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Introduction to NBC & ASHRAE

Basements, Kitchen, Toilets , etc

• ASHRAE Standard 62-1999 defined acceptable indoor air quality as air in

which there are no known contaminants at harmful concentrations as
determined by cognizant authorities and with which a substantial majority
(80% or more) of the people exposed do not express dissatisfaction.

• ASHRAE Standard 62-1999 defines ventilation air as that portion of supply

air that is outdoor air plus any recirculate air that has been treated for the
purpose of maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. Ventilation is the
process of supplying and removing ventilation by natural and mechanical
means, and the ventilation rate means the rate of ventilation air supplied to
the conditioned space through the air system.

• If outdoor air is used to dilute the concentration of indoor contaminants, its

quality must meet the National Primary Ambient-Air Quality Standard
provided by the EPA. Part of the time average concentrations are shown
Basements, Kitchen, Toilets , etc

Only particulate matter is expressed in annual geometric means; the other two
are annual arithmetic means. For carbon monoxide and ozone, both values are
not to be exceeded more than once a year.
Basements, Kitchen, Toilets , etc
Industrial Ventilation

Industrial processes use chemicals that may produce toxic gases and
particulates, those need to be removed from work zones.

• Oxygen rich fresh air is required:

1. For Health and Hygiene of the workers
2. Mitigate thermal loads due to people, equipment, building and heat
3. Maintain hazardous industrial pollutants within safe limits
Industrial Ventilation- Basic Strategies
Mechanical extract/natural supply
• Simple form of extract strategy with exhaust fans of propeller type,
axial flow or mixed flow
• Installed on the outside wall or roof
• Discharge terminates in louvers or cowls
• Alternatively, the system may comprise of ductwork arranged for
general extraction of the vitiated air from localised sources of heat
moisture, odours, fumes and dust
• Consideration is given to location and size of inlet
• Inlet should not be located at the vicinity of exhaust fans
• Creates negative pressurization in the building and is not suitable for
dusty ambient environment, nor when dust free environment
needs to be maintained indoors


Industrial Ventilation- Basic Strategies

Mechanical supply/natural extract

• One or more fans supply fresh air to an enclosed space
• Discharge of vitiated air is through natural means, doors, windows,
• Positive pressurization is achieved and levels can be controlled by
providing balanced pressure relief dampers at selected discharge
• Point of delivery is controlled by supply ducts and diffusers


Industrial Ventilation- Basic Strategies

Mechanical supply/mechanical extract

• Combination of the above two strategies with two independent

systems, a mechanical supply system and a mechanical extract system
• May be with or without respective ducts
• This strategy provides the best opportunity for control of ventilation
parameters, such as, indoor air quality, air distribution, movement
and pressurization, but with additional system cost and complexity


Industrial Ventilation- Heat Control

Ventilation for heat control measures normally includes cooler replacement

air, an evaporative or mechanically cooled source, velocity cooling method or
combination thereof.

The sensible heat load includes solar heat gain, occupancy, lighting load,
equipment load as well as other particular sources, if any.

The ventilation flow rate can be calculated using the following equation:
Qs = air volume flow rate, in m3/h;
Hs = sensible heat load, in kcal/h; and
DT = allowable temperature rise, in °C
Industrial Ventilation- Heat Control

General (Dilution) Ventilation Versus Local Exhaust Ventilation

General exhaust ventilation (dilution ventilation) is appropriate when,

1. Emission sources contain materials of relatively low hazard ;

2. Emission sources are primarily vapours or gases, or small, reparable size
aerosols (those not likely to settle);
3. Emissions occur uniformly;
4. Emissions are widely dispersed;
5. Moderate climatic conditions prevail;
6. Heat is to be removed from the space by flushing it with outside air;
7. Concentrations of vapours are to be reduced in an enclosure; and
8. Portable or mobile emission sources are to be controlled.

NOTE . The degree of hazard is related to toxicity, dose rate, and individual
Industrial Ventilation- Heat Control

General (Dilution) Ventilation Versus Local Exhaust Ventilation

Local exhaust ventilation is appropriate when,

1. Emission sources contain materials of relatively high hazard;

2. Emitted materials are primarily larger diameter particulates (likely to
3. Emissions vary over time;
4. Emission sources consist of point sources;
5. Employees work in the immediate vicinity of the emission source;
6. The plant is located in a severe climate; and
7. Minimising air turnover is necessary.

