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One Dimension Motion

Rest

A body is said to
be at rest if its
position does not
change with
respect to its
surrounding with
time
Motion
A body is said to
be in motion if
its position
changes with
respect to its
surrounding with
time
Motion & Rest are Relative terms.
Animation
Point Object

• If distance moved by an object is very large


as compare to its size then object is called
point object.
Frame of reference
•To measure position of an object we
require a co-ordinate system, this co-
ordinate system is called frame of
reference.
•There are three perpendicular axis in a
frame of reference X, Y & Z.
•All the distances are measure from
origin ‘O’ of the co-ordinate system
called reference point.
•For example position of point ‘P’ is
define by three co-ordinate (x, y, z).
If any one of the co-ordinate of point ‘P’ change with time then the
body is in motion with respect to the co-ordinate system.
Motion is of three types
1. One Dimension Motion

If a body moves in a straight line then its motion is called one


dimension motion. i.e.If only one co-ordinate of the co-ordinate
system change with time.
Example of One dimension Motion-
•Motion of a freely falling body if there is no wind.
•Motion of an aero plane on runway.
2. Two Dimension Motion

If a body moves in a plane then its motion is called two dimension


motion. i.e.If any two co-ordinate of the co-ordinate system
change with time.

Example of Two dimension Motion-


•Motion of planets around the sun
•Motion of billiard ball on billiard table.
•Motion of a projectile.
3. Three Dimension Motion
If a body moves in space then its motion is called three
dimension motion. i.e.If all the three co-ordinate of the co-
ordinate system change with time.

e.g. motion of gas molecules, motion of birds, motion of kite


Animation
Position measurement
•A particle moving along X-axis is one
dimension motion. Measurement to the right
of point ‘O’ is positive & measurement to
the left of point ‘O’ is negative.
Time Measurement

We can add a clock to our reference frame to measure time. In


order to describe motion of a particle, it is necessary to choose
some instant of time as origin. This instant is assigned zero
value of time i.e. t = 0. It is not necessary that t = 0 is the
beginning of the motion. In fact t = 0 is the instant at we start
the study of motion of the particle. Unit of time is second,
minute, hour, day & year.
•Distance & Displacement
•Distance:-The length of the path travelled by a body is called
distance.It is a scalar quantity. Its SI unit is meter.
It depends on path followed by the body.
•Displacement: -Shortest distance between final position &
initial position of a moving body is called displacement. OR
the distance travelled by a body in a particular direction is
called displacement. It is a scalar quantity & SI unit is meter.

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Difference between distance & Displacement

Distance Displacement
1. The total length of the path travelled 1.Shortest distance between final & initial
by the body is called distance. position is called displacement.

2. It is a scalar quantity. So it is either 2. It is a vector quantity. So it may be


zero or positive. zero, negative or positive.
3. It depends on path followed by the 3. It is independent on path followed by
body so it is a path function. the body so it is not a path function.
i.e. distance between two point has a i.e. displacement between two point has a
many value. unique value.

•The distance travelled by an object in a given time interval can be equal to


or greater than the magnitude of the displacement.