

A 314 10-6 m2

area occurs at the pin centerline,

A 20 mm40 mm 25 mm 300 10 6 m 2

P 50 103 N

BC,end 167 MPa

A 300 10 6 m 2

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

to consider depends on whether the member is in Tension or

Compression :

Tension:

Check the minimum area for all sections baring the

tensile force

Compression:

Check baring stress requirement

Check average normal stress requirement

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

For Tension members we use

Force (on pin) the Reduced Tensile area.

bearing stress

(cross section)

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Force (on pin) we use the Nominal area.

bearing stress

compressive /

nominal stress

nominal area

(cross section)

© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 - 33

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

P 40 103 N 40 103 N

AB 3

26.7 MPa

A 30mm 50mm 1.5 10 m 2

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

b. Pin shearing stresses

• The cross-sectional area for pins at A, B,

and C,

2

25 mm 6 2

A r

2

491 10 m

2

force exerted by the rod BC,

FBC P 50 103 N

C,ave 6

102 MPa

A A 49110 m 2

total force equal to the force exerted by

the boom AB,

FAB FAB / 2 P 20 kN

A ,ave 6

40.7 MPa

2A A A 49110 m 2

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

to determine the section with the

largest shear force,

PE 15 kN

PG 25 kN (largest)

average shearing stress,

PG 25 kN

B, ave 6 2

50.9 MPa

A 491 10 m

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

c. Rod bearing stresses

• To determine the bearing stress at A in

the boom AB,

we have t = 30 mm and d = 25 mm,

P 40 kN

b 53.3 MPa

td 30 mm 25 mm

bracket,

we have t = 2(25 mm) = 50 mm and d = 25 mm,

P 40 kN

b 32.0 MPa

td 50 mm25 mm

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

the rod with minimum section area

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

failure

Edition

Fifth SI

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer • Johnston • DeWolf • Mazurek

Normal Stress: P A will be the reduced area for member

in tension and nominal area for

A member in compression.

P F P F

ave ave

A A A 2A

Bearing stress:

P P

b

A td

Factor of safety:

Pu ultimate load u ultimate stress

F .S . F .S .

Fall allowable load all allowable stress

Examples 1, 2, 3 and 4

© 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 40

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