Local exhaust ventilation normally requires lower air flows than general
(dilution) ventilation.
Industrial Ventilation-
General (Dilution) Ventilation
Dilution ventilation is used to reduce the concentration of vapours from a
given liquid solvent in the air to a safe level known as the threshold limit value
(TLV) of the solvent expressed in ppm (parts per million). For a given solvent,
the volume of air required to dilute its vapour concentration to below TLV can
be calculated
by the following equation:

k = constant varying from 3 to 10 depending on the solvent, uniformity of air
distribution, dilution of vapours in air and location of exhaust hood; and

m = molecular weight of the solvent.

Industrial Ventilation- Local Exhaust

• A local exhaust ventilation system normally consists of a hood, a duct

system, air cleaner, a fan and an exhaust stack. Such a system captures the
• At the point of generation through a properly mounted exhaust hood. The
exhaust flow rate is determined from the area of the hood opening and
capture velocity sufficient to prevent outward escapement of the
Industrial Ventilation- Local Exhaust
Humidification for Industrial Processes

Evaporative cooling should generally be used, where humidification is

necessary to meet the requirements of manufacturing processes in factories,
as for instance, in a cotton mill to keep the textile fibres pliable and strong, in
rubber factories to prevent static electricity in processes using volatile and
inflammable solvents, and in painting and lithographic works to maintain
accurately the size of the paper and other materials.
Non Air-Conditioned Areas
Non Air-Conditioned Areas
Commercial Kitchen Ventilation

The basic purpose of a kitchen ventilation system(KVS) is to provide a

comfortable environment in the kitchen and to ensure the safety of the people
working in the kitchen and other building occupants, by effective removal of
effluents which may include gaseous, liquid and solid contaminants produced
by the cooking process and products of fuel and food combustion.
Primary Ingredients of Kitchen Effluents


Use of Kitchen Hoods
Commercial Kitchen Ventilation
Hood Exhaust Flow Rate
Kitchen hoods have been classified as two types

• Type I hoods are used to collect and remove grease, smoke, steam and heat .
1. Fitted with Grease Collection devices
2. Grease Filters
3. Baffles
4. Fire Suppression Systems
Appliances such as cooking ranges, fryers, broilers and griddles

• Type II hoods only remove steam and heat.

Appliances such as ovens, steamers and dishwashers
Commercial Kitchen Ventilation
Hood Exhaust Flow Rate
The most commonly used Type I hoods are available in four basic styles:

a) Wall mounted canopy;

b) Single island;
c) Double island; and
d) Back shelf or proximity.
Commercial Kitchen Ventilation
Hood Exhaust Flow Rate
Following are good hood design and installation practices:
• Increasing hood overhang increases capture volume which aids capture and
prevents spillage.

• Deployment of side panels improves hood performance significantly

• Under a wall canopy hood, pushing the appliance towards the back wall
significantly improves hood performance

• Under a wall canopy hood, pushing the appliance towards the back wall
significantly improves hood performance

• Hood should be mounted at as low a height as practical above the appliance

Commercial Kitchen Ventilation
Oil/Grease Removal
In absence of proper filtration, grease will,

a) collect in the exhaust plenum and ducts resulting in,

1) a fire hazard, and
2) an increase in the frequency of costly duct cleaning;

b) collect on the fan, causing it to become unbalanced which leads to premature


c) create odours in or near the restaurant;

d) collect on the rooftop creating safety/ environmental hazard; and

e) collect on the rooftop equipment and cooling coils.

Commercial Kitchen Ventilation
Oil/Grease Removal
Recommended Exhaust Duct Design, Installation and Maintenance Practices
Commercial Kitchen Ventilation
Fan for Kitchen Exhaust
• Kitchen exhaust consists of hot, grease laden air with some solid particulate matter
• Fan shall be capable of handling this air and the motor and the drive train
• (shaft, bearings, belts, etc) shall be kept outside the air stream.
• The recommended kitchen exhaust fan should consist of a backward type impeller. A
forward curved centrifugal fan is not recommended for kitchen exhaust.
Commercial Kitchen Ventilation
Terminations of Kitchen Exhaust System
Kitchen exhaust systems should be terminated so that,
Commercial Kitchen Ventilation
Replacement (Make-up) Air Considerations

• The air exhausted through a kitchen hood shall be replaced 100 percent with clean
outside air.
• Kitchen room pressure should be maintained slightly lower than the adjoining
building space (for example, dining room) to allow conditioned air to transfer into the
kitchen and to contain heat and odours within the kitchen.
• For kitchens adjacent to a building exterior wall, the kitchen pressure should be
slightly higher than the ambient to prevent ingress of dust, heat and insects.
• Replacement air in air conditioned kitchens should be supplied as close to the hood
as possible and this can be best achieved by the use of compensating exhaust hoods,
with supply air forming an integral part of the hood.
Commercial Kitchen Ventilation
Energy Management Considerations

• Hood exhaust flows can result in twenty or more air changes per hour. Installing a
variable volume system is the first step towards energy conservation to allow for the
exhaust and supply units to ramp up and down depending on the cooking load.
• Varying both the exhaust and the supply will vary the amount of air that needs to be
conditioned. In some cases, a variable system can reduce the costs associated
with conditioning make-up air by up to 50%.
• Exhaust and supply air flow rates should be controlled by installing variable
frequency drives (VFD) on the fan motors. The VFDs are controlled by a temperature
sensor mounted in duct collar. The control system varies
• the frequency of the motor drives and thus fan speed, according to the temperature
seen in the duct collar.
• The VFD system varies the flow continuously as per the cooking requirement, as
opposed to the high, medium and low speed settings on the motor controlled
• manually. The energy savings using VFDs result from the fact that the fan power, W is
proportional to the third power of speed, N, that is, W µ N3 .
Underground Car Park Ventilation

• Ventilation is essential in enclosed car parking areas to dilute the level of toxic gases
such as carbon monoxide(CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), presence of petrol/diesel
fumes and smoke from engine exhaust.
• Carbon monoxide is a colourless, odourless and highly poisonous gas. Even dilute
concentrations of CO in air can cause nausea, headache and vertigo.
• The undesirable health and fire hazard of the above contaminants can be
contained if their levels are maintained within permissible limits by ventilation.
Introduction to AC system
Air-Conditioning - definition

Air-conditioning: is the process of altering the properties of air (temperature,

humidity, pressure, composites) to more comfortable conditions, typically
with the aim of distributing the conditioned air to an occupied space to
improve thermal comfort and indoor air quality. Additionally the objective is
to keep the air properties on constant values or to change them by a given
Air-Conditioning - definition

Air is mainly composed of nitrogen, oxygen, and argon, which together

constitute the
major gases of the atmosphere.

Major constituents of dry air, by volume:

Oxygen: 21%
Nitrogen: 78%
Other gases: 1%

Air is composed of dry air + water vapour!

Air-Conditioning - terms & instruments

Dry-bulb temperature (DBT): is the temperature of air measured by

a thermometer freely exposed to the air but shielded from radiation and
moisture. DBT is the temperature that is usually thought of as air
temperature, and it is the true thermodynamic temperature.

Wet-bulb temperature (WBT): is the temperature read by

a thermometer covered in water-soaked cloth over which air is passed. At
100% relative humidity, the wet-bulb temperature is equal to the air
temperature (dry-bulb temperature) and it is lower at lower humidity.

Dew point temperature: is the temperature at which the air can no longer
"hold" all of the water vapour which is mixed with it, and some of the water
vapour must condense into liquid water. The dew point is always lower than
(or equal to) the air temperature.
Air-Conditioning - terms & instruments

Humidity: is the amount of water vapour in the air. Higher humidity reduces
the effectiveness of sweating in cooling the body by reducing the rate of
evaporation of moisture from the skin.

Absolute humidity: is the total amount of water vapour present in a given

volume of air.

Relative humidity (RH): is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapour to
the saturation vapour pressure of water at the same temperature. Relative
humidity depends on temperature and the pressure of the system of interest.

On constant
absolute humidity!
Air-Conditioning - types

1. Based on the type of the conditioned space:

- Comfort air-conditioning system: provides human thermal comfort
- Technological air-conditioning system: provides industrial objects (e.g. air-
drying in
food industry)

2. Based on the required comfort level:

- Full air-conditioning system: can keep the temperature, humidity, pressure,
compounds simultaneously on a given constant value
- Partial air-conditioning system: has capacity to keep only one parameter
(air temperature, humidity, pressure, compounds) at the same time
Air-Conditioning - types

3. Based on the locally setup:

- Central air-conditioning system: a part of the system is installed into a
engine house and not into the conditioned space
-Local air-conditioning system: the whole equipment is installed into the
conditioned space

4. Based on air flow controlling:

- Variable Air Volume (VAV) system: the air volume flow is controlled based
on the heat gain level in the conditioned space.
- Constant Air Volume system: the air volume flow is constant independently
the heat gain level in the conditioned space.
Air-Conditioning - types
Based on Medium Type
Central Air Conditioning system

Medium: Air Medium: Air+freon

Conventional Conventional High VRV

- With zone pressure unit
- Without zone - With one Duct
(space / - With two Ducts(cold
+ heat exchanger) & hot)

Medium: Air + water

Radiant Cooling Fan Coli Chilled beam

Panel (Natural Flow) (Forced Flow)

Active Passive
(forced flow) (Natural Flow